Types of research


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Types of research

  1. 1. TYPES OF RESEARCHChapter 1
  2. 2. Naturalistic ObservationObserving behavior in a “natural”environmentOften involves countingbehaviors, such as number ofaggressive acts, number ofsmiles, etc.
  3. 3. AdvantagesBehavior is naturally occurringand is not manipulated by aresearcherCan offer qualitative data, not justquantitative information
  4. 4. Limitations The presence of someone observingcan cause those being observed toalter behavior. Researcher’s beliefs can also altertheir observations Difficult to coordinate multipleobservers since observed behaviormust be operationally defined (e.g.what constitutes an aggressive act)
  5. 5. Case StudyFollowing a single case, typicallyover an extended period of time.This can involve naturalisticobservations, and includepsychological testing, interviews,and the application of atreatment.
  6. 6. AdvantagesCan gather extensive information,both qualitative and quantitativeCan be helpful in betterunderstanding rare cases or veryspecific interventions.
  7. 7. LimitationsOnly one case is involved, severelylimiting the generalization to the rest of thepopulation.Can be very time consuming and caninvolve other problems specific to thetechniques used, including researcherbias
  8. 8. SurveyQuestionnaires are often used to gatheropinions.
  9. 9. AdvantagesCan gather large amounts of informationin a relatively short time, especially nowwith many surveys being conducted online
  10. 10. LimitationsPeople may not be truthful or accurate onsurveys or questionnaires.
  11. 11. Correlational StudiesCorrelation means relationship, so thepurpose of a correlational study is todetermine if a relationship exists, whatdirection the relationship is, and howstrong it is. For example: Is there arelationship between amount of timededicated to studying and overall GPA?
  12. 12. AdvantagesCan assess the strength of a relationshipIs popular with lay population because it isrelatively easy to explain and understand
  13. 13. LimitationsCannot make any assumptions of causeand effectCannot explain how a third variable can beinvolvedCannot explain how the variables caninfluence each other
  14. 14. Psychological TestingUtilizing testing to gather informationabout a group or individual
  15. 15. AdvantagesMost tests are normed and standardized,which means they have very reliable andvalid results.Popular with businesses looking for dataon employeesPopular with psychologists working withdifficult or specific therapy cases
  16. 16. LimitationsTests which are not rigorously normed andstandardized can easily result ininaccurate results.