With the name of Alllah, the most benevolent, the most merciful Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics & Traditional Grammar
Linguistics “ Study of Language, its Origin, Organization, Nature and development is called Linguistics”
Structural Definition 1. Origin of Language 2. Organization of Language 3. Nature of Language 4. Development of Language
Linguistics Language “ Set of Signs / Symbols that People use to communicate.”
Linguistic Descriptively Historically Comparatively Descriptive (Synchronic) Linguistics Historical (Diachronic} Linguistics Comparative Linguistics Generally
Historical Background of Descriptive Linguistics 18 th Century Perspective Linguistics 19 th Century Historical Linguistics Late 19 th Century Perspective Died out 20 th Century Descriptive Linguistics
“ Study of Systems , Structure , Development and Corpus of Language”
Approaches Or School of Thoughts Traditional Approach Universal Approach Psychological approach Functional Approach Sociological approach Social Aspects Systematic Grammar (SG) Functional Aspects Psychological Aspects Universal Aspect Looks Language and Its constituents on Traditional aspect Functional Grammar (FG) Transformational Generative Grammar (TGG) Universal Grammar (UG) Traditional Grammar (TG)
Grammar Greek Latin Grammatika (Art of Reading & Writing) Grama (Letter) The Encyclopedia Of Language & Linguistics by David Crystal “ The Study of Sentence Structure”
Grammar Traditional Grammar Functions of Words Sentence Structure Syntax Parts of Speech
Grammar Traditional Grammar Functions of Words Sentence Structure Syntax Parts of Speech Noun Pronoun Adverb Verb Preposition Adjective interjection Conjunction Declarative Sentences Interrogative Imperative Exclamatory Optitive
Parts of Speech Parts of Speech Definition Examples Noun Pronoun Verb Adverb Adjective Interjections Conjunction Preposition Name of Place, Person or Thing Word used instead of noun Word used to say something about some person, Place of Thing Word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb Word used to add something to meaning of a noun Word which expresses some sudden feeling Word used to join words or sentences Word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else Sajid lives in Lahore and Likes Honey. He likes her bangles. I like gardens. He worked the sum quickly. This flower is very beautiful. She pronounced the word quite correctly Ali is a brave boy. Hurrah ! We have won the match Alas ! Riaz has dead. Zahid and Aalia are friend Mohsin is found of Music.
Syntax Declarative interrogative imperative Optitive exclamatory Statements assertion Ask Questions Command Request Strong Feelings Wish Prayer May you live long. God Bless you. How very cold the Night is! Be Quiet Have mercy upon us Where do u live? Crow sat on a wall
Alphabets A, b, c, ……….Z Words Sentence “ is a group of words which makes a complete sense.” Simple Compound Complex Complex Compound 01 Principal Clause 02 Principal Clause 01 Principal Clause & 01 Subordinate Clause 02 Principal Clauses & 01 Subordinate Clause Classification According to Structure
Alphabets A, b, c, ……….Z Words Sentence “ is a group of words which makes a complete sense.” Declarative Or Assertive Optitive Ex c lamatory Imperative Interrogative Makes a Statement Or Assertion Makes a Question Command Or Entreaty Strong Feeling Wish Or Prayer Classification According to Purpose
Note:- if there will be a single word in predicate, it would be verb. Sentence He ran. Subject Predicate He ran
The Roaring flames spread in every direction . Subject Predicate The Roaring flames Subject Word: always Noun or Noun Equivalent Attribute or Subject Attribute: Words that qualifies the subject word (Adjective or Adjective equivalent . Subject Subject Word Attribute Or Enlargement
To Err is Human . Noun Equivalent Predicate
A poor man, in great difficulties gives a lot of troubles . Subject Word: Man Attributes: 1. A 2. Poor 3. in great difficulties
Flames are spread in every direction . Verb Adverb= Adverbial Qualification Spring advancing , the Swallows appear . Adverbial Qualification Verb Subject Word S. Attribute Note:- without adverb or adverbial qualification, sentence can sustain.
Verb Transitive (Passing over or Pass over) Intransitive Action is Passing over from Subject to Object. He runs a factory. Be (Being), State (Come, Go, Fall, Die, Sleep) He runs.
I am feeling pain in the head. Transitive How do you feel ? Intransitive Note:- it is the usage of verb which makes those transitive or intransitive .
Compliment:- “ Noun or Noun equivalent or Necessary part of a Sentence, without them, the sentence can not sustain .” Note:- it appears when there will be a verb of incomplete predication is used . Example:- The Sky is dark. (compliment) The boy is tall. (compliment ) The baby seems happy. (compliment)
Kinds of Compliment Compliment Subjective Compliment Objective Compliment Adverbial Compliment Extension. That helps to understand Subject’s meaning. He is Waiting That helps to Understand Object’s meaning. He made us waiting. They made him the Captain. That helps to Understand Adverb’s meaning The Boy is in the garden. The Boy in the garden Plays.
Example: He gave me a beautiful pen . Indirect Direct Note:- Indirect object comes before direct object Direct Object comes after indirect object . Object Direct Indirect . On which the action is being done in a sentence.
Example:- He gave a beautiful pen to me. Objective Attribute Object Adverbial Qualification. Object Object Word Objective Attribute
Few thing to remember regarding Predicate:- Predicate= One Word= Verb. Predicate= Verb+ incomplete predication= Compliment (subjective) Predicate= Verb+ Object+ incomplete Predication= Compliment (Objective)
Sentence Subject Predicate Subject Word Subject Attribute Verb Compliment Object Adverbial Qualification Transitive Intransitive Subjective Objective Adverbial Object Word Direct Indirect Object Attribute