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Proposal format 1 Proposal format 1 Presentation Transcript

  • TYPES OF RESEARCHTYPES OF RESEARCHDr. Ali Abd El-Monsif ThabetDr. Ali Abd El-Monsif Thabet
  • PROPOSAL FORMATPROPOSAL FORMAT 1. Title of research study1. Title of research study 2. Name and title of investigator/s and participating2. Name and title of investigator/s and participatingfacilityfacility 3. Introduction3. Introduction * Problem statement, Subproblems* Problem statement, Subproblems * Purpose of the study.* Purpose of the study. * Significance of the study* Significance of the study * Hypothesis* Hypothesis * Rationale* Rationale *Definitions*Definitions
  • PROPOSAL FORMATPROPOSAL FORMAT 4. Literature review4. Literature review 5. Method5. Method ** DesignDesign * Sample* Sample * Equipment and materials* Equipment and materials * Procedure* Procedure * Data analysis* Data analysis 6. Results6. Results * Statistical analysis* Statistical analysis * Tables and graphs* Tables and graphs
  • PROPOSAL FORMATPROPOSAL FORMAT 7. Discussion7. Discussion * Interpretation of the results* Interpretation of the results 8. Summary and conclusion8. Summary and conclusion 9. Arabic conclusion9. Arabic conclusion 10. Appendices10. Appendices 11. Bibliography11. Bibliography
  • Title of Research StudyTitle of Research Study The words in the title should concise butThe words in the title should concise butsufficient to give the reviewer a good idea ofsufficient to give the reviewer a good idea ofwhat the project is about or what is beingwhat the project is about or what is beingproposed for study.proposed for study. The title may reflect the nature of the majorThe title may reflect the nature of the majorproblem or be a statement of a sub problem.problem or be a statement of a sub problem.Although the title must be free of excessive orAlthough the title must be free of excessive orredundant wording, brevity should not reduceredundant wording, brevity should not reduceclarity.clarity.
  • Name and Title of InvestigatorsName and Title of Investigatorsand Participating Facilitiesand Participating Facilities The principal investigators name and title areThe principal investigators name and title arelisted first and then names of other investigatorslisted first and then names of other investigatorsfollow in order of contribution to the study.follow in order of contribution to the study. An investigators title may be the highest earnedAn investigators title may be the highest earneddegree or position.degree or position. The participating facility is usually the place ofThe participating facility is usually the place ofemployment of the investigator (s) or placeemployment of the investigator (s) or placewhere the research is to be conducted.where the research is to be conducted.
  • IntroductionIntroduction This section is the beginning of the main report andThis section is the beginning of the main report andsets the stage for the paper by presenting thesets the stage for the paper by presenting theframework on which the study was conceived.framework on which the study was conceived. The word "introduction" is not used as a heading butThe word "introduction" is not used as a heading butis understood without labeling.is understood without labeling. The introduction contains the purpose, backgroundThe introduction contains the purpose, backgroundfor the study, the hypothesis, the research question,for the study, the hypothesis, the research question,and are view of literature relevant to the top of theand are view of literature relevant to the top of thepaper.paper. Information included in this section should be aInformation included in this section should be asynthesis of reports of logically arranged in sequentialsynthesis of reports of logically arranged in sequentialor chronological order.or chronological order.
  • The Research ProblemThe Research Problem A brief statement of the problem is aA brief statement of the problem is amust.must. If the statement is that of a majorIf the statement is that of a majorproblem, then the sub problem toproblem, then the sub problem towhich the proposal is addressed mustwhich the proposal is addressed mustbe stated.be stated. Not all studies have subproblems, butNot all studies have subproblems, butmany do.many do.
  •  ExampleExample Major problem:Major problem: How can force of contracting muscles beHow can force of contracting muscles beincreased?increased? Sub problem:Sub problem: What is the effect of various hip anglesWhat is the effect of various hip angleson the quadriceps femoris muscle forceon the quadriceps femoris muscle forceduring dynamic resistive exercise ?during dynamic resistive exercise ?
  •  The sub problem in this example isThe sub problem in this example isrelated to the major problem and isrelated to the major problem and isone step in answering "how can theone step in answering "how can theforce of contracting muscles beforce of contracting muscles beincreased”.increased”. The simplest way to define a researchThe simplest way to define a researchproblem is to state a question.problem is to state a question.
  • Purpose of studyPurpose of study If a single objective is to be achieved by theIf a single objective is to be achieved by theresearch, a succinct statement of purpose of theresearch, a succinct statement of purpose of thestudy should be stated.study should be stated. If more than one objective is to be achieved, theIf more than one objective is to be achieved, theobjectives should be listed in outline form toobjectives should be listed in outline form toreduce wording and to catch the reviewerreduce wording and to catch the reviewerattention.attention.
