Intellectual Property Rights - Mauritian Legislation


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Intellectual Property Rights - Mauritian Legislation

  1. 1. Intellectual Property Rights University of Mauritius Faculty of Law & Management LAWS 2100Y Foundations of IT Law presentation on: Wednesday, 18 March 2009 : : Academic Definition & Forms of IPR : : NAC Building
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>1. What is Intellectual Property (IP)? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Forms of IPR in the M’tian legislation (IT Law) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Forms of IPR (Non IT Law) - briefly </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is ?   La propriété intellectuelle (French) Geistiges Eigentum (German) बौद्धिक सम्पत्ति (Hindi) Proprietà intellettuale (Italian) Интеллектуальная собственность (Russian) Propiedad intelectual (Spanish) الملكية الفكرية (Arabic)
  4. 4. Intellectual Property (IP) refers to <ul><li>the creation of the mind : </li></ul><ul><li>inventions, </li></ul><ul><li>literary and artistic works, and </li></ul><ul><li>symbols, </li></ul><ul><li>names, </li></ul><ul><li>images, and </li></ul><ul><li>designs used in commerce. </li></ul>Source :
  5. 5. <ul><li>IP Definition from </li></ul><ul><li>WIPO Intellectual Property Handbook: Policy, Law & Use </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 1: Introduction- </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of Intellectual Property </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Intellectual property, the fruits of human creativity and invention, is divided into two categories: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Industrial Property : inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of source; </li></ul><ul><li>2) Copyright : literary (novels, poems and plays, films, musical works) and artistic works (drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Academic Definition <ul><li>IPR protect information stored by electronic means and all of the paperwork which accompanies a program </li></ul><ul><li>IPR should be seen as a package. Different rights protect different products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The name under which the product is sold may be registered as a trademark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hardware or a process used in its manufacturing may be protected by a patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software can also be protected by patent or copyright, as can accompanying documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-conductor chips can be protected by topography right </li></ul></ul>Source : F.Bott et al, Professional Issues in Software Engineering
  8. 9. Academic Definition <ul><ul><li>The look of the product may be registered in the Designs Registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The know-how which goes into the development of the product may be protected as confidential information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unauthorised use of intellectual property can be stopped by injunction 1 and damages may be sought for infringement of these rights </li></ul>Source : F.Bott et al, Professional Issues in Software Engineering 1 An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order , whereby a party is required to do, or to refrain from doing, certain acts - Wikipedia
  9. 10. Types/ Forms of <ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Software Patents/ Licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Trademarks and Domain names </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Secret Protection in Computer Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Database rights </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Semiconductor Circuits </li></ul>IT Law
  10. 11. 1. Copyright
  11. 12. Copyright <ul><li>Copyright is the oldest legal form of intellectual property and instituted internationally. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright is a legal term describing rights given to creators for their literary and artistic works. Symbolized as &quot;©&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright infringement of software (software piracy) refers to several practices which involve the unauthorized copying of computer software </li></ul>Source(s) :
  12. 13. Forms of copyright infringement <ul><li>&quot; CD-R infringement &quot; is the illegal copying of software using CD-R recording technology. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Commercial Use of Non-commercial Software &quot; is using educational or other commercial-use-restricted software in violation of the software license is a form of copyright infringement. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Counterfeiting &quot; is the duplication and sale of unauthorized copies of software in such a manner as to try to pass off the illegal copy as if it were a legitimate copy produced or authorized by the legal publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Hard-disk loading &quot; occurs when an individual or company sells computers preloaded with illegal copies of software. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Internet infringement &quot; is the illegal uploading of software on to the Internet for anyone to copy. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; OEM infringement/unbundling &quot; is known as OEM ( original equipment manufacturer ) software, is only legally sold with specified hardware. </li></ul>Source(s) :
  13. 14. © – Mauritian Legislation <ul><li>The Copyright Act 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Act: “to make better provision for the protection of intellectual property and for connected matters.” </li></ul><ul><li>The act guarantees protection of economic and moral rights of the author </li></ul>
  14. 15. 2. Software Patent/ Licensing
  15. 16. What is a Patent? <ul><li>A patent is a document </li></ul><ul><li>issued by a government authority (or a regional authority) </li></ul><ul><li>granting the exclusive right to the applicant (normally the owner of invention) </li></ul><ul><li>to exploit an invention to the exclusion of others, </li></ul><ul><li>for a limited period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Mauritius Research Council IPR Booklet </li></ul>
  16. 17. The Patent, Industrial Designs and Trademarks Act 2002 <ul><li>&quot;patent&quot; means the title granted to protect an invention; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;invention&quot; means an idea of an inventor which provides the solution to a specific problem in the field of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>An invention shall be patentable under this Act where it- </li></ul><ul><li>(i)   is new; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii)  involves an inventive step; </li></ul><ul><li>(iii)  is capable of industrial application. </li></ul>Patent: Mauritian legislation
  17. 18. How to protect Software? <ul><li>Software is a product of human intellect -> a kind of IP </li></ul><ul><li>Software protection methods include: Copyright, Trademarks, Patents, End-User Licences. For eg.: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, the Adobe PDF logo, Distiller and Reader are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries” </li></ul>Source: University of Sussex/Sheffield, Brochure on Your Software and How to Protect it
  18. 19. Software End-User License <ul><li>A software company can require user of its software to sign an ‘end-user licence’ before they use it. For e.g. Windows XP Home EULA </li></ul><ul><li>License makes it clear that the intellectual property embedded in the software belongs to the company, including copyright, patents and trademarks </li></ul>Source: University of Sussex/Sheffield, Brochure on Your Software and How to Protect it - Does Anyone Actually Read Software EULAs?
