Weak ,Strong Syllables2a

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Weak ,Strong Syllables2a

  1. 1. In the name of Lord Most merciful most beneficent
  2. 2. Presentation on Weak Syllables and Strong Syllables
  3. 3. <ul><li>Presented to: </li></ul><ul><li>Mr.Sohail Falak sher </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by: </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad Asif </li></ul>
  4. 4. Syllable <ul><li>A syllable is a rhythmic unit of speech. Syllables exist to make the speech stream easier for the human mind to process. A syllable comprises one or more segments; segments are the building blocks for syllables. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Syllable <ul><li>A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter . A syllable is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel ) with optional initial and final margins </li></ul>
  6. 6. Syllable Structure <ul><li>The general structure of a syllable consists of the following segments: </li></ul><ul><li>Onset (obligatory in some languages, optional or even restricted in others) </li></ul><ul><li>Rime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus (obligatory in all languages) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coda (optional in some languages, highly restricted or prohibited in others) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Words according to syllables <ul><li>A word that consists of a single syllable (like English bat ) is called a monosyllable (such a word is monosyllabic), while a word consisting of two syllables (like father ) is called a disyllable (such a word is disyllabic). A word consisting of three syllables (such as indigent ) is called a trisyllable (the adjective form is trisyllabic). A word consisting of more than three syllables (such as intelligence ) is called a polysyllable (and could be described as polysyllabic), although this term is often used to describe words of two syllables or more. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Affect of Syllable <ul><li>The domain of suprasegmental features is the syllable and not a specific sound, that is to say, they affect all the segments of a syllable: </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Tone </li></ul>
  9. 9. Weak and Strong Syllables <ul><li>one of the most noticeable features of English is that many syllables are weak; this is true of many other languages, but it is necessary to study how these weak syllables are pronounced and where they occur in English </li></ul>
  10. 10. Description of weak and strong syllables <ul><li>We could describe them partly in terms of stress (by saying, for example, that strong syllables are stressed and weak syllables unstressed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Weak Syllables Will have….. <ul><li>four types of center: </li></ul><ul><li>i) the vowel (&quot; shwa&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>ii) a close front unrounded vowel in the general area of i: and I </li></ul><ul><li>iii) a close back rounded vowel in the general area of u: and ʊ </li></ul><ul><li>iv) a syllabic consonant </li></ul>
  12. 12. The vowel ( &quot; shwa&quot; ) ə <ul><li>i)Spelt with &quot; a '; strong pronuciation would be æ </li></ul><ul><li>attend / ətend / character /k æ r əktə / </li></ul><ul><li>barracks / b æærəks / </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Spelt with &quot; ar&quot; ;strong pronuciation would have ɑ: </li></ul><ul><li>particular / p ə tIkj ə l ə / molar /m əʊlə(r )/ </li></ul><ul><li>monarchy/m ɒ nki/ </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Adjectival endings spelt &quot; ate&quot; ; strong pronunciation would be e I </li></ul><ul><li>intimate / IntIm ət / accurate/ æ kj ərət / </li></ul><ul><li>desolate/des ələt / </li></ul><ul><li>There are exceptions to this for example &quot; private is usually /praIvIt / </li></ul><ul><li>iv) Spelt with &quot; o &quot; ; strong pronuciation would have ɒ </li></ul><ul><li>tomorrow /t əmɒrəʊ / potato / p əteItəʊ / </li></ul><ul><li>carrot / k æ r ət / </li></ul><ul><li>v) Spelt with &quot; or &quot; ; strong pronunciation would have ɔ: </li></ul><ul><li>forget / f əget / ambassador / æ mb æ s ə d ə / </li></ul><ul><li>opportunity / ɒ p ətju:nItI / </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other examples <ul><li>vi) Spelt with “ e “ ; strong pronunciation would have e </li></ul><ul><li>settlement /setlm ənt / violet /va I l ət / </li></ul><ul><li>postman /p əʊstmən / </li></ul><ul><li>vii) Spelt with “ er “; strong pronunciation would have ɜ: </li></ul><ul><li>perhaps / p əhæp / stronger /str ɒ ŋ g ə / </li></ul><ul><li>superman /su:p ə m æn / </li></ul><ul><li>Viii)Spelt with “ oug” ( there are other pronunciation of the letter sequence </li></ul><ul><li>“ ough” ) </li></ul><ul><li>Borough / bʌr ə / thorough / θ ʌ r ə / </li></ul><ul><li>ix)Spelt with “ u “ ; strong form would have ʌ </li></ul><ul><li>Autumn / ɔ: t əm / support / s əp ɔ: t / halibut </li></ul><ul><li>/ h æ l I b ət / </li></ul><ul><li>x)Spelt with “ ous” </li></ul><ul><li>Gracious /greI əs / callous / k æ l əs / </li></ul>
  14. 14. Close front and Close back vowels <ul><li>Two other vowels are commonly found in weak syllables, one close front ( in the general area of i: and i) and the other close back rounded ( in the general region of u: and ʊ ) . In strong syllables it is easy to distinguish i: from ,u: from ʊ , but in weak syllables the difference is not so clear . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Examples <ul><li>Easy busy </li></ul><ul><li>i) i:zi: b I zi: </li></ul><ul><li>ii) i:z I b I z I </li></ul>
  16. 16. More Examples <ul><li>i) In word-final position in words spelt with final “ y” or “ ey” ( after one or more consonant letter e.g. “ happy / hæpi / valley /væli / </li></ul><ul><li>and in morpheme final position when such words have suffixes beginning with vowelss,e.g. “ happier / hæpiə / easiest /i:ziəst / </li></ul><ul><li>“ hurrying” / h ʌ riI ŋ / </li></ul><ul><li>ii) In prefix such as those spelt “ re” , “ pre” , “ de” if is precedes a vowel and is unstressed,for example in react / riækt / preocupied /priɒkjəpaId/ </li></ul><ul><li>deactivate /diæktIveIt / </li></ul><ul><li>iii) In suffixes spelt “ iate”, “ious” when they have two syllables, for example </li></ul><ul><li>in “ appreciate”, “hilarious” </li></ul><ul><li>iv) In the following words when unstressed: “ he”, “ she” , “ we” “ me” , “ be” and the word “ the” when it precedes a vowel. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Examples <ul><li>In most other cases of weak syllables containing a close front unrounded vowel we can assign the vowel to the phoneme, as in the first syllable of “ resist”/r I z I st/ “ </li></ul><ul><li>Inane / IneIn / “ enough” / I n ʌ f / and the middle syllable of “ incident” and the final syllable of “ swimming” / swImI ŋ / liquid / lIkwId / Optic / ɒptIk /.It can be seen that this vowel is most often represented in spelling by the letters “ i’’ and “ e” </li></ul><ul><li>Weak syllbles with close back rounded vowel are not so common.Their most frequent occurrence is in the words “ you” , “ into”, “ to”, “ do”,when they are unstressed and are not immediately preceding a consonant, and “ through” and “ who” in all positions whey they are unstressed.We also find weak syllable where the vowel tends to sound more like the ʊ vowel of the book;usually this is found with a preceding j glide, as in evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>/ IvækjueI ʃn /.An example of such a vowel without a preceding j is Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>/ Inflluenza / </li></ul>
  18. 18. Syllabic Consonants <ul><li>Syllabic ‘l’ with alveolar consonant preceding </li></ul><ul><li>cattle / kætl / bottle / bɒtl / muddle /m ʌ dl/ </li></ul><ul><li>With non-alveolar consonant preceding </li></ul><ul><li>Couple /k ʌ pl/ trouble/ tr ʌ bl / </li></ul><ul><li>Knuckle /n ʌ kl/ </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Such words usually lose their final letter “ e” when a suffix is beginning with a vowel is attached, but the l usually remains syllabic.Thus: </li></ul><ul><li>Bottle-bottling /bɒtlI ŋ / </li></ul><ul><li>Mudlle-muddling / m ʌ dlI ŋ / </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>‘ panel’ /p æ nl/ papal / peIpl / </li></ul><ul><li>Petal / petl / parcel / p ɑ: sl / </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel / k ɜ: nl/ Babel / beIbl / </li></ul><ul><li>Pedal / pedl / ducal /dju:kl / </li></ul>
