Semantics
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Semantics

on

  • 3,436 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,436
Views on SlideShare
3,430
Embed Views
6

Actions

Likes
4
Downloads
145
Comments
0

1 Embed 6

http://www.slideshare.net 6

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Semantics Semantics Presentation Transcript

    • SEMANTICS PRESENTED BY: Muhammad Sajid us Salam Mphil Linguistics Islamia University Bahawalpur [email_address]
    • What is semantics?
      • Semantics is the study of meanings of words, phrases and sentences.
      • In semantic analysis there is always an attempt to focus on what the words conventionally mean, rather than on what a speaker might want the words on a particular occasion .
    • Conceptual meanings
      • Conceptual meaning covers those basic essential components of meaning which are conveyed by the literal use of a word.
      • For Example : Some of the basic components of a word like needle in English might include “ thin sharp steel instrument”.
    • Associative meanings
      • In associative meaning you may have ‘associations’ or ‘connotations’ attached to a word,
      • For example : like needle which lead you to think of ‘painful’ whenever you encounter the said word.
      • This ‘association’ is not treated as a conceptual meaning of needle .
    • Conceptual vs Associative meaning
      • When linguists investigate the meaning of words in a language they are normally interested in characterizing the conceptual meaning and less concerned with the associative meaning of words.
      • However, poets and advertisers are very interested in using terms in such a way that their associative meanings are evoked.
      • For example: In the ad of Pepsi “generation next” or in Zong advertisement “sub keh do”.
    • Semantic Features
      • How does semantic approach help us to understand the nature of language?
      • It might be helpful as a means of accounting for the ‘ oddness ’ which we experience when we read English sentences such as the follows:
      • For example: 1- The hamburger ate the man. 2- My cat studied linguistics. 3- A table was listening to some music.
      • Above sentences are syntactically right but semantically odd.
      • According to some basic syntactic rules for forming English sentences we have well structured sentences .
      • The hamburger ate the man NP V NP
      • This sentence is syntactically good, but semantically odd. Since the sentence “The man ate the hamburger” is perfectly acceptable.
      • The kind of noun which can be subjects of the verb ‘ate’ must denote entities which are capable of eating.
      • The noun ‘hamburger’ does not have this property and man has .
    •  
    • SEMANTIC ROLES
      • Words are not just a “containers” of meanings. They fulfill different “roles” within the situation described by a sentence.
      • For example: If the situation is a simple event such as The boy kicked the ball The verb ‘kicked’ describes an action.
      • The noun phrases ‘The boy’ and ‘the ball’ describe the roles of entities such as people and things involved in the action.
    • Agent
      • The entity that performs the action is technically known as “agent”.
      • For example: The boy kicked the ball.
      • As in the sentence one role is taken by the boy and the boy performs the action, so it is agent.
      • Although agents are typically human, they can also be non-human forces, machines or creatures.
      • For example: The wind blew the ball away. The car ran over the ball. The dog caught the ball.
    • THEME
      • The entity that is involved in or affected by the action is technically known as “theme”.
      • For example: The boy kicked the ball.
      • In this sentence “ball” is the theme because it is affected by the action performed by the ‘agent’.
      • The theme can also be an entity that is simply being described, for example, The ball was red.
      • The theme can also be human. Indeed the same physical entity can appear in two semantic roles.
      • For example: The boy kicked himself. Here boy is agent and himself is theme.
    • INSTRUMENT
      • If an agent uses another entity in performing an action, that other entity fills the role of instrument.
      • For example: She hit the bug with the magazine.
      • In “writing with a pen” or “eating with a spoon” the phrases “a pen” and “a spoon” have the semantic role of instrument.
    • EXPERIENCER
      • When a noun phrase designates an entity as a person who has a feeling, a perception or a state, it fills the role of experiencer.
      • If we see, know or enjoy something, we do not perform any action. In this way we are in the role of experiencer.
      • For example: Did you hear that noise?
      • The experiencer is “you” and theme is “that noise”.
    • LOCATION
      • When an entity is in the description of the event then it fills the role of Location . (on the table, in the room etc).
      • For example: Mary saw a mosquito on the wall. In this sentence “on the wall” is location.
    • SOURCE & GOAL
      • Where an entity moves from is the Source and where it moves to is the Goal .
      • For example: When we talk about transferring money from ‘savings’ to ‘checking’, the source is “savings” and goal is “checking”.
    • LEXICAL RELATIONS
      • Words are not only the ‘containers’ or as fulfilling ‘roles’. They can also have ‘relationships’. We describe the meanings of words in terms of their relationships.
      • For example :if we are asked the meanings of word ‘conceal’ we might reply it is same as ‘hide’.
      • The meaning of ‘shallow’ as ‘the opposite of deep’.
      • The meaning of ‘daffodil’ as ‘it is a kind of flower’.
      • In doing so we are characterizing the meaning of a word not in terms of component features, but in terms of relationship to other words.
    • The types of lexical relations
      • SYNONYMY
      • Synonyms are two or more forms with very closely related meanings, which are often, but not always, intersubstitutable in sentences.
      • For example: broad=wide, hide=conceal,
      • almost=nearly, cab=taxi, liberty=freedom, answer=reply. [e.g. of synonyms are in pairs]
      • The idea of ‘sameness of meaning’ used in discussing synonymy is not necessarily ‘total sameness’ .
      • For example: Cathy had only one ‘answer’ correct in the test. Its near synonymy would ‘reply’ would sound odd.
    • ANTONYMY
      • Two forms with opposite meanings are called antonyms.
      • For example: quick=slow, big=small, long=short, rich=poor, happy=sad, hot=cold, old=young, male=female, true=false, alive=dead.
