History of english literature sajidPresentation Transcript
ENGLISH LITERATUREENGLISH LITERATUREMuhammad Sajid us SalamMuhammad Sajid us SalamLecturerLecturerDepartment of English Language & Applied LinguisticsDepartment of English Language & Applied LinguisticsAIOU, Islamabad.AIOU, Islamabad.
What is literature?What is literature?What is the nature ofWhat is the nature ofliterature?literature?What is the value of literature?What is the value of literature?Why do we study literature?Why do we study literature?How do we study literature?How do we study literature?
1. What is Literature?1. What is Literature? Literature refers to the practice andLiterature refers to the practice andprofession of writing. It comes from humanprofession of writing. It comes from humaninterest in telling a story, in arranging wordsinterest in telling a story, in arranging wordsin artistic forms, in describing in words somein artistic forms, in describing in words someaspects of human experiences.aspects of human experiences.
2. Why we read Literature?2. Why we read Literature? PleasurePleasure RelaxationRelaxation KnowledgeKnowledge
ProsePoetryDramaSonnetTudor LiteratureCourtly Literature - romantic by natureCitizen literature – more realistic by nature
Indo-European languagesIndo-European languages
Overview of English InfluencesOverview of English InfluencesPre-History-1066 A.D.Pre-History-1066 A.D.C.R.A.V.N.C.R.A.V.N.Celts (Brythons and Gaels) up to 55Celts (Brythons and Gaels) up to 55B.C.B.C.Roman Conquest 55 B.C. - 407 A.D.Roman Conquest 55 B.C. - 407 A.D.Anglo-Saxon Period 407 A.D. - 787Anglo-Saxon Period 407 A.D. - 787A.D.A.D.Viking Invasions 787 A.D. - 1066Viking Invasions 787 A.D. - 1066A.D.A.D.Noman Conquest begins in 1066Noman Conquest begins in 1066A.D.A.D.
History of English LiteratureHistory of English LiteratureOld English LiteratureMedieval English LiteratureRenaissance English Literature17th century English Literature18th century English LiteratureRomantic English Literature19th century English Literature20th century English Literature
Old English LiteratureOld English Literature 449A.D.---1066449A.D.---1066 Formation of EnglandFormation of England Formation of Old EnglishFormation of Old English Poetic traditionPoetic tradition The Song of BeowulfThe Song of Beowulf---the national epic---the national epic Anglo-Saxon period: from tribal society toAnglo-Saxon period: from tribal society tofeudalismfeudalism
Medieval English LiteratureMedieval English Literature About five centuriesAbout five centuries Feudal system, Roman Catholic churchFeudal system, Roman Catholic church Literary forms: romance, popular balladLiterary forms: romance, popular ballad Representatives:Geoffrey Chaucer,Representatives:Geoffrey Chaucer,William LanglandWilliam Langland
Renaissance English LiteratureRenaissance English Literature Late 15Late 15ththcentury---early 17century---early 17ththcenturycentury The rise of bourgeois classThe rise of bourgeois class Renaissance: the rebirth of lettersRenaissance: the rebirth of lettersthe key: humanismthe key: humanism Thomas More: the greatest humanistThomas More: the greatest humanist Representatives:Representatives:--William Shakespeare: drama--William Shakespeare: drama--Edmund Spencer: poetry--Edmund Spencer: poetry--Francis Bacon: essay--Francis Bacon: essay
1717ththcentury English Literaturecentury English Literature English Revolution, Restoration, the “GloriousEnglish Revolution, Restoration, the “GloriousRevolution”--constitutional monarchyRevolution”--constitutional monarchy Literature of the Revolution:Literature of the Revolution:--Poetry: John Milton--Poetry: John MiltonMetaphysical poetryMetaphysical poetry--Prose: John Bunyan--Prose: John Bunyan Literature of the Restoration:Literature of the Restoration:--comedies (comedy of manners)--comedies (comedy of manners)--John Dryden--John Dryden
