Gradable antonyms: such as the pair big=small, can be used in comparative constructions like bigger than =smaller than.
Negative of one member of the gradable pair does not necessarily imply the other. For example: Dog is not old, it does not mean that dog is young.
Non-gradable Antonyms: Such antonyms have “complementary pairs, comparative constructions and negative of one member does imply the other.
For example : The person is not dead, does indeed mean that person is live.
Reversives: It actually means to reverse. For example: Tie= untie, enter= exit, pack= unpack, lengthen= shorten, raise= lower and dress= undress.
When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another, the relationship is described as hyponym. For example: Daffodil= Flower, dog= animal, poodle= dog, carrot= vegetable, banyan= tree.
The concept of “inclusion’ involved here.
For example: If any object is a daffodil, then it is necessary a flower, so the meaning of flower is included in the meaning of daffodil. Daffodil is hyponym of a flower.
We look at the meaning of words in some type of hierarchical relationship. (Tree-Diagram).
When two or more different written forms have the same pronunciation, they are described as “Homophones”.
For example: Bare – Bear, Meat – Meet, Flour – Flower, Pail – Pale, Sew – So.
Homonyms are words which have quite separate meanings, but which have accidentally come to have exactly the same form.
The term homonym is used when one form written or spoken has two or more unrelated meanings.
For example: 1- bank= (of a river) bank= (financial institution) 2- bat= (flying creature) bat= (used in sports) 3- race= (contest of speed) race= (ethic group)
If a word has multiple meanings, that is called polysemic.
Relatedness of meaning accompanying identical form is technically known as polysemy.
For example: The word “head” is used to refer to the object on the top of our body, on top of a glass of beer, on top of a company or department.
Another word “foot” has multiple meanings such as foot of a person, of bed, of mountain etc.
There is another type of relationship between words based simply on a close connection in everyday experience. That close connection can be based on a container- contents relation (bottle- coke; can- juice), a whole- part relation (car- wheels; house- roof) or a representative- symbol relationship (king- crown; The President- The White House).
Frequently occurring together is known as collocation. Words tend to occur with other words.
For example: If you ask a thousand people what they think when you say ‘hammer’, more than half will say ‘nail’, if you say ‘table’ they will mostly say ‘chair’ and for ‘butter- bread, for needle- thread, for salt- pepper.
Some collocations are joined pairs of words such as salt and pepper or husband and wife.
Q: What is semantics?
Ans: Semantics is the study of meanings of words, phrases and sentences.
Q: What do mean by conceptual meanings?
Ans: Conceptual meaning covers those basic essential components of meaning which are conveyed by the literal use of a word.
Q: What are associative meanings?
Ans: In associative meaning you may have ‘associations’ or ‘connotations’ attached to a word.
Q: Describe Agent?
Ans: The entity that performs the action is technically known as “agent”.
Q: What do you mean by Theme?
Ans: The entity that is involved in or affected by the action is technically known as “theme”.
For example: The boy kicked the ball.
Q: What is experiencer?
Ans: When a noun phrase designates an entity as a person who has a feeling, a perception or a state, it fills the role of experiencer.
For example: Did you hear that noise?
Q: What is meant by Source and Goal?
Ans: Where an entity moves from is the Source and where it moves to is the Goal .
Q: How many types of Lexical relations have been discussed?