      • Antonyms are divided into two parts.
      • Gradable antonyms: such as the pair big=small, can be used in comparative constructions like bigger than =smaller than.
      • Negative of one member of the gradable pair does not necessarily imply the other. For example: Dog is not old, it does not mean that dog is young.
      • Non-gradable Antonyms: Such antonyms have “complementary pairs, comparative constructions and negative of one member does imply the other.
      • For example : The person is not dead, does indeed mean that person is live.
      • Reversives: It actually means to reverse. For example: Tie= untie, enter= exit, pack= unpack, lengthen= shorten, raise= lower and dress= undress.
    • HYPONYMY
      • When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another, the relationship is described as hyponym. For example: Daffodil= Flower, dog= animal, poodle= dog, carrot= vegetable, banyan= tree.
      • The concept of “inclusion’ involved here.
      • For example: If any object is a daffodil, then it is necessary a flower, so the meaning of flower is included in the meaning of daffodil. Daffodil is hyponym of a flower.
      • We look at the meaning of words in some type of hierarchical relationship. (Tree-Diagram).
    • SEMANTIC ROLES
      • Words are not just a “containers” of meanings. They fulfill different “roles” within the situation described by a sentence.
      • For example: If the situation is a simple event such as The boy kicked the ball The verb ‘kicked’ describes an action.
      • The noun phrases ‘The boy’ and ‘the ball’ describe the roles of entities such as people and things involved in the action.
    • Agent
      • The entity that performs the action is technically known as “agent”.
      • For example: The boy kicked the ball.
      • As in the sentence one role is taken by the boy and the boy performs the action, so it is agent.
      • Although agents are typically human, they can also be non-human forces, machines or creatures.
      • For example: The wind blew the ball away. The car ran over the ball. The dog caught the ball.
    • THEME
      • The entity that is involved in or affected by the action is technically known as “theme”.
      • For example: The boy kicked the ball.
      • In this sentence “ball” is the theme because it is affected by the action performed by the ‘agent’.
      • The theme can also be an entity that is simply being described, for example, The ball was red.
      • The theme can also be human. Indeed the same physical entity can appear in two semantic roles.
      • For example: The boy kicked himself. Here boy is agent and himself is theme.
    • INSTRUMENT
      • If an agent uses another entity in performing an action, that other entity fills the role of instrument.
      • For example: She hit the bug with the magazine.
      • In “writing with a pen” or “eating with a spoon” the phrases “a pen” and “a spoon” have the semantic role of instrument.
    • EXPERIENCER
      • When a noun phrase designates an entity as a person who has a feeling, a perception or a state, it fills the role of experiencer.
      • If we see, know or enjoy something, we do not perform any action. In this way we are in the role of experiencer.
      • For example: Did you hear that noise?
      • The experiencer is “you” and theme is “that noise”.
    • LOCATION
      • When an entity is in the description of the event then it fills the role of Location . (on the table, in the room etc).
      • For example: Mary saw a mosquito on the wall. In this sentence “on the wall” is location.
    • HOMOPHONY
      • When two or more different written forms have the same pronunciation, they are described as “Homophones”.
      • For example: Bare – Bear, Meat – Meet, Flour – Flower, Pail – Pale, Sew – So.
    • HOMONYMY
      • Homonyms are words which have quite separate meanings, but which have accidentally come to have exactly the same form.
      • The term homonym is used when one form written or spoken has two or more unrelated meanings.
      • For example: 1- bank= (of a river) bank= (financial institution) 2- bat= (flying creature) bat= (used in sports) 3- race= (contest of speed) race= (ethic group)
    • POLYSEMY
      • If a word has multiple meanings, that is called polysemic.
      • Relatedness of meaning accompanying identical form is technically known as polysemy.
      • For example: The word “head” is used to refer to the object on the top of our body, on top of a glass of beer, on top of a company or department.
      • Another word “foot” has multiple meanings such as foot of a person, of bed, of mountain etc.
    • MENTONYMY
      • There is another type of relationship between words based simply on a close connection in everyday experience. That close connection can be based on a container- contents relation (bottle- coke; can- juice), a whole- part relation (car- wheels; house- roof) or a representative- symbol relationship (king- crown; The President- The White House).
    • COLLOCATION
      • Frequently occurring together is known as collocation. Words tend to occur with other words.
      • For example: If you ask a thousand people what they think when you say ‘hammer’, more than half will say ‘nail’, if you say ‘table’ they will mostly say ‘chair’ and for ‘butter- bread, for needle- thread, for salt- pepper.
      • Some collocations are joined pairs of words such as salt and pepper or husband and wife.
    • QUESTIONS
      • Q: What is semantics?
      • Ans: Semantics is the study of meanings of words, phrases and sentences.
      • Q: What do mean by conceptual meanings?
      • Ans: Conceptual meaning covers those basic essential components of meaning which are conveyed by the literal use of a word.
      • Q: What are associative meanings?
      • Ans: In associative meaning you may have ‘associations’ or ‘connotations’ attached to a word.
      • Q: Describe Agent?
      • Ans: The entity that performs the action is technically known as “agent”.
      • Q: What do you mean by Theme?
      • Ans: The entity that is involved in or affected by the action is technically known as “theme”.
      • For example: The boy kicked the ball.
      • Q: What is experiencer?
      • Ans: When a noun phrase designates an entity as a person who has a feeling, a perception or a state, it fills the role of experiencer.
      • For example: Did you hear that noise?
      • Q: What is meant by Source and Goal?
      • Ans: Where an entity moves from is the Source and where it moves to is the Goal .
      • Q: How many types of Lexical relations have been discussed?
      • a) 5 b) 7 c) 6 d) 8
      • Ans: 8
    • THANKS A LOT