1818ththcentury English Literaturecentury English Literature The industrial revolution, the rise of bourgeois middleThe industrial revolution, the rise of bourgeois middleclassclass The Enlightenment—the struggle of bourgeoisieThe Enlightenment—the struggle of bourgeoisieagainst feudalismagainst feudalism Neoclassicism: Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison,Neoclassicism: Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison,Richard SteeleRichard Steele Realistic novel: Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, HenryRealistic novel: Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, HenryFieldingFielding Sentimentalism: Laurence Stern, Thomas GraySentimentalism: Laurence Stern, Thomas Gray Pre-Romanticism: William Blake, Robert BurnsPre-Romanticism: William Blake, Robert Burns
Romantic English LiteratureRomantic English Literature The French Revolution & the industrialThe French Revolution & the industrialrevolutionrevolution PoetryPoetryWilliam Wordsworth, S. T. ColeridgeWilliam Wordsworth, S. T. ColeridgeRobert Southey; Byron, Shelley, KeatsRobert Southey; Byron, Shelley, Keats Prose: Charles LambProse: Charles Lamb Novel: Walter Scott, Jane AustenNovel: Walter Scott, Jane Austen
1919ththcentury English Literaturecentury English Literature The Victorian periodThe Victorian period The struggle between the working classThe struggle between the working classand the capitalistsand the capitalists Critical realism: novel (Critical realism: novel (the 40s and early 50sthe 40s and early 50s))Charles Dickens, W. M. Thackeray, BronteCharles Dickens, W. M. Thackeray, Brontesisters, George Eliot etc.sisters, George Eliot etc. Prose & poetry: the mid and late 19Prose & poetry: the mid and late 19ththcenturycentury Chartist literatureChartist literature
Literary trends at the end of the 19Literary trends at the end of the 19ththcenturycentury--Naturalism: George Gissing--Naturalism: George Gissing--Neo-romanticism: Robert Louis--Neo-romanticism: Robert LouisStevensonStevenson--Aestheticism: Oscar Wilde, Walter Pater--Aestheticism: Oscar Wilde, Walter Pater
2020ththcentury English Literaturecentury English Literature The two world warsThe two world wars New ideas and new theoriesNew ideas and new theories Realistic writing: early 20Realistic writing: early 20ththcenturycentury--poetry: Thomas Hardy, war poets--poetry: Thomas Hardy, war poets--novel: John Galsworthy, H. G. Wells,--novel: John Galsworthy, H. G. Wells,Arnold BennettArnold Bennett--drama: George Bernard Shaw--drama: George Bernard Shaw Modernism: the 20s and 30sModernism: the 20s and 30s--a movement of experiments in--a movement of experiments intechniquestechniques
-- poetry: W.B. Yeats and T.S. Eliot.-- poetry: W.B. Yeats and T.S. Eliot.-- novel: D.H. Lawrence, E.M. Foster, James Joyce-- novel: D.H. Lawrence, E.M. Foster, James Joyceand Virginia Woolfand Virginia Woolf--drama: J.M. Synge--drama: J.M. Synge English literature since 1945English literature since 1945--postmodernism--postmodernism--drama: Samuel Becket, John Osborne,Harold--drama: Samuel Becket, John Osborne,HaroldPinterPinter--novel: William Golding, John Fowles, Kingsley Amis--novel: William Golding, John Fowles, Kingsley Amis(the Angry Yong man), Martin Amis etc.(the Angry Yong man), Martin Amis etc.--poetry: Dylan Thomas, Philip Larkin, Ted Hughes--poetry: Dylan Thomas, Philip Larkin, Ted Hughesand Seamus Heaneyand Seamus Heaney
BEOWULF: c. 1000BEOWULF: c. 1000 Written in alliterative verse and uses kennings, as doesWritten in alliterative verse and uses kennings, as doesCaedmon’s Hymn. An epic poem in the elegiac mode. Caedmon’s Hymn. An epic poem in the elegiac mode. Deals with the Danish King, Hrothgar, whose court is attackedDeals with the Danish King, Hrothgar, whose court is attackedby the monster Grendel and his mother, who kill Many of theby the monster Grendel and his mother, who kill Many of thekings men. kings men. Beowulf , a young Great, comes boasting to Hrothgar’s court,Beowulf , a young Great, comes boasting to Hrothgar’s court,and avenges these deaths by fighting Grendel and his mother,and avenges these deaths by fighting Grendel and his mother,receiving rich rewards from Hrothgar—his ring-bearer—forreceiving rich rewards from Hrothgar—his ring-bearer—forthese deeds. these deeds. He then fights a dragon to save his own people, but dies inHe then fights a dragon to save his own people, but dies inslaying it. The poem ends in a lament for Beowulf.slaying it. The poem ends in a lament for Beowulf.Contributions to Literature1. Epic and War poetry
Norman conquest led by William of Normandy “The Conqueror”Norman conquest led by William of Normandy “The Conqueror”EFFECTS/INFLUENCESEFFECTS/INFLUENCES Love of law and orderLove of law and order William drew up the code of laws and prepared theWilliam drew up the code of laws and prepared the Domesday BookDomesday Bookw/c includes a gigantic survey of all the real estate & other taxablew/c includes a gigantic survey of all the real estate & other taxableproperty of Englandproperty of England great increase in the growth and importance of towns in Englandgreat increase in the growth and importance of towns in England French or Anglo- Norman which is based on Latin.French or Anglo- Norman which is based on Latin. Many words were introduced.Many words were introduced. English grammar was simplified.English grammar was simplified. Standard English languageStandard English language
The Canterbury TalesThe Canterbury Talesnextnext ChaucerChaucer’’s masterpiece and one of thes masterpiece and one of themonumental works in English literaturemonumental works in English literature Outline of the storyOutline of the story The tales: The Wife of BathThe tales: The Wife of Bath
GEOFFREY CHAUCER (1343 – 1400)GEOFFREY CHAUCER (1343 – 1400)The Canterbury TalesThe Canterbury Tales (1380s) (1380s) 24 tales and a framing prologue that sets up the fiction of pilgrims24 tales and a framing prologue that sets up the fiction of pilgrimsmeeting at a tavern as they begin their pilgrimage to the shrine ofmeeting at a tavern as they begin their pilgrimage to the shrine ofSt. Thomas a Becket in Canterbury. St. Thomas a Becket in Canterbury. Each agrees to tell a tale. The tales are inked by prologues. TheEach agrees to tell a tale. The tales are inked by prologues. Thenarrator begins the prologue by describing the fine April day andnarrator begins the prologue by describing the fine April day andeach of the pilgrims in his entourage. each of the pilgrims in his entourage. Some characters: Knight, Miller, Wife of Bath, Prioress, Nun’s Priest,Some characters: Knight, Miller, Wife of Bath, Prioress, Nun’s Priest,Squire, Reeve, Pardoner, Summoner, Cook, Man of Law, OxfordSquire, Reeve, Pardoner, Summoner, Cook, Man of Law, OxfordScholar, etc. Scholar, etc.
RENAISSANCE LITERATURE (1485 – 1660)RENAISSANCE LITERATURE (1485 – 1660) ““Renaissance” means “Rebirth”--Rebirth of interest in theRenaissance” means “Rebirth”--Rebirth of interest in theGreek and Latin classics.Greek and Latin classics. Emphasis on humanistic education for statesmanship Emphasis on humanistic education for statesmanship Focus on the individual and a concern with the fullestFocus on the individual and a concern with the fullestpossible cultivation of human potential through properpossible cultivation of human potential through propereducationeducation Focus on individual consciousness and the interior mind Focus on individual consciousness and the interior mind concern with the refinement of the language and theconcern with the refinement of the language and thedevelopment of a national, vernacular literature development of a national, vernacular literature Reformation- movement that aimed for reformation in theRoman Catholic church which gave rise to the Protestantdomination empowered by Martin Luther.
Christopher MarloweChristopher Marlowe Christopher Marlowe (1564Christopher Marlowe (1564––1593) was an1593) was anEnglish dramatist, poet and translator of theEnglish dramatist, poet and translator of theElizabethan era. He is known for hisElizabethan era. He is known for hismagnificentmagnificent blank verseblank verse, his overreaching, his overreachingprotagonists, and his own mysterious andprotagonists, and his own mysterious anduntimely death.untimely death.
Christopher MarloweChristopher Marlowe ““University WitsUniversity Wits”” The Tragical History of Doctor FaustusThe Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
The Tragical History of Doctor FaustusThe Tragical History of Doctor Faustus nextnext 1. It is based on a German legend.1. It is based on a German legend. The hero of the play is Doctor Faustus, a young andThe hero of the play is Doctor Faustus, a young andbrilliant scholar. The chief feature of his character is abrilliant scholar. The chief feature of his character is athirst for knowledge.thirst for knowledge. Faustus takes one by one the chief subjects ofFaustus takes one by one the chief subjects ofacademic curriculum, philosophy, medicine and law.academic curriculum, philosophy, medicine and law.He is bored with the orthodox curriculum, and turns toHe is bored with the orthodox curriculum, and turns tothe study of magic in order to understand andthe study of magic in order to understand andpossess the kingdoms of the earth.possess the kingdoms of the earth. Then he meet the Devil and the doctor must sell hisThen he meet the Devil and the doctor must sell hissoul to the Devil so he may live 24 years, with thesoul to the Devil so he may live 24 years, with theDevil at his command. Then Faustus signs the bondDevil at his command. Then Faustus signs the bondwith his own blood.with his own blood.
The Tragical History of Doctor FaustusThe Tragical History of Doctor Faustusbackback After the contract with the Devil, Faustus makes aAfter the contract with the Devil, Faustus makes atour in the universe on a dragontour in the universe on a dragon’’s back. Then hes back. Then hegives a display of his magic art and plays tricks upongives a display of his magic art and plays tricks uponthe Pope at a banquet.the Pope at a banquet. Meanwhile Faustus is drawing near his doom. It isMeanwhile Faustus is drawing near his doom. It isthe scholars who are his companions on his last nightthe scholars who are his companions on his last nighton earth. Even in his painful expectation of theon earth. Even in his painful expectation of thecoming of the devils, he thinks of his friends safety:coming of the devils, he thinks of his friends safety: ““Gentlemen, away, lest you perish with me.Gentlemen, away, lest you perish with me.”” So oneSo onehour before midnight, Faustus is left to face his awfulhour before midnight, Faustus is left to face his awfuldestiny alone until he is carried away by the Devil.destiny alone until he is carried away by the Devil.
William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare William Shakespeare (1564William Shakespeare (1564––1616) was1616) wasanan EnglishEnglish poetpoet andand playwrightplaywright, widely, widelyregarded as the greatest writer in theregarded as the greatest writer in theEnglish languageEnglish language and the worldsand the worldspreeminent dramatist. He is often calledpreeminent dramatist. He is often calledEnglandsEnglands national poetnational poet and the "and the "BardBardof Avonof Avon" (or simply "The Bard")." (or simply "The Bard").
Shakespeare in LoveShakespeare in Love
William ShakespeareWilliam ShakespeareShakespeare’s BirthplaceShakespeare’s Birthplace
William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare His surviving works consist of 38 plays,His surviving works consist of 38 plays,154 sonnets, two long narrative poems,154 sonnets, two long narrative poems,and several other poems. His plays haveand several other poems. His plays havebeen translated into every major livingbeen translated into every major livinglanguage, and are performed more oftenlanguage, and are performed more oftenthan those of any other playwright.than those of any other playwright. Historical playsHistorical plays Great comediesGreat comedies Great tragediesGreat tragedies
William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare backbackHistorical plays:Historical plays: Henry ⅣHenry Ⅳ Richard IIIRichard III Henry ⅤHenry Ⅴ Henry VIIIHenry VIII
William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare backbackGreat comedies:Great comedies: The Merchant of VeniceThe Merchant of Venice As You Like ItAs You Like It Twelfth NightTwelfth Night A Midsummer NightA Midsummer Night’’s Dreams Dream
William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare backbackGreat tragedies:Great tragedies: HamletHamlet OthelloOthello King LearKing Lear MacbethMacbeth
Francis BaconFrancis Bacon He is the founder of English materialistHe is the founder of English materialistphilosophy, founder of modern science inphilosophy, founder of modern science inEngland and the first English essayist.England and the first English essayist.His works:His works: Essays (Essays (Of StudyOf Study, Of Truth), Of Truth) New InstrumentNew Instrument Advancement of LearningAdvancement of Learning
Of StudyOf Study Studies serve for delight, for ornament, andStudies serve for delight, for ornament, andfor ability.for ability. Reading makes a full man; conference aReading makes a full man; conference aready man; and writing an exact man.ready man; and writing an exact man. Histories make men wise; poets witty; theHistories make men wise; poets witty; themathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep;mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep;moral grave; logic and rhetoric able tomoral grave; logic and rhetoric able tocontend.contend.
John MiltonJohn Milton About the authorAbout the author AboutAbout Paradise LostParadise Lost Major worksMajor works
John MiltonJohn Milton With the Restoration of Charles II, Milton wasWith the Restoration of Charles II, Milton wasarrested and imprisoned. His book werearrested and imprisoned. His book wereburnt. But he was saved, he probably owedburnt. But he was saved, he probably owedhis escape from death to his blindness. A firehis escape from death to his blindness. A firein London destroyed his house. He movedin London destroyed his house. He movedfrom place to place until he settled down onfrom place to place until he settled down onthe outskirts of London.the outskirts of London. His blindness forced him to depend on hisHis blindness forced him to depend on hisdaughters for an assistance with his readingdaughters for an assistance with his readingand writing. Everyday he dictated his epicand writing. Everyday he dictated his epicParadise LostParadise Lost 10 or 20 lines at a time.10 or 20 lines at a time.
Paradise LostParadise Lost It is a long epic of 12 books. The story was takenIt is a long epic of 12 books. The story was takenfrom the Bible.from the Bible. The Old TestamentThe Old Testament The New TestamentThe New Testament The story was taken from the Old Testament, theThe story was taken from the Old Testament, theCreation.Creation.
Paradise LostParadise Lost Content:Content: 1. the rebellion of Satan and his fellow-angles in1. the rebellion of Satan and his fellow-angles inHeaven.Heaven. 2. the Creation of the earth and of Adam and Eve2. the Creation of the earth and of Adam and Eveby God.by God. 3. Satan3. Satan’’s temptation of Eve and the departure ofs temptation of Eve and the departure ofAdam and Eve from the Garden of Eden.Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden.
Paradise LostParadise Lost Satan and his followers are banished fromSatan and his followers are banished fromHeaven and driven into the hell.Heaven and driven into the hell. Satan fearlessly withstands all pains andSatan fearlessly withstands all pains andpassionately strives for victory. He choose forpassionately strives for victory. He choose forhis battlefield the most perfect spot everhis battlefield the most perfect spot evercreated by God--the Garden of Eden, wherecreated by God--the Garden of Eden, wherelive the first man and woman--Adam and Eve.live the first man and woman--Adam and Eve.They were not permit to eat the fruit thatThey were not permit to eat the fruit thatgrows on the Tree of Knowledge.grows on the Tree of Knowledge.
Paradise LostParadise Lost Satan persuade her to break GodSatan persuade her to break God’’s command,s command,Eve eats an apple from the forbidden tree and pickEve eats an apple from the forbidden tree and pickfor Adam. Adam and Eve were expelled from thefor Adam. Adam and Eve were expelled from theGarden of Eden and doomed to an earthly life fullGarden of Eden and doomed to an earthly life fullof hardships and sufferings.of hardships and sufferings.
William WordsworthWilliam WordsworthHis works:His works: Lyrical BalladsLyrical Ballads To the CuckooTo the Cuckoo Lines Written in Early SpringLines Written in Early Spring I Wandered Lonely as a CloudI Wandered Lonely as a Cloud Lucy PoemsLucy Poems
Samuel Taylor ColeridgeSamuel Taylor Coleridge Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772––1834) was an1834) was anEnglish poet, critic and philosopher who was,English poet, critic and philosopher who was,along with his friend William Wordsworth, onealong with his friend William Wordsworth, oneof the founders of theof the founders of the Romantic MovementRomantic Movement ininEngland and one of theEngland and one of the Lake PoetsLake Poets.. He is probably best known for his poemsHe is probably best known for his poemsThe Rime of the Ancient MarinerThe Rime of the Ancient Mariner, as well as, as well ashis major prose workhis major prose work Biographia LiterariaBiographia Literaria..
Samuel Taylor ColeridgeSamuel Taylor Coleridge
George Gordon ByronGeorge Gordon Byron George Gordon Byron (1788George Gordon Byron (1788––1824) was a British1824) was a Britishpoet and a leading figure inpoet and a leading figure in RomanticismRomanticism.. He is regarded as one of the greatest EuropeanHe is regarded as one of the greatest Europeanpoets and remains widely read and influential,poets and remains widely read and influential,both in the English-speaking world and beyond.both in the English-speaking world and beyond. Byrons fame rests not only on his writings butByrons fame rests not only on his writings butalso on his life, which featured extravagant living,also on his life, which featured extravagant living,numerous love affairs, debts, separation, andnumerous love affairs, debts, separation, andmarital exploits. He was famously described bymarital exploits. He was famously described byLady Caroline LambLady Caroline Lamb as "mad, bad, andas "mad, bad, anddangerous to know."dangerous to know."
George Gordon ByronGeorge Gordon ByronHis major works:His major works: Child HaroldChild Harold’’s Pilgrimages Pilgrimage Don JuanDon Juan
Percy Bysshe ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelley Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792––1822) was1822) wasone of the majorone of the major EnglishEnglishRomantic poetsRomantic poets and is widelyand is widelyconsidered to be among the finestconsidered to be among the finestlyric poetslyric poets in the English language.in the English language. He was famous for his association withHe was famous for his association withJohn KeatsJohn Keats and Lord Byron. Theand Lord Byron. Thenovelist Mary Shelley was his secondnovelist Mary Shelley was his secondwife.wife.
Percy Bysshe ShelleyPercy Bysshe ShelleyHis major works:His major works: Prometheus UnboundPrometheus Unbound A Defence of PoetryA Defence of Poetry Ode to the West WindOde to the West Wind The Revolt of IslamThe Revolt of Islam
Percy Bysshe ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelley The trumpet of a prophecy ! O, Wind,The trumpet of a prophecy ! O, Wind,If winter comes, can Spring be far behind?If winter comes, can Spring be far behind?
John KeatsJohn Keats John Keats (1795John Keats (1795––1821) was one of the1821) was one of theprincipal poets of the English Romanticprincipal poets of the English Romanticmovement. During his short life, hismovement. During his short life, hiswork received constant critical attackswork received constant critical attacksfrom periodicals of the day, but hisfrom periodicals of the day, but hisposthumous influence on poets hasposthumous influence on poets hasbeen immense.been immense. Elaborate word choice and sensualElaborate word choice and sensualimagery characterize Keatss poetry.imagery characterize Keatss poetry.
John KeatsJohn KeatsMajor works:Major works: IsabellaIsabella The Eve of St. AgnesThe Eve of St. Agnes,, LamiaLamia Ode to a NightingaleOde to a Nightingale
19th Century Novels19th Century Novels Mary ShelleyMary Shelley Walter ScottWalter Scott Jane AustenJane Austen Bronte SistersBronte Sisters Charles DickensCharles Dickens William Makepeace ThackerayWilliam Makepeace Thackeray Thomas HardyThomas Hardy
Jane AustenJane AustenHer major works:Her major works: Pride and PrejudicePride and Prejudice Sense and SensibilitySense and Sensibility EmmaEmma Northanger AbbeyNorthanger Abbey Mansfield ParkMansfield Park PersuasionPersuasion
Jane AustenJane Austen Jane Austen(1775-1817), is a famous EnglishJane Austen(1775-1817), is a famous Englishnovelist. With detail, Austen portrayed thenovelist. With detail, Austen portrayed thequiet, day-to-day life of members of the upperquiet, day-to-day life of members of the uppermiddle class.middle class. Her works combine romantic comedy withHer works combine romantic comedy withsocial satire and psychological insight.social satire and psychological insight.
Charles DickensCharles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens(1812Charles John Huffam Dickens(1812––1870),1870),pen-name "Boz", was one of the most popularpen-name "Boz", was one of the most popularEnglish novelists of the Victorian era.English novelists of the Victorian era. Many of Dickenss novels first appeared inMany of Dickenss novels first appeared inperiodicals and magazines in serialized form.periodicals and magazines in serialized form. Unlike many other authors who completedUnlike many other authors who completedentire novels before serial productionentire novels before serial productioncommenced, Dickens often composed hiscommenced, Dickens often composed hisworks in parts, in the order in which they wereworks in parts, in the order in which they weremeant to appear. Such a practice lent hismeant to appear. Such a practice lent hisstories a particular rhythm.stories a particular rhythm.
Charles DickensCharles DickensHis Major works:His Major works: Oliver TwistOliver Twist A Tale of Two CitiesA Tale of Two Cities Great ExpectationsGreat Expectations David CopperfieldDavid CopperfieldCharles DickensCharles Dickens
Thomas HardyThomas Hardy Thomas Hardy(1840Thomas Hardy(1840––1928) was an English1928) was an Englishnovelist, short storynovelist, short storywriter, and poet of thewriter, and poet of thenaturalist movement,naturalist movement,though he saw himselfthough he saw himselfas a poet and wroteas a poet and wrotenovels mainly fornovels mainly forfinancial gain only.financial gain only.
Thomas HardyThomas HardyHis Major works:His Major works: Tess of the DTess of the D’’urbervillesurbervilles Under the Greenwood TreeUnder the Greenwood Tree Far from the Madding CrowdFar from the Madding Crowd Major of CasterbridgeMajor of Casterbridge Jude the ObscureJude the Obscure
The 20The 20ththCentury LiteratureCentury Literature ModernismModernism Joseph ConradJoseph Conrad Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf D. H. LawrenceD. H. Lawrence E. M. ForsterE. M. Forster T. S. EliotT. S. Eliot William Butler YeatsWilliam Butler Yeats Oscar WildeOscar Wilde
Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf Virginia Woolf (1882Virginia Woolf (1882––1941) was an English1941) was an Englishnovelist and essayist, regarded as one ofnovelist and essayist, regarded as one ofthe foremost modernist literary figures of thethe foremost modernist literary figures of thetwentieth century.twentieth century. During the interwar period, Woolf was aDuring the interwar period, Woolf was asignificant figure in London literary societysignificant figure in London literary societyand a member of the Bloomsbury Group.and a member of the Bloomsbury Group.
Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf The Bloomsbury GroupThe Bloomsbury Group was an Englishwas an Englishcollectivity of friends and relatives who livedcollectivity of friends and relatives who livedin or near London during the first half of thein or near London during the first half of thetwentieth century.twentieth century. Their work deeply influenced literature,Their work deeply influenced literature,aesthetics, criticism, and economics as wellaesthetics, criticism, and economics as wellas modern attitudes towards feminism,as modern attitudes towards feminism,pacifism, and sexuality. Its best knownpacifism, and sexuality. Its best knownmembers were Virginia Woolf, John Maynardmembers were Virginia Woolf, John MaynardKeynes, E. M. Forster, and Lytton Strachey.Keynes, E. M. Forster, and Lytton Strachey.
Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf She sometimes used theShe sometimes used the ““stream ofstream ofconsciousnessconsciousness”” technique.technique.▶▶Stream of Consciousness isStream of Consciousness is a psychologicala psychologicaltermterm indicating the flux of conscious andindicating the flux of conscious andsubconscious thoughts and impressionssubconscious thoughts and impressionsmoving in the mind at any given timemoving in the mind at any given timeindependently of the personindependently of the person’’s will.s will.▶▶In the 20th century, under the influence ofIn the 20th century, under the influence ofFleudFleud’’s theory of psychological analysis , as theory of psychological analysis , anumber of writers adopted the Stream ofnumber of writers adopted the Stream ofConsciousness as a method of novel writing.Consciousness as a method of novel writing.
Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf
Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf Her most famous works include theHer most famous works include thenovelsnovels Mrs DallowayMrs Dalloway (1925),(1925), To theTo theLighthouseLighthouse (1927) and(1927) and OrlandoOrlando (1928),(1928),and the book-length essayand the book-length essay A Room ofA Room ofOnes OwnOnes Own (1929), with its famous(1929), with its famousdictum, "a woman must have moneydictum, "a woman must have moneyand a room of her own if she is to writeand a room of her own if she is to writefiction."fiction."
OthersOthers T. S. EliotT. S. Eliot William Butler YeatsWilliam Butler Yeats Oscar WildeOscar Wilde
Another view ofAnother view ofThe 20The 20ththCentury LiteratureCentury Literature PostmodernismPostmodernism George OrwellGeorge Orwell John FowlesJohn Fowles Graham GreeneGraham Greene
Let us RecapLet us Recap
Anglo-Saxon LiteratureAnglo-Saxon LiteratureGermanic ethos that celebrated the warrior and his exploits.Germanic ethos that celebrated the warrior and his exploits.Most storytelling was oral.Most storytelling was oral.Old English PoetryOld English Poetry became distinctive...became distinctive...1.1. AlliterationAlliteration- repetition of consonant sounds- repetition of consonant sounds2.2. KenningKenning- a metaphor expressed as a compound noun -- a metaphor expressed as a compound noun -“whale-path” for the seaCaesura- a break or pause in poetry“whale-path” for the seaCaesura- a break or pause in poetry3.3. CaesuraCaesura- a break or pause in poetry- a break or pause in poetryRUNES: Anglo-Saxon alphabet/OLD ENGLISH. Runes were probablyRUNES: Anglo-Saxon alphabet/OLD ENGLISH. Runes were probablybrought to Britain in the 5brought to Britain in the 5ththcentury by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes andcentury by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes andFrisians, and were used until about the 11Frisians, and were used until about the 11ththcentury. Runiccentury. Runicinscription are mostly found on jewelry, weapons, stones and otherinscription are mostly found on jewelry, weapons, stones and otherobjects. Very few examples of Runic writing on manuscripts haveobjects. Very few examples of Runic writing on manuscripts havesurvived.survived.
Anglo-Saxon Poetry and RiddlesAnglo-Saxon Poetry and RiddlesThe Book of ExeterThe Book of ExeterContains more than 30 poems and 90Contains more than 30 poems and 90riddles.riddles.Written down by monks in about 975, ourWritten down by monks in about 975, ourprimary source of Anglo-Saxon poetryprimary source of Anglo-Saxon poetryDominant mood in poetry is elegiac, orDominant mood in poetry is elegiac, ormournfulmournfulDominant tone of riddles is light andDominant tone of riddles is light andsomewhat bawdy (for entertainmentsomewhat bawdy (for entertainmentpurposes- think SNL).purposes- think SNL).
BeowulfBeowulf......The major text we will read from this period is the EPICThe major text we will read from this period is the EPIC BeowulfBeowulf. It. Itis the story of a Scandinavian (GEAT) warrior or knight probably inis the story of a Scandinavian (GEAT) warrior or knight probably inthe sixth century, who comes to help a neighboring tribe, the Danes,the sixth century, who comes to help a neighboring tribe, the Danes,who are being attacked by a monster.who are being attacked by a monster.We study English history to understand the CONTEXT ofWe study English history to understand the CONTEXT of BeowulfBeowulf,,and we studyand we study BeowulfBeowulf to understand the world which was OLDto understand the world which was OLDENGLISH.ENGLISH.Consider the fighting, hunting, farming and loving