  •  Examples:Examples: To determine the effect of the abdominalTo determine the effect of the abdominalmuscles exercises on the function of the pelvicmuscles exercises on the function of the pelvicfloor muscles in treating of mild stress urinaryfloor muscles in treating of mild stress urinaryincontinence.incontinence. To determine the effect of low intensity laserTo determine the effect of low intensity lasertherapy on the muscle fiber size in experimentedtherapy on the muscle fiber size in experimentedrats versus control.rats versus control. To compare the effect of magnetic therapyTo compare the effect of magnetic therapyversus weight bearing exs on osteoporoticversus weight bearing exs on osteoporoticpatients.patients.
  • Activities leading to problemActivities leading to problemidentificationidentification Observation in the clinicObservation in the clinic A problem might be the result of a gap in aA problem might be the result of a gap in abody of knowledgebody of knowledge Reading and analyzing the literature in aReading and analyzing the literature in aparticular area of interest is perhaps the mostparticular area of interest is perhaps the mostsatisfactory approach to identifying researchsatisfactory approach to identifying researchproblems.problems. Controversial issues should be examinedControversial issues should be examined Replication of previous studies.Replication of previous studies.
  • Considerations in selecting aConsiderations in selecting aproblemproblem 1.1. Interest, training, and knowledgeInterest, training, and knowledge The researcher must ask whether the problem isThe researcher must ask whether the problem issufficiently interesting to pursue and devote thesufficiently interesting to pursue and devote thetime required to seek the solution.time required to seek the solution. The researcher must be curious, motivated andThe researcher must be curious, motivated andinterested in the specific problem.interested in the specific problem. The student is strongly advised to haveThe student is strongly advised to haveconsiderable interest in the problem beforeconsiderable interest in the problem beforeundertaking the required projectundertaking the required project
  • 2.2. Solvability of problem.Solvability of problem. The student may select an interestingThe student may select an interestingproblem, but the problem may notproblem, but the problem may notbe answerable for various reasons.be answerable for various reasons. The problem may be too broad orThe problem may be too broad ortoo complex for a solution within thetoo complex for a solution within thecapability of the available personnelcapability of the available personnelor facilities.or facilities.
  • 3- Professional contribution3- Professional contribution The value or gains of the research must beThe value or gains of the research must beconsidered by the researcher beforeconsidered by the researcher beforestarting a study or even before seekingstarting a study or even before seekingapproval for the study.approval for the study. The researcher should ask whether theThe researcher should ask whether theproblem is too small (trivial) to be of anyproblem is too small (trivial) to be of anyvalue or whether the problem is too largevalue or whether the problem is too large(complex) to be answered in a single study.(complex) to be answered in a single study.
  • 4- Availability of technology,4- Availability of technology,equipment and facilityequipment and facilityIf the technical background of theIf the technical background of theresearcher is inadequate in aresearcher is inadequate in aspecific area, consultation withspecific area, consultation withexperts must be arranged (e.g. aexperts must be arranged (e.g. astatistician, electrical technician, orstatistician, electrical technician, orphotographic technician)photographic technician)
  • LimitationsLimitations Limitations are conditions or variables not under theLimitations are conditions or variables not under thecontrol of the researcher.control of the researcher. The limiting conditions can influence the outcome ofThe limiting conditions can influence the outcome ofthe investigation.the investigation. Limitations may include:Limitations may include: 1. The type of measuring device1. The type of measuring device 2. The type of subject who volunteers for the study2. The type of subject who volunteers for the study 3. The method of selecting the subjects3. The method of selecting the subjects 4. The economics of undertaking the problem solution4. The economics of undertaking the problem solution 5. The moral issues concerning risks.5. The moral issues concerning risks.
  • DelimitationDelimitation The problem must be narrowed so that the question can beThe problem must be narrowed so that the question can beanswered.answered. The delimitation guide the research by establishing limitsThe delimitation guide the research by establishing limitsor boundaries, by narrowing the selected problem, and byor boundaries, by narrowing the selected problem, and bydefining the scope of the investigation.defining the scope of the investigation.The problem be defined by listing independent variables in fourThe problem be defined by listing independent variables in fourcategories:categories: l. Treatment variables (type, duration, intensity, consistency).l. Treatment variables (type, duration, intensity, consistency). 2. Subject variables (age, sex, physical status)2. Subject variables (age, sex, physical status) 3.Therapist variables (age, sex, experience, professional3.Therapist variables (age, sex, experience, professionalattitude).attitude). 4.Condition variables (type, severity, location, concurrent4.Condition variables (type, severity, location, concurrent
  • Significance of studySignificance of study The investigator must explain :The investigator must explain : Why time and effort should be spent on theWhy time and effort should be spent on thestudy.study. What the study is expected to contribute to theWhat the study is expected to contribute to theproblem or to a body of knowledge.problem or to a body of knowledge. How much this study is beneficial for the relatedHow much this study is beneficial for the relatedfield, for the whole population, for the cliniciansfield, for the whole population, for the cliniciansand for the economy of the country should.and for the economy of the country should.
