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SEMANTICS PRESENTED BY: Muhammad Sajid us Salam Mphil Linguistics Islamia University Bahawalpur [email_address]
What is semantics? <ul><li>Semantics is the study of meanings of words, phrases and sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>In semant...
Conceptual meanings <ul><li>Conceptual meaning covers those basic essential components of meaning which are conveyed by th...
Associative meanings <ul><li>In associative meaning you may have ‘associations’ or ‘connotations’ attached to a word, </li...
Conceptual vs Associative meaning <ul><li>When linguists investigate the meaning of words in a language they are normally ...
Semantic Features <ul><li>How does semantic approach help us to understand the nature of language? </li></ul><ul><li>It mi...
<ul><li>According to some basic syntactic rules for forming English sentences we have well structured sentences . </li></u...
 
SEMANTIC ROLES <ul><li>Words are not just a “containers” of meanings. They fulfill different “roles” within the situation ...
Agent <ul><li>The entity that performs the action is technically known as “agent”. </li></ul><ul><li>For example:  The boy...
THEME <ul><li>The entity that is involved in or affected by the action is technically known as “theme”. </li></ul><ul><li>...
INSTRUMENT <ul><li>If an agent uses another entity in performing an action, that other entity fills the role of instrument...
EXPERIENCER <ul><li>When a noun phrase designates an entity as a person who has a feeling, a perception or a state, it fil...
LOCATION <ul><li>When an entity is in the description of the event then it fills the role of  Location . (on the table, in...
SOURCE & GOAL <ul><li>Where an entity moves from is the  Source  and where it moves to is the  Goal . </li></ul><ul><li>Fo...
LEXICAL RELATIONS  <ul><li>Words are not only the ‘containers’ or as fulfilling ‘roles’. They can also have ‘relationships...
The types of lexical relations <ul><li>SYNONYMY </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms are two or more forms with very closely related...
ANTONYMY <ul><li>Two forms with opposite meanings are called antonyms.  </li></ul><ul><li>For example: quick=slow, big=sma...
<ul><li>Non-gradable Antonyms: Such antonyms have “complementary pairs, comparative constructions and negative of one memb...
HYPONYMY <ul><li>When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another, the relationship is described as hypo...
SEMANTIC ROLES <ul><li>Words are not just a “containers” of meanings. They fulfill different “roles” within the situation ...
Agent <ul><li>The entity that performs the action is technically known as “agent”. </li></ul><ul><li>For example:  The boy...
THEME <ul><li>The entity that is involved in or affected by the action is technically known as “theme”. </li></ul><ul><li>...
INSTRUMENT <ul><li>If an agent uses another entity in performing an action, that other entity fills the role of instrument...
EXPERIENCER <ul><li>When a noun phrase designates an entity as a person who has a feeling, a perception or a state, it fil...
LOCATION <ul><li>When an entity is in the description of the event then it fills the role of  Location . (on the table, in...
HOMOPHONY <ul><li>When two or more different written forms have the same pronunciation, they are described as “Homophones”...
HOMONYMY <ul><li>Homonyms are words which have quite separate meanings, but which have accidentally come to have exactly t...
POLYSEMY <ul><li>If a word has multiple meanings, that is called polysemic. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatedness of meaning accom...
MENTONYMY <ul><li>There is another type of relationship between words based simply on a close connection in everyday exper...
COLLOCATION <ul><li>Frequently occurring together is known as  collocation. Words tend to occur with other words. </li></u...
QUESTIONS <ul><li>Q: What is semantics? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: Semantics is the study of meanings of words, phrases and se...
<ul><li>Q: What are associative meanings? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: In associative meaning you may have ‘associations’ or ‘co...
<ul><li>Q: What do you mean by Theme? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: The entity that is involved in or affected by the action is t...
<ul><li>Q: What is meant by Source and Goal? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: Where an entity moves from is the  Source  and where i...
