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Weak ,Strong Syllables2

Weak ,Strong Syllables2






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    Weak ,Strong Syllables2 Weak ,Strong Syllables2 Presentation Transcript

    • Presentation on Weak Syllables and Strong Syllables
    • Syllable
      • A syllable is a rhythmic unit of speech. Syllables exist to make the speech stream easier for the human mind to process. A syllable comprises one or more segments; segments are the building blocks for syllables.
    • Syllable
      • A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter . A syllable is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel ) with optional initial and final margins
    • Syllable Structure
      • The general structure of a syllable consists of the following segments:
      • Onset (obligatory in some languages, optional or even restricted in others)
      • Rime
        • Nucleus (obligatory in all languages)
      • Coda (optional in some languages, highly restricted or prohibited in others)
    • Types of Words according to syllables
      • A word that consists of a single syllable (like English bat ) is called a monosyllable (such a word is monosyllabic), while a word consisting of two syllables (like father ) is called a disyllable (such a word is disyllabic). A word consisting of three syllables (such as indigent ) is called a trisyllable (the adjective form is trisyllabic). A word consisting of more than three syllables (such as intelligence ) is called a polysyllable (and could be described as polysyllabic), although this term is often used to describe words of two syllables or more.
    • Affect of Syllable
      • The domain of suprasegmental features is the syllable and not a specific sound, that is to say, they affect all the segments of a syllable:
      • Stress
      • Tone
    • Weak and Strong Syllables
      • one of the most noticeable features of English is that many syllables are weak; this is true of many other languages, but it is necessary to study how these weak syllables are pronounced and where they occur in English
    • Description of weak and strong syllables
      • We could describe them partly in terms of stress (by saying, for example, that strong syllables are stressed and weak syllables unstressed.
    • Weak Syllables Will have…..
      • four types of center:
      • i) the vowel (" shwa")
      • ii) a close front unrounded vowel in the general area of i: and I
      • iii) a close back rounded vowel in the general area of u: and ʊ
      • iv) a syllabic consonant
    • The vowel ( " shwa" ) ə
      • i)Spelt with " a '; strong pronuciation would be æ
      • attend / ətend / character /k æ r əktə /
      • barracks / b æærəks /
      • ii) Spelt with " ar" ;strong pronuciation would have ɑ:
      • particular / p ə tIkj ə l ə / molar /m əʊlə(r )/
      • monarchy/m ɒ nki/
      • iii) Adjectival endings spelt " ate" ; strong pronunciation would be e I
      • intimate / IntIm ət / accurate/ æ kj ərət /
      • desolate/des ələt /
      • There are exceptions to this for example " private is usually /praIvIt /
      • iv) Spelt with " o " ; strong pronuciation would have ɒ
      • tomorrow /t əmɒrəʊ / potato / p əteItəʊ /
      • carrot / k æ r ət /
      • v) Spelt with " or " ; strong pronunciation would have ɔ:
      • forget / f əget / ambassador / æ mb æ s ə d ə /
      • opportunity / ɒ p ətju:nItI /
    • Other examples
      • vi) Spelt with “ e “ ; strong pronunciation would have esettlement /setlm ənt / violet /va I l ət /
      • postman /p əʊstmən /
      • vii) Spelt with “ er “; strong pronunciation would have ɜ:
      • perhaps / p əhæp / stronger /str ɒ ŋ g ə /
      • superman /su:p ə m æn /
      • Viii)Spelt with “ oug” ( there are other pronunciation of the letter sequence
      • “ ough” )
      • Borough / bʌr ə / thorough / θ ʌ r ə /
      • ix)Spelt with “ u “ ; strong form would have ʌ
      • Autumn / ɔ: t əm / support / s əp ɔ: t / halibut
      • / h æ l I b ət /
      • x)Spelt with “ ous”
      • Gracious /greI əs / callous / k æ l əs / aʊ
    • Close front and Close back vowels
      • Two other vowels are commonly found in weak syllables, one close front ( in the general area of i: and i) and the other close back rounded ( in the general region of u: and ʊ ) . In strong syllables it is easy to distinguish i: from ,u: from ʊ , but in weak syllables the difference is not so clear .
    • Examples
      • Easy busy
      • i) i:zi: b I zi:
      • ii) i:z I b I z I
    • More Examples
      • i) In word-final position in words spelt with final “ y” or “ ey” ( after one or more consonant letter e.g. “ happy / hæpi / valley /væli /
      • and in morpheme final position when such words have suffixes beginning with vowelss,e.g. “ happier / hæpiə / easiest /i:ziəst /
      • “ hurrying” / h ʌ riI ŋ /
      • ii) In prefix such as those spelt “ re” , “ pre” , “ de” if is precedes a vowel and is unstressed,for example in react / riækt / preocupied /priɒkjəpaId/
      • deactivate /diæktIveIt /
      • iii) In suffixes spelt “ iate”, “ious” when they have two syllables, for example
      • in “ appreciate”, “hilarious”
      • iv) In the following words when unstressed: “ he”, “ she” , “ we” “ me” , “ be” and the word “ the” when it precedes a vowel.
    • Examples
      • In most other cases of weak syllables containing a close front unrounded vowel we can assign the vowel to the phoneme, as in the first syllable of “ resist”/rIzIst/ “
      • Inane / IneIn / “ enough” /In ʌ f / and the middle syllable of “ incident” and the final syllable of “ swimming” / swImI ŋ / liquid / lIkwId / Optic / ɒptIk /.It can be seen that this vowel is most often represented in spelling by the letters “ i’’ and “ e”
      • Weak syllbles with close back rounded vowel are not so common.Their most frequent occurrence is in the words “ you” , “ into”, “ to”, “ do”,when they are unstressed and are not immediately preceding a consonant, and “ through” and “ who” in all positions whey they are unstressed.We also find weak syllable where the vowel tends to sound more like the ʊ vowel of the book;usually this is found with a preceding j glide, as in evacuation
      • / IvækjueI ʃn /.An example of such a vowel without a preceding j is Influenza
      • / Inflluenza /
    • Syllabic Consonants
      • Syllabic ‘l’ with alveolar consonant preceding
      • cattle / kætl / bottle / bɒtl / muddle /m ʌ dl/
      • With non-alveolar consonant preceding
      • Couple /k ʌ pl/ trouble/ tr ʌ bl /
      • Knuckle /n ʌ kl/
      • Such words usually lose their final letter “ e” when a suffix is beginning with a vowel is attached, but the l usually remains syllabic.Thus:
      • Bottle-bottling /bɒtlI ŋ /
      • Mudlle-muddling / m ʌ dlI ŋ /
      • ‘ panel’ /p æ nl/ papal / peIpl /
      • Petal / petl / parcel / p ɑ: sl /
      • Kernel / k ɜ: nl/ Babel / beIbl /
      • Pedal / pedl / ducal /dju:kl /