  • Significance of studySignificance of study 1.1. The size of the problemThe size of the problem a.a. Related to the populationRelated to the population b.b. Related to the countrys economyRelated to the countrys economy c.c. Related to patient psycho-social aspectsRelated to patient psycho-social aspects 2. The difference of the experimented technique2. The difference of the experimented techniquefrom other previous techniquesfrom other previous techniques 3. The advantages of the new technique over the3. The advantages of the new technique over theother techniques like time saving, money wise, safety,other techniques like time saving, money wise, safety,and the practicability of the technique.and the practicability of the technique. 4. The weak points of other approaches regarding4. The weak points of other approaches regardingtechniques, design, patient selections, statisticaltechniques, design, patient selections, statistical
  • RationaleRationale Scientific justification for problem solving.Scientific justification for problem solving. It should convince the reviewer about the thinking ofIt should convince the reviewer about the thinking ofproblem solving.problem solving. The scientific justification of interaction betweenThe scientific justification of interaction betweenindependent variable/s and the dependent variable/sindependent variable/s and the dependent variable/sshould be clarified by the investigator.should be clarified by the investigator. Each paragraph should carry a specific idea, and theEach paragraph should carry a specific idea, and thewhole subject indicate scientific analysis of thewhole subject indicate scientific analysis of theproblem and its way of solving.problem and its way of solving.
  • RationaleRationale 1.1. 1st Paragraph1st Paragraph It include the size of the problem and its influence on theIt include the size of the problem and its influence on thewhole population and on the economical studies.whole population and on the economical studies. 2.2. 2nd Paragraph2nd Paragraph It includes demonstration of the treatment trials for solvingIt includes demonstration of the treatment trials for solvingthis problem and shows their effectiveness and weakness.this problem and shows their effectiveness and weakness. 3.3. 3rd Paragraph3rd Paragraph It includes the nature of the pathological background of theIt includes the nature of the pathological background of theproblem that needs to be solved.problem that needs to be solved. 4.4. 4th Paragraph4th Paragraph It includes the relationship and physiological effect ofIt includes the relationship and physiological effect oftreatment intervention on the underlying pathology of thetreatment intervention on the underlying pathology of theproblem and how it ca help to resolve this problem.problem and how it ca help to resolve this problem.
  • HYPOTHESIS TESTINGHYPOTHESIS TESTING HypothesisHypothesis The, formulation of hypothesis reduces the problem toThe, formulation of hypothesis reduces the problem toconditional relations which can be tested by the researchconditional relations which can be tested by the researchprocess.process. A hypothesis is a proposition that can be tested. It is an ideaA hypothesis is a proposition that can be tested. It is an ideaabout the relation between two or more variables.about the relation between two or more variables. Hypothesis testing enables the researcher to compareHypothesis testing enables the researcher to comparetheoretical results with those obtained by experimentation.theoretical results with those obtained by experimentation. Gathering and analyzing data are ways of determining whetherGathering and analyzing data are ways of determining whethertheoretical and experimental results are in agreement ortheoretical and experimental results are in agreement orwhether the difference in results warrants rejection of thewhether the difference in results warrants rejection of thetheory.theory.
  •  The hypothesis can be tested in two forms:The hypothesis can be tested in two forms:1. Alternate hypothesis or Directional hypothesis1. Alternate hypothesis or Directional hypothesis 2.2. Null hypothesisNull hypothesis Alternate hypothesisAlternate hypothesis states that a difference does existstates that a difference does existbetween variables. If a researcher has some evidencebetween variables. If a researcher has some evidence(personal observations or literature reports showing(personal observations or literature reports showingtrends) to believe that one method is better thantrends) to believe that one method is better thananother, then a directional hypothesis can be tested.another, then a directional hypothesis can be tested.For exampleFor example: dynamic exercises are better than: dynamic exercises are better thanisometric exercises for increase strength throughoutisometric exercises for increase strength throughoutthe entire range of joint motion.the entire range of joint motion.
  •  Null hypothesisNull hypothesis states that no difference existsstates that no difference existsbetween variables. Null (means without value orbetween variables. Null (means without value orsignificance). In hypothesis testing, the null hypothesissignificance). In hypothesis testing, the null hypothesisimplies that the difference between the means of theimplies that the difference between the means of thedifferent values is equal to zero.different values is equal to zero. The null hypothesis is used commonly in experimentalThe null hypothesis is used commonly in experimentalresearch because of simplicity. The null hypothesis is aresearch because of simplicity. The null hypothesis is aclear and unambiguous statement.clear and unambiguous statement. For example:For example: ice packs and hot packs are equallyice packs and hot packs are equallyeffective for treating patients having chronic low backeffective for treating patients having chronic low backstrains.strains.
  • LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW Related ResearchRelated Research The most relativeThe most relative studies supporting the investigatorsstudies supporting the investigatorsargument should be cited in this section.argument should be cited in this section. The investigator must present the informationThe investigator must present the information in ain alogical sequence, sometimes chronologically, tological sequence, sometimes chronologically, todemonstrate his knowledge of previous research.demonstrate his knowledge of previous research. The story must convince the reviewer that previousThe story must convince the reviewer that previousresearch has not answered the question or tested theresearch has not answered the question or tested thehypothesis stated by the investigator.hypothesis stated by the investigator.
  •  If any current studies overlap the problem ofIf any current studies overlap the problem ofthe proposal, the investigator should showthe proposal, the investigator should showhow this proposal differs from those studieshow this proposal differs from those studiesor how it will complement them.or how it will complement them. A survey of literature relating to the problemA survey of literature relating to the problemmust be undertaken. The reason for this are:must be undertaken. The reason for this are: 1. To ascertain originality of research.1. To ascertain originality of research. 2.2. To provide ideas for solving the problem.To provide ideas for solving the problem. 3. To avoid repetitious findings3. To avoid repetitious findings
  • Planning the literature reviewPlanning the literature review The researcher must be familiar with theThe researcher must be familiar with thevaluable sources in the libraryvaluable sources in the library Primary literature; (periodicals, books).Primary literature; (periodicals, books). Secondary literature (Abstracts)Secondary literature (Abstracts)
  • Reviewing ProcessReviewing Process The task of reviewing is becoming veryThe task of reviewing is becoming verydifficult because of tremendous amounts ofdifficult because of tremendous amounts ofliterature.literature. This process vary from subject to subjectThis process vary from subject to subjectaccording to:according to: Familiarity with the library,Familiarity with the library, The demand of the subject or area beingThe demand of the subject or area beingreviewed, andreviewed, and The detail desired.The detail desired.
  • Personal Abstract FilePersonal Abstract File Isolation of each reference on a single indexIsolation of each reference on a single indexcard or attached cards is important because ascard or attached cards is important because asreview of the literature continues, considerablereview of the literature continues, considerableinformation is available and collected.information is available and collected. The researcher should choose the size of theThe researcher should choose the size of thecard (7.6 x 12.7, 12.7 x 20.3 cm) on which tocard (7.6 x 12.7, 12.7 x 20.3 cm) on which torecord bibliographical and abstract informationrecord bibliographical and abstract informationand notes.and notes. The abstract provides sufficient information toThe abstract provides sufficient information todetermine whether the report is relative to thedetermine whether the report is relative to theresearch problem.research problem.
  • Information ResourcesInformation Resources AbstractsAbstracts A number of journals provide readers with anA number of journals provide readers with anabstracting services, which can save time in locatingabstracting services, which can save time in locatingthe original reports. Abstracts should be consideredthe original reports. Abstracts should be consideredas secondary sources of literature review.as secondary sources of literature review. JournalsJournals Journals are primary sources for seeking informationJournals are primary sources for seeking informationfor investigative work on a particular topic. Selectionfor investigative work on a particular topic. Selectionof journals appropriate to the investigators topicof journals appropriate to the investigators topicdepends on the subject being pursueddepends on the subject being pursued
  •  ReprintsReprints If a published report is particularly useful,If a published report is particularly useful,then a reproduction or reprint should bethen a reproduction or reprint should beobtained. A reprint can be placed in theobtained. A reprint can be placed in thepersonal file and is available as needed.personal file and is available as needed. Reprints of recent references (within 2Reprints of recent references (within 2years) can be obtained by writing directly toyears) can be obtained by writing directly tothe author and requesting a reprint of thethe author and requesting a reprint of thearticle.article.
  •  BooksBooks Books on the most areas of interest are available inBooks on the most areas of interest are available inmedical libraries. Books give basic material in varyingmedical libraries. Books give basic material in varyingdegrees of depth according to the books purpose, butdegrees of depth according to the books purpose, butnot the most up-to-date sources of information. Theirnot the most up-to-date sources of information. Theirbibliographies offer important sources of information.bibliographies offer important sources of information. MicrofilmsMicrofilms Microfilm provides the researcher with the originalMicrofilm provides the researcher with the originalarticle. The reader can read any page of the article on aarticle. The reader can read any page of the article on alarge viewing screen.large viewing screen.
  • Thank you