Introduction

     The Classic perspectives and terminology were developed in the late

     nineteenth century and first ...
CURRENTS OF THEORY

   We began it with on a functional footing, declaring that language has

   the ultimate function of ...
words that might have been used in its place or between a phoneme

    and the other phonemes to which it is opposed.


Ph...
labeling voiced consonants with the misleading Latin term mediate

persisted well into the nineteenth century.

While Gree...
It is of course important not to confuse phonology and spelling. All

human languages are spoken language and can be analy...
record at all of the work of an Icelandic grammarian of the twelfth

   century. The main aim was to reform the spelling o...
technological advances that made it possible to investigate speech by

    instrumental methods.

    At the same time, ho...
unwritten languages. Sapir’s phonology was explicitly mentalist while

Bloomfield allied himself with the new behaviorist ...
‘swearing’. In effect, Sapir is suggesting that we can hear what is not

    there in the phonetic record, by what he call...
is reduced to l; those on the right also begin with a vowel but show no

   such elision and are therefore credited with a...
Generative phonology belong to a new school of linguistics,

transformational generative theory. Those who embraced this t...
with them their underlying phonological representations in the form of

feature matrices. The surface structures serve as ...
AUTO SEGMENTAL AND CV PHONOLOGY

   The phrase autosegmental phonology’ is the title of Goldmith’s

   dissertation submit...
is that speech, observed as articulator activity, consists of gestures

such as tongue movements, lip movements and laryng...
by anticipatory assimilation, a falling tone when followed by a low

      tone. If so, this can be shown as the consequen...
constituents are juxtaposed. To say that a certain syllable is stressed

is to make a judgment about its strength relative...
S         W           W



These were related both to the formal nature of the process (whether stress

assignments procee...
Syllable                        S


              Rhyme                          S



Onset      nucleus   coda           ...
X            (word-level)

      W                S                  x   x            (foot-level)

                      ...
P      r    i    n   t




    As in other kinds of tree diagram, the single node at the top can be

    said to dominate ...
This move is not always free of the implication that phonology is

    speculative and that evidence obtained experimental...
theories. For example, Chomsky appeals to Descartes and

seventeenth century rationalism, Donegan and Stampe to Plato and
...
need to be explored and understood what makes phonetics and

apology exciting perhaps no more than other field of speciali...
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Latest Development On Phonetics And Phonology

