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Semantics  Introduction By Riaz
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Semantics Introduction By Riaz

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  • 1. SEMANTICS PRESENTED BY: RIAZ AHMAD SARFRAZ MUNIR CHAUDHARY M.NASIR ASLAM KAHLOWN M.ASIF SALEEM
  • 2. What is semantics?
    • Semantics is the study of meanings of words, phrases and sentences.
    • In semantic analysis there is always an attempt to focus on what the words conventionally mean, rather than on what a speaker might want the words on a particular occasion.
  • 3. Conceptual meanings
    • Conceptual meaning covers those basic essential components of meaning which are conveyed by the literal use of a word.
    • For Example : Some of the basic components of a word like needle in English might include “ thin sharp steel instrument”.
  • 4. Associative meanings
    • In associative meaning you may have ‘associations’ or ‘connotations’ attached to a word,
    • For example : like needle which lead you to think of ‘painful’ whenever you encounter the said word.
    • This ‘association’ is not treated as a conceptual meaning of needle.
  • 5. Conceptual vs Associative meaning
    • When linguists investigate the meaning of words in a language they are normally interested in characterizing the conceptual meaning and less concerned with the associative meaning of words.
    • However, poets and advertisers are very interested in using terms in such a way that there associative meanings are evoked.
    • For example: In the ad of Pepsi “generation next” or in Zong advertisement “sub keh do”.
  • 6. Semantic Features
    • How does semantic approach help us to understand the nature of language?
    • It might be helpful as a means of accounting for the ‘ oddness ’ which we experience when we read English sentences such as the follows:
    • For example: 1- The hamburger ate the man. 2- My cat studied linguistics. 3- A table was listening to some music.
    • Above sentences are syntactically right but semantically odd.
  • 7.
    • According to some basic syntactic rules for forming English sentences we have well structured sentences.
    • The hamburger ate the man NP V NP
    • This sentence is syntactically good, but semantically odd. Since the sentence “The man ate the hamburger” is perfectly acceptable.
    • The kind of noun which can be subjects of the verb ‘ate’ must denote entities which are capable of eating.
    • The noun ‘hamburger’ does not have this property and man has.