THANKS A LOT
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  1. 1. SEMANTICS PRESENTED BY: Muhammad Sajid us Salam Mphil Linguistics Islamia University Bahawalpur [email_address]
  2. 2. What is semantics? <ul><li>Semantics is the study of meanings of words, phrases and sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>In semantic analysis there is always an attempt to focus on what the words conventionally mean, rather than on what a speaker might want the words on a particular occasion . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conceptual meanings <ul><li>Conceptual meaning covers those basic essential components of meaning which are conveyed by the literal use of a word. </li></ul><ul><li>For Example : Some of the basic components of a word like needle in English might include “ thin sharp steel instrument”. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Associative meanings <ul><li>In associative meaning you may have ‘associations’ or ‘connotations’ attached to a word, </li></ul><ul><li>For example : like needle which lead you to think of ‘painful’ whenever you encounter the said word. </li></ul><ul><li>This ‘association’ is not treated as a conceptual meaning of needle . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conceptual vs Associative meaning <ul><li>When linguists investigate the meaning of words in a language they are normally interested in characterizing the conceptual meaning and less concerned with the associative meaning of words. </li></ul><ul><li>However, poets and advertisers are very interested in using terms in such a way that their associative meanings are evoked. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: In the ad of Pepsi “generation next” or in Zong advertisement “sub keh do”. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Semantic Features <ul><li>How does semantic approach help us to understand the nature of language? </li></ul><ul><li>It might be helpful as a means of accounting for the ‘ oddness ’ which we experience when we read English sentences such as the follows: </li></ul><ul><li>For example: 1- The hamburger ate the man. 2- My cat studied linguistics. 3- A table was listening to some music. </li></ul><ul><li>Above sentences are syntactically right but semantically odd. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>According to some basic syntactic rules for forming English sentences we have well structured sentences . </li></ul><ul><li>The hamburger ate the man NP V NP </li></ul><ul><li>This sentence is syntactically good, but semantically odd. Since the sentence “The man ate the hamburger” is perfectly acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>The kind of noun which can be subjects of the verb ‘ate’ must denote entities which are capable of eating. </li></ul><ul><li>The noun ‘hamburger’ does not have this property and man has . </li></ul>
  8. 9. SEMANTIC ROLES <ul><li>Words are not just a “containers” of meanings. They fulfill different “roles” within the situation described by a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: If the situation is a simple event such as The boy kicked the ball The verb ‘kicked’ describes an action. </li></ul><ul><li>The noun phrases ‘The boy’ and ‘the ball’ describe the roles of entities such as people and things involved in the action. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Agent <ul><li>The entity that performs the action is technically known as “agent”. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: The boy kicked the ball. </li></ul><ul><li>As in the sentence one role is taken by the boy and the boy performs the action, so it is agent. </li></ul><ul><li>Although agents are typically human, they can also be non-human forces, machines or creatures. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: The wind blew the ball away. The car ran over the ball. The dog caught the ball. </li></ul>
  10. 11. THEME <ul><li>The entity that is involved in or affected by the action is technically known as “theme”. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: The boy kicked the ball. </li></ul><ul><li>In this sentence “ball” is the theme because it is affected by the action performed by the ‘agent’. </li></ul><ul><li>The theme can also be an entity that is simply being described, for example, The ball was red. </li></ul><ul><li>The theme can also be human. Indeed the same physical entity can appear in two semantic roles. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: The boy kicked himself. Here boy is agent and himself is theme. </li></ul>
  11. 12. INSTRUMENT <ul><li>If an agent uses another entity in performing an action, that other entity fills the role of instrument. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: She hit the bug with the magazine. </li></ul><ul><li>In “writing with a pen” or “eating with a spoon” the phrases “a pen” and “a spoon” have the semantic role of instrument. </li></ul>
  12. 13. EXPERIENCER <ul><li>When a noun phrase designates an entity as a person who has a feeling, a perception or a state, it fills the role of experiencer. </li></ul><ul><li>If we see, know or enjoy something, we do not perform any action. In this way we are in the role of experiencer. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Did you hear that noise? </li></ul><ul><li>The experiencer is “you” and theme is “that noise”. </li></ul>