  1. 1. Introduction The Classic perspectives and terminology were developed in the late nineteenth century and first half of the twentieth. It deals mainly with generative phonology and elaborations of it or reactions to it especially emphasis here is on currents of theory more details of Contents  Phonetics and phonology before the twentieth century  The phoneme  Early North American Phonology.  Glossematics and stratification phonology.  Generative phonology.  Natural generative phonology.  Auto segmental and CV phonology.  Metrical Phonology.  Lexical phonology.  Dependency phonology.  Experimental phonology.  Conclusion
  2. 2. CURRENTS OF THEORY We began it with on a functional footing, declaring that language has the ultimate function of conveying meaning and that the task of analysis is to investigate how that function is achieved through subsidiary functions, such as articulation and perception. Functional linguists commonly emphasize the systemic and structural organization of language. Language functions by virtue of the choices valuable to speakers whether choice of words, selection of options within the grammatical system, or exploitation of phonological distinctions. The term system indicates that we operate with the finite options available to us within the language, we are using, and the significance of any particular selection within a system rests in the contrast between what is selected and what could have been selected. The term structure is less precise, being used sometimes in much the same way as system reflecting the two dimensions of linguistic organization that are often referred to as syntagmatic and paradigmatic. Syntagmatic relations are linear or sequential, operative for example in the co articulation or assimilation of adjacent sounds or in the organization of alliteration or rhyme across longer stretches of language. Paradigmatic relations are those that exit among the options in a system, for example between a word in a text and other
  3. 3. words that might have been used in its place or between a phoneme and the other phonemes to which it is opposed. Phonetics and phonology before the twentieth century Interest in pronunciation is far older than the pursuit of phonetics and phonology as academic subjects. Several centuries before Christ, Indian scholars were devoting themselves to the description of Sanskrit and achieving remarkable accuracy in articulator phonetics. Although their primary concern seems to have been to maintain the correct pronunciation of what was already becoming a classical language, their observations about points and manners of articulation and other aspects of pronunciation reveal an interest that qualifies as scientific in the best sense of the term. Progress is not inevitable many who came later remained ignorant of this early work in phonetics and did not equal it, let alone improve on it. Modern European civilization owes many debts to Ancient Greece and Rome, but phonetics is not one of them, The Greek grammarian Dionysius Thorax, for example, bequeathed a curious misunderstanding of the nature of voicing. Writing around 100 years before Christ, he recognized that the spoken Greek of his time had both voiceless aspirated and voiceless inspirited plosives, i.e. both /p t k/and /ph th kh/. But he considered voiced plosives /b d g/ to be middle, intermediate between the two voiceless types. The resulting habit of
  4. 4. labeling voiced consonants with the misleading Latin term mediate persisted well into the nineteenth century. While Greek and Roman scholars did not match the phonetic and phonological brilliance of ancient India, they were interested in related issues, such as the orthographic representation of spoken forms, and it should not be forgotten that the modern European style of alphabetic writing has its roots in the Greek adaptation of Phoenician symbols, The Greek innovation was to develop separate vowel letters alongside the consonants, thus establishing a convention which is now standard in modern European orthographies. By contrast, many other writing systems still use symbols which stand for entire syllables or morphemes or treat vowels as diacritic or subsidiary features of consonants Most societies which have developed or adopted a writing system have shown some degree of interest even if meager or misguided in pronunciation or phonological analysis. While spoken language is typically unconscious, writing is far less so, for the product remains before us for inspection and reconsideration Halliday 1985 The existence of a written form of expression not only invites reflection on the relationship between speech and writing but also creates a distance between speakers and their language that encourages them to treat language as an object of analysis.
  5. 5. It is of course important not to confuse phonology and spelling. All human languages are spoken language and can be analyzed and described phonologically, but many of them have no written form or have only recently begun to be written. And in any case, some writing systems do not neatly match phonological organization. As we have already had cause to note, English spelling often obscures the patterns of phonological organization. The written form of word such as psalm and psychic, for instance, suggests that English words can begin with the consonant cluster/ps/, whereas in fact these words begin, in spoken English, with a single consonant /s/, and indeed it is a systematic feature of the phonological structure of English that words cannot begin with clusters of consonant plus/s/. On the other hand, English structure does tolerate words that end with sequences of voiceless plosive plus /s/, i.e. /ps/ /ts/ and /ks/. But this regularity is again obscured in written English, by orthographic devices such as the silent e on ‘apse’ and ‘copse’, or the use of a single letter x to represent /ks/ in fox and six. Nevertheless, written and spoken languages are not entirely unrelated to each other, and discussion of the written may sometimes though certainly not always. Reflect insight into the spoken. In many cases, little survives to testify to the insights and achievements of previous generations. We are fortunate to have any