  21. 21. Rhythm and meter in English <ul><li>English poetry employs five basic rhythms of varying stressed (/) and unstressed (x) syllables. The meters are iambs, trochees, spondees, anapests and dactyls. In this document the stressed syllables are marked in boldface type rather than the tradition al &quot;/&quot; and &quot;x.&quot; Each unit of rhythm is called a &quot;foot&quot; of poetry. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>IAMBIC (x /) : That time of year thou mayst in me be hold </li></ul><ul><li>TROCHAIC (/ x): Tell me not in mourn ful num bers </li></ul><ul><li>SPONDAIC (/ /): Break , break , break / On thy cold gray stones , O Sea ! </li></ul><ul><li>Meters with three-syllable feet are </li></ul><ul><li>ANAPESTIC (x x /): And the sound of a voice that is still </li></ul><ul><li>DACTYLIC (/ x x): This is the for est pri me val, the mur muring pines and the hem lock (a trochee replaces the final dactyl) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Strong and Weak Forms <ul><li>Strong forms are often found: </li></ul><ul><li>When they occur at the end of a word </li></ul><ul><li>When a word is contrasted with another word </li></ul><ul><li>When a word is stressed for emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>When a word is being quoted. </li></ul>
  24. 25.   He's not at home. ə t æ t at   ..as good as gold... ə z æ z As   A bottle of wine. ə (v) ɒ v Of   Put it into the box. ɪ nt ə ɪ nt u: Into   She's from York. fr ə m fr ɒ m From   Wait for me! f ə (r) f ɔ :(r ) For   I went to the market. t ə tu: to       Prepositions Example Weak form Strong form  
  25. 26. You must be a bit more patient. m ə s(t) m ʌ st Must What can you do with it? k ə n k æ n Can They should be here by now. ʃ ə d ʃ ʊ d Should What could I do? k ə d k ʊ d Could She said she would be here. w ə d w ʊ d Would They were bored. w ə (r) w ɜ : Were I was quite interested. w ə z w ɒ z was John and Mary are here. ə (r)* ɑ : Are Where do you live? d ə du: Do Example   Weak Form Strong Form   Auxiliary verbs
  26. 27.             What's the time? ð ə , ð i (before a vowel) ð i: The He's an idiot! ə n æ n an Take a good book. ə e ɪ A I'll give her a ring later. (h) ə (r)* h ɜ : (r) her (as object pronoun) Where's your jumper? j ə (r) j ɔ : your Where do you live? j ə ju: you (as object pronoun) The dog that bit me ... ð ə t ð æt that (as a relative) It's faster than mine. ð ən ð æn Than ...but one of the main points... b ə t b ʌ t but Rock 'n' roll. ə nd, ə n , n ̩ æ nd And Example   Weak Form   Strong Form     Others  
  27. 28. Weak Forms <ul><li>English is a stress-timed language, which means that stressed syllables are equal in timing. In order to fit our words into this pattern, we tend to &quot;squash&quot; or compress other syllables or words occurring between stresses, in order to keep up with the more or less regular rhythm (Mayers 1981:422). Therefore, compressing or &quot;weakening&quot; some sounds is necessary to keep the rhythm of English. </li></ul>
  28. 29. A weak form is the pronunciation of a word or syllable in an unstressed manner. Of course, the difference between the strong form (stressed) and the weak form (unstressed) of a word is not apparent in writing, but in speech these two variations in pronunciation can be drastically different. If spoken in isolation, the weak form of a word would probably be unintelligible. The difference between the two forms can affect meaning. Here is an example to show how strong and weak forms of a single word ( that ) can change the entire meaning of a sentence: John thinks that man is evil. /ð ə t/ This version of the sentence, with the weak (unstressed) form of that , means &quot;John thinks all humans are evil.&quot; ə
  29. 30. <ul><li>Weak forms are usually distinguished by a change in vowel quality from a border position on the vowel quadrilateral to a central position. The vowel in a weak form is usually the schwa ( ə ). Weak forms are pronounced more quickly and at lower volume in comparison to the stressed syllables. They are also not central to changes in intonation. </li></ul>

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