  19. 20. 3. Trademarks & Domain Names
  20. 21. Trademark Registered Trademark (®) Unregistered Trademark (™) A Registered Trademark (®) has been registered with a country’s federal Patent and Trademark Office (or with the WIPO, acting as an agent for more than one country at a time) and is represented by the R in a circle. the TM is also only used in the U.S. and has little legal grounds in other countries, such as the European Union, where it’s more of a “who files first” basis, rather than a “who uses first” one
  21. 22. Trademark <ul><li>A trademark is a word, name, symbol, or device that is used in trade with goods to indicate the source of the goods and to distinguish them from the goods of others. </li></ul><ul><li>The terms “trademark” and “mark” are commonly used to refer to both trademarks and servicemarks. </li></ul>Source :
  22. 23. Trademark – M’tian legislation <ul><li>A trademark is any sign that individualises the goods of a given enterprise and distinguishes them from any goods of its competitors. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Mauritian context, distinction has been made between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A trademark: which is any visible sign capable of distinguishing goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A service mark- which is any visible sign capable of distinguishing service </li></ul></ul>Source : Section 4 Trademark, MRC IPR Booklet
  23. 24. Domain Names as Trademark <ul><li>A good domain name can be a very valuable asset </li></ul><ul><li>It makes easier for an Internet user to locate the company’s website without significant searching </li></ul><ul><li>As such the owner of a domain name will want to protect it under trademark law. </li></ul>Source(s) : Michael D. Scott , Scott on Information Technology Law
  24. 25. Domain Names as Trademark <ul><li>Only the distinctive portion of a domain name is entitled to mark protection </li></ul><ul><li>i.e the second level domain name such as microsoft in </li></ul><ul><li>The letters to the right of the “.” (.com, .net etc) are not protectable just like the notation </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. </li></ul>Source(s) : Michael D. Scott , Scott on Information Technology Law
  25. 26. Domain Names as Trademark <ul><li>the owner of a registered trademark can often claim rights to a domain name registered by another entity if the domain name comprises the trademark owner’s trademark. </li></ul><ul><li>This is usually accomplished through the use of the Uniform Domain-Name Dispute Resolution Process (UDRP) under the rules of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). </li></ul>Source(s) :
  26. 27. Cyber Piracy
  27. 28. Cybersquatting <ul><li>Cybersquatting or cyberpiracy generally refers to registration of another party’s mark as a domain name for the purpose of either selling the domain name to the legitimate owner at a profit or for trading upon the goodwill associated with the mark. </li></ul><ul><li>Cybersquatters sometimes register variants of popular trademarked names, a practice known as typosquatting . </li></ul><ul><li>For eg. v/s </li></ul>Source(s) : Michael D. Scott , Scott on Information Technology Law
  28. 29. 4. Trade Secret protection in IT
  29. 30. What is a Trade Secret? <ul><li>A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers. </li></ul><ul><li>In some jurisdictions, such secrets are referred to as: Confidential information or Classified information </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. One of the most well kept trade secrets is the formula for making Coca-cola </li></ul>Source :
  30. 31. Trade Secret in Computer Technology <ul><li>Trade Secret has been applied to a variety of computer technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software & Hardware documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software & Hardware design/ manufacturing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algorithms, mathematical models & formulae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer files/ data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative information e.g. research that shows that a certain device or process does not work </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Trade Secret in Mauritius <ul><li>Trade Secret is not addressed in the Mauritian Legislation </li></ul>
  32. 33. 5. Database Right <ul><li>In European Union law , a database right is a legal right, introduced in 1996 . </li></ul><ul><li>Database rights are specifically coded (i.e. sui generis ) copyright laws on the copying and dissemination of information in computer databases . </li></ul>
  33. 34. 6. Layout Designs (Topographies) <ul><li>Semiconductor integrated circuits are at the heart of modern information, communications, entertainment, manufacturing, medical and space technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation protects the original design of a registered topography, whether it has been embodied in an integrated circuit product or not. </li></ul><ul><li>For eg. Topographies which define generic layers of gate array integrated circuit products, may be registered </li></ul>Source : Canadian Intellectual Property Office
  34. 35. 6. Layout Designs (Topographies) <ul><li>The development and manufacture of integrated circuits need protection from unauthorised reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Circuits Act 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the protection of semi-conductor integrated circuits layout designs. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Non IT-Law related IPR <ul><li>Plant Breeder’s Rights of protected variety </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Indication of Source </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Design Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair Practices </li></ul>
  36. 37. References <ul><li>Mauritius Research Council, Basics of Intellectual Property Rights , Sept 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Anjana Khemraz, Intellectual Property in Mauritius , 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>WIPO </li></ul><ul><li>http:// /design/magenta-lessons-part-3-a-designers-guide-to-trademarks </li></ul><ul><li>Michael D. Scott, Scott on Information Technology Law </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Google Images </li></ul><ul><li>University of Sussex/Sheffield, Brochure on Your Software and How to Protect it </li></ul><ul><li> Does Anyone Actually Read Software EULAs ? </li></ul><ul><li>WIPO website: http:// /portal/index.html.en </li></ul><ul><li>What is the connection between trademarks and domain names – </li></ul>
  37. 38. End of Presentation on: Merci (French) Danke (German) धन्यवाद (Hindi) Grazie (Italian) Спасибо (Russian) Gracias(Spanish) شكرا لك (Arabic) Thank you for your kind attention!