  6. 6. record at all of the work of an Icelandic grammarian of the twelfth century. The main aim was to reform the spelling of Icelandic, which was already being written in any adaptation of the Roman alphabet, but this discussion does indicate some thinking about the phonological organization of the language, and suggests a clear grasp of what we could nowadays call phonemic contrasts minimal pairs and allophonic variants. The name of this scholar is no longer known and his treatise was not published until the nineteenth century. In quite a different part of the world, Sequoyah a half Cherokee Indian who never learned to speak or read English, succeeded in designing a syllabary for the Cherokeee language. He experimented with pictographs before finally adopting various letters from English, Greek and Hebrew without knowing what these symbols stood for in the source languages to represent Cherokee syllables. His syllabary was widely used for some time, and seems to be based on a sensible phonological analysis of Cherokee syllables, but we know next to nothing of Sequoyah’s thinking in devising the system. THE PHONEME By the latter part of the nineteenth century, phonetics had been established as part of the modern European scientific enterprise. Interests in spelling and pronunciation were now benefiting from
  7. 7. technological advances that made it possible to investigate speech by instrumental methods. At the same time, horizons widened. Where scholars had previously tended to focus on their own languages, the nineteenth century brought, a flowering of historical phonology ’that tried to encompass all the sound changes that had taken place in the development of Indo European languages’. The concept of the Phoneme became important not only for its relevance to practical problems such as how to represent the pronunciation of dialects and languages that ha never been transcribed before, but also as a keystone of modern phonological theory. In a sense, the word ‘phoneme’ merely provided a technical term for a concept that was already known. PHONOLOGY IN NORTH AMERICA Franz Boas 1858-1942. An anthropologist rather than a linguist, he stressed the need to respect the diversity of culture and to study a cultural system including language on its own terms. He laid the foundation for phonetic and grammatical studies of American Indian languages, and influenced men like Edward Sapir 1884-1939 and Leonard Bloomfield 1887-1949, who combined high standards of scholarship with an enthusiastic interest in recording and analyzing
  8. 8. unwritten languages. Sapir’s phonology was explicitly mentalist while Bloomfield allied himself with the new behaviorist psychology and began a tradition of linguistic description which, taken at its worst, can be accused of studding linguistic forms without proper regard for meanings. Sapir’s understating of phonology is set out in two influential papers. The First on “Sound Patterns in Language’ 1825”, promotes the psychological reality of sounds within a linguistic system. It contends that there are ways of determining the place of a sound a system that go beyond the articulator and acoustic nature of the sound. The Second paper 1933 is explicitly entitled “The psychological Reality of Phonemes”. Sapir’s examples are well worth study and reflection. In one account he describes how a speaker of a language felt that two words in his own language differed in pronunciation even though he could not substantiate this from the pronunciation itself. Sapir shows how he later came to understand that this was because the two words differed morphophonemically and compares this with the way in which even English speakers who pronounce ‘soared’ and ‘sawed’ identically might still feel a difference between the two words because of their awareness of related form such as ‘soaring’ and
  9. 9. ‘swearing’. In effect, Sapir is suggesting that we can hear what is not there in the phonetic record, by what he calls ‘collective illusion’. GLOSSEMATIC AND STRATIFICATIONAL PHONOLOGY Glossematics is much more than an approach to phonology. It is a general theory of language, elaborated by two Danish linguists, Louis Hjelmselv (1999-1965) and Hans Jorgen Uldall (1907-57). Glossematics is neither popular nor widely understood, but has exercised some influence on the development of phonology (which within glossematics is termed phonematics) Hjelmselv’s presents this theory.He affirmed that a phoneme must be defined by means of its function in language, not by physical or psychological criteria. He affirmed that a phoneme must be defined by means of its function in language, not by physical or psychological criteria. Hjemselv, linguistic function included more than distinctive oppositions and he was not averse to classifying and interpreting sounds on the basis of their distribution and alteration. Accordingly, he entertained such possibilities as analyzing French / e:/ as /ea/ and Danish /n/ as /ng/. His tolerance of a high degree of an abstraction is also evident in the posting of a phoneme / h/ in French the /h/ is entirely abstract in that it is never pronounced, but is serves to account for lack of elision. Thus words on the left below begin with a vowel and the preceding article le
  10. 10. is reduced to l; those on the right also begin with a vowel but show no such elision and are therefore credited with an initial /h/ which is ungrounded but blocks the elision. I’ habit (‘the clothes’) le Havre (‘the harbour’) I’ hernias (‘the armour’) le haricor (‘the bean’) I’homme (‘the man’) le homard (‘the lobster’) Straficiational phonology is again part of a wider theory of language. Developed in the USA in the 1960s, it falls within the broad tradition of Saussurean structuralism and shows particular influence from glossematics, notably the emphasis on language as a network of relationship rather than a set of elements. The stratification view is that language is organized on distinct level or strata’, the one of most relevance to phonology being the ‘phonemic stratum’. The units of this stratum, phonemes, are represented as points in a network which links each phoneme in three directions. Oversimplifying somewhat, phonemes are. 1. realizations of morphemic elements; 2. Subject to the phonetics (i.e. the pattern specifying how phonemes can be sequentially combined); 3. realized as (combinations of )features. GENERATIVE PHONOLOGY.