  13. 14. LOCATION <ul><li>When an entity is in the description of the event then it fills the role of Location . (on the table, in the room etc). </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Mary saw a mosquito on the wall. In this sentence “on the wall” is location. </li></ul>
  14. 15. SOURCE & GOAL <ul><li>Where an entity moves from is the Source and where it moves to is the Goal . </li></ul><ul><li>For example: When we talk about transferring money from ‘savings’ to ‘checking’, the source is “savings” and goal is “checking”. </li></ul>
  15. 16. LEXICAL RELATIONS <ul><li>Words are not only the ‘containers’ or as fulfilling ‘roles’. They can also have ‘relationships’. We describe the meanings of words in terms of their relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>For example :if we are asked the meanings of word ‘conceal’ we might reply it is same as ‘hide’. </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning of ‘shallow’ as ‘the opposite of deep’. </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning of ‘daffodil’ as ‘it is a kind of flower’. </li></ul><ul><li>In doing so we are characterizing the meaning of a word not in terms of component features, but in terms of relationship to other words. </li></ul>
  16. 17. The types of lexical relations <ul><li>SYNONYMY </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms are two or more forms with very closely related meanings, which are often, but not always, intersubstitutable in sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: broad=wide, hide=conceal, </li></ul><ul><li>almost=nearly, cab=taxi, liberty=freedom, answer=reply. [e.g. of synonyms are in pairs] </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of ‘sameness of meaning’ used in discussing synonymy is not necessarily ‘total sameness’ . </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Cathy had only one ‘answer’ correct in the test. Its near synonymy would ‘reply’ would sound odd. </li></ul>
  17. 18. ANTONYMY <ul><li>Two forms with opposite meanings are called antonyms. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: quick=slow, big=small, long=short, rich=poor, happy=sad, hot=cold, old=young, male=female, true=false, alive=dead. </li></ul><ul><li>Antonyms are divided into two parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Gradable antonyms: such as the pair big=small, can be used in comparative constructions like bigger than =smaller than. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative of one member of the gradable pair does not necessarily imply the other. For example: Dog is not old, it does not mean that dog is young. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Non-gradable Antonyms: Such antonyms have “complementary pairs, comparative constructions and negative of one member does imply the other. </li></ul><ul><li>For example : The person is not dead, does indeed mean that person is live. </li></ul><ul><li>Reversives: It actually means to reverse. For example: Tie= untie, enter= exit, pack= unpack, lengthen= shorten, raise= lower and dress= undress. </li></ul>
  19. 20. HYPONYMY <ul><li>When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another, the relationship is described as hyponym. For example: Daffodil= Flower, dog= animal, poodle= dog, carrot= vegetable, banyan= tree. </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of “inclusion’ involved here. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: If any object is a daffodil, then it is necessary a flower, so the meaning of flower is included in the meaning of daffodil. Daffodil is hyponym of a flower. </li></ul><ul><li>We look at the meaning of words in some type of hierarchical relationship. (Tree-Diagram). </li></ul>
  20. 21. SEMANTIC ROLES <ul><li>Words are not just a “containers” of meanings. They fulfill different “roles” within the situation described by a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: If the situation is a simple event such as The boy kicked the ball The verb ‘kicked’ describes an action. </li></ul><ul><li>The noun phrases ‘The boy’ and ‘the ball’ describe the roles of entities such as people and things involved in the action. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Agent <ul><li>The entity that performs the action is technically known as “agent”. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: The boy kicked the ball. </li></ul><ul><li>As in the sentence one role is taken by the boy and the boy performs the action, so it is agent. </li></ul><ul><li>Although agents are typically human, they can also be non-human forces, machines or creatures. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: The wind blew the ball away. The car ran over the ball. The dog caught the ball. </li></ul>
  22. 23. THEME <ul><li>The entity that is involved in or affected by the action is technically known as “theme”. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: The boy kicked the ball. </li></ul><ul><li>In this sentence “ball” is the theme because it is affected by the action performed by the ‘agent’. </li></ul><ul><li>The theme can also be an entity that is simply being described, for example, The ball was red. </li></ul><ul><li>The theme can also be human. Indeed the same physical entity can appear in two semantic roles. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: The boy kicked himself. Here boy is agent and himself is theme. </li></ul>
  23. 24. INSTRUMENT <ul><li>If an agent uses another entity in performing an action, that other entity fills the role of instrument. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: She hit the bug with the magazine. </li></ul><ul><li>In “writing with a pen” or “eating with a spoon” the phrases “a pen” and “a spoon” have the semantic role of instrument. </li></ul>
  24. 25. EXPERIENCER <ul><li>When a noun phrase designates an entity as a person who has a feeling, a perception or a state, it fills the role of experiencer. </li></ul><ul><li>If we see, know or enjoy something, we do not perform any action. In this way we are in the role of experiencer. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Did you hear that noise? </li></ul><ul><li>The experiencer is “you” and theme is “that noise”. </li></ul>
  25. 26. LOCATION <ul><li>When an entity is in the description of the event then it fills the role of Location . (on the table, in the room etc). </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Mary saw a mosquito on the wall. In this sentence “on the wall” is location. </li></ul>
  26. 27. HOMOPHONY <ul><li>When two or more different written forms have the same pronunciation, they are described as “Homophones”. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Bare – Bear, Meat – Meet, Flour – Flower, Pail – Pale, Sew – So. </li></ul>
  27. 28. HOMONYMY <ul><li>Homonyms are words which have quite separate meanings, but which have accidentally come to have exactly the same form. </li></ul><ul><li>The term homonym is used when one form written or spoken has two or more unrelated meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: 1- bank= (of a river) bank= (financial institution) 2- bat= (flying creature) bat= (used in sports) 3- race= (contest of speed) race= (ethic group) </li></ul>
  28. 29. POLYSEMY <ul><li>If a word has multiple meanings, that is called polysemic. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatedness of meaning accompanying identical form is technically known as polysemy. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: The word “head” is used to refer to the object on the top of our body, on top of a glass of beer, on top of a company or department. </li></ul><ul><li>Another word “foot” has multiple meanings such as foot of a person, of bed, of mountain etc. </li></ul>
  29. 30. MENTONYMY <ul><li>There is another type of relationship between words based simply on a close connection in everyday experience. That close connection can be based on a container- contents relation (bottle- coke; can- juice), a whole- part relation (car- wheels; house- roof) or a representative- symbol relationship (king- crown; The President- The White House). </li></ul>
  30. 31. COLLOCATION <ul><li>Frequently occurring together is known as collocation. Words tend to occur with other words. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: If you ask a thousand people what they think when you say ‘hammer’, more than half will say ‘nail’, if you say ‘table’ they will mostly say ‘chair’ and for ‘butter- bread, for needle- thread, for salt- pepper. </li></ul><ul><li>Some collocations are joined pairs of words such as salt and pepper or husband and wife. </li></ul>
  31. 32. QUESTIONS <ul><li>Q: What is semantics? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: Semantics is the study of meanings of words, phrases and sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: What do mean by conceptual meanings? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: Conceptual meaning covers those basic essential components of meaning which are conveyed by the literal use of a word. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Q: What are associative meanings? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: In associative meaning you may have ‘associations’ or ‘connotations’ attached to a word. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Describe Agent? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: The entity that performs the action is technically known as “agent”. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Q: What do you mean by Theme? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: The entity that is involved in or affected by the action is technically known as “theme”. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: The boy kicked the ball. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: What is experiencer? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: When a noun phrase designates an entity as a person who has a feeling, a perception or a state, it fills the role of experiencer. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Did you hear that noise? </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Q: What is meant by Source and Goal? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: Where an entity moves from is the Source and where it moves to is the Goal . </li></ul><ul><li>Q: How many types of Lexical relations have been discussed? </li></ul><ul><li>a) 5 b) 7 c) 6 d) 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: 8 </li></ul>
  35. 36. THANKS A LOT
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