  11. 11. Generative phonology belong to a new school of linguistics, transformational generative theory. Those who embraced this theory were critical of prevalent interest, particularly in North America, and Chomsky himself accused his stucturalist predecessors of undue concerns with inventories of elements and a classificatory or taxonomic’ approach to linguistic analysis. Instead, linguistic description ought to aim to construct a grammar that would generate’ linguistic forms. The phonological component of such a grammar would be a set of phonological rules applying to the underlying forms of the language and yielding surface phonetic representations. Since both underlying and surface forms were represented in features, the rules essentially changed features specifications and the shape of a phonological description was indeed radically different from a typical inventory of phonemes and allophones. Orthodox generative phonology is part of a model of language (more strictly a model of linguistic competence’) which proposes that underlying representations are converted into surface representations by the application or rules. The model went through several modifications in the 1960s. The model shows phonology as syntactic component that generates grammatical sequences of the language. These grammatical structures so called ‘surface surface structures are complete with lexical items and reflect the grammatical rules of the language. The lexical items in surface structures bring
  12. 12. with them their underlying phonological representations in the form of feature matrices. The surface structures serve as input to the phonological rules, which, responding both to underlying phonological representation and to their syntactic and phonological context, generate a phonetic representation. The model is an idealization in that it portrays the competence of an ideal speaker hears, indeed, generative scholar’s explicitly contrasted competence and performance. Competence is viewed as knowledge, and the generative model is meant to have psychological import. Thus a grammar in one sense of the word is competence represented as rules the grammar is internalized by speakers, constructed from data in the process of acquisition that is and used in linguistic performance. Chomsky and Halle specifically propose that phonological representations ‘are mentally constructed by the speaker and the hearer and underlie their actual performance in speaking and ‘understanding’ Chomsky and Halle 1968. Deep Structures Base Syntactic Samantic ruls Component Deep Structures Transformationl Syntactic rules Semantic representations Surface structures Phonological rules
  13. 13. AUTO SEGMENTAL AND CV PHONOLOGY The phrase autosegmental phonology’ is the title of Goldmith’s dissertation submitted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1976 and published in the same year. Goldsmith’s initial concern is with what may seem to be a limited and particular problem, that of segmental organization, or more particularly, that of phenomena which have evaded segmental classification’ (Goldsmith 1976). The longest chapter in the thesis is devoted to the ‘tonology’ of Igbo, a west African tonal language, and Goldsmith includes substantial attention both to there tonal languages and to stress and intonation in English. Goldsmith’s work nevertheless goes beyond tone and intonation, and the implications of his thesis have been increasingly extended and elaborated. His thesis announces a claim about the ‘geometry’ of phonetic representation in the context of what he calls the absolute slicing hypothesis’ (the hypothesis that speech can be phonologically represented as successive discrete segments. His fundamental points
  14. 14. is that speech, observed as articulator activity, consists of gestures such as tongue movements, lip movements and laryngeal activity which are coordinated, but which by no means start and finish all at the same instant. The point is a familiar one in modern phonetics and Goldsmith’s reiteration of it leads him to what he calls a multi linear phonological analysis in which different features may be placed on separate tires. The tiers are connected to each other by association lines, which allow for the fact that there may not always be a near one to one mapping between tiers. Thus an auto segmental notation can show tonal features on a different tier, represented below segmental features, e.g Disyllabic word with high tone on each syllable: baka H H Disyllabic worked with high tone then low tone: baka H L The vertical lines are the normal association lines mapping tones on to syllables. In many tonal languages, however, a high tone becomes,
  15. 15. by anticipatory assimilation, a falling tone when followed by a low tone. If so, this can be shown as the consequence of both the high tone and the low being mapped on to a single syllable: Baka H L The approach can be extended to other features. Nasality, for instance, may also be represetened on a separate tier, allowing for similar spreading across segmental boundaries, where a consonant is pre-nasalized and the preceding vowel nasalized, we may represent D a b a [damba] as N METRICAL PHONOLOGY Metrical phonology has its origins in a doctoral dissertation (Liberman 1979) just as auto segmental phonology began with tone and was then extended to other phenomena, metrical phonology began as a theory of stress and later widened its horizons As noted by Van Der Hulst and Smith (1982). The starting point of metical phonology is an assumption about the nature of stress and its representation, namely that stress patterns reflect an underlying structure in which stronger and weaker
  16. 16. constituents are juxtaposed. To say that a certain syllable is stressed is to make a judgment about its strength relative to advancement syllables. We can display the stress patterns of disyllabic word as either. Or S W W S Where S and W simply indicate stronger and weaker constituents. Much of metrical theory is then devoted to explaining how more complex patterns are derived from these basic patterns within certain postulated constraints. It is assumed, in some versions of metrical theory, that the relationship between S and W is binary, so that polysyllabic patterns entail subsidiary branching, e,g. S W S W W
  17. 17. S W W These were related both to the formal nature of the process (whether stress assignments proceeds from right to left through all words, and how subsidiary branching is organized) and to the properties of a word which may be said to affect stress assignment (such as morphological structure, syllabic structure and the presence of specific segment such as tense, vowels This discussion was part of a revival of interest in the concept of feet an syllables, an interest evident also within auto segmental and CV phonology. In the new formalism, the foot, traditionally recognized in English poetry and used also by written such as Halliday, could also be identified as a tree structure. Thus the word catastrophic has two feet revealed as S W S W C a t a StrophIc By the mid 1980s, the syllable having been totally ignored witching standard generative phonology was attracting considerable attention in North America. It was argues that the syllable was a significant unit which must be recognized within phonological theory, and, in keeping with the spirit of generative phonology, efforts were made to formalize the striker of the syllable. We can take a syllable to consist of a RHYME preceded usually by an ONSET. The rhyme may in turn consist of a PEAK or NUCLEUS, sometimes followed by a CODA. Interestingly, this structure can be handled by the general formula originally proposed for stress patterns compare the two patterns below:
  18. 18. Syllable S Rhyme S Onset nucleus coda W S W Metrical phonology offers an alternative way of expressing such structures, in the form of a so called METRIAL GRID, Suppose we take a tree of the sort shown above, and convert it into a grid by making entries at level corresponding to the levels of the tree. The tree on the left below reflects the stress pattern of the word parameter, with greatest stress on the third syllable, and minimal stress on the second and fourth syllables. The tree can be mapped on to a grid, as shown on the right in which the entries correspond to nodes on the tress the grid thus provides an alterative visual display, with the greets degree of stress represented by the column having the greets number of entries.
  19. 19. X (word-level) W S x x (foot-level) X x x x (syllable- level) S W S W Parra matta The illustration here is of the simplest possible kind. Van Der Hulst and Smith 1982 offer a thorough evaluation and comment on the competition caused by the expansion of both auto segmental and metrical theory to include the linear organization of speech in general 1982. They refer to a number of possibilities that there are two kinds of harmony, ‘metrical’ and ‘auto segmental’ but they admit they are unable to offer a unified theory. Dependency Phonology Dependency phonology (Anderson et al. 1985, Anderson and Ewen 1987 share much of the modern interest in strikers such as feet and syllables and in the organization of features below the level of the segment. It is possible to model the structural organization of speech in a way that is reminiscent of metrical tree structures but different in important respects. A monosyllabic word like English print might be displayed as follows.
  20. 20. P r i n t As in other kinds of tree diagram, the single node at the top can be said to dominate the structure, defining the unit here a syllable in which the vowel serves as head or nucleus. Thus the vowel in our example is most prominent, and the consonants are subordinate or dependent. But dependency extends further than this, for the diagram shows the vowel both as head of the syllable and as head of the rhyme /int/. Moreover, /t./ is shown to be head of the initial consonant cluster, and /n/ head of the final cluster; conversely /p/ is dependent on /r/, /t/ on /n/ and both clusters are dependent on the nuclear vowel. Experimental phonology Experimental phonology represents an attempt to draw together at least there research styles: experimental phonetics experimental psychology and phonological theory. The intention is to submit hypotheses about phonological organization to testing and validation of the kind which is standard in the experimental sciences, and which has been taken over, to some extent at least, by researchers in fields such as psychology, psycholinguistics and instrumental phonetics.
  21. 21. This move is not always free of the implication that phonology is speculative and that evidence obtained experimental is superior to any other kind of evidence. Thus Ohala begins his Consumers guide to evidence in phonology, with the words for the past 30 years phonologies have speculated on how sound pate terns in language are represented in the Human mind and Halle 1968 The claims madam of course, are only as good as the evidence they are based on (Ohala 1986). Conclusion You may well ponder the ancient wisdom that there is no new thing under the sun but that of making many books there is no end, Certainly some of the controversies of modern phonology seem to lead in circles, and the recent habit of labeling new trends and emphases as schools exaggerates the impression of proliferation and underplays both the persistence of fundamental issues and the reemergence of old themes in new dress. Newrtheless, tempting as it is for textbook writers to consolidate and simplify, the taught is that there are genuine difference of theoretical perspective, in phonology as in any field of scholarship. Seen in this light, the custom of quoting one’s antecedents if done adequately and seriously is not only a useful indication of historical background but also a declaration of one’s place among competing
  22. 22. theories. For example, Chomsky appeals to Descartes and seventeenth century rationalism, Donegan and Stampe to Plato and natural explanation and Ohala and Jaeger to Popper and the development of modern science Chomsky 1966, Dongegan and Stampe 1979 Ohala and Jaeger 1986. We cannot simply reconcile these different appeals in all embracing cannot be ignored without distorting the nature of research and scholarship. There is no room here for an eclecticism which claims to take the best from each approach the idea that one can pick a few choice fruits while ignoring the trees tends to superficiality rather than omniscience. Neither the investigation of phonetic and phonology questions themselves nor the application of phonetic and theological insight to field such as speech pathology and language teaching can profit from the illusion that there are facts and taught independent of their derivation and expression. Thus if there is scientific maturity in modern phonology it is not because there is an agreed unified theory or even a consensus about theoretical issues and certainly not because there is some body of facts accepted once end for all, but rather because scholars are willing to discuss and explore their theoretical assumptions. The nature of speaking and hearing will continue to be a proper subject of human curiosity, and phonetics and phonology will continue to be revenant wherever speech and hearing
  23. 23. need to be explored and understood what makes phonetics and apology exciting perhaps no more than other field of specialized enquiry, but decidedly no less either is that we cannot separate the exploration of what lies behind the everyday and the obvious from the conformation with questions what are fundamental to science in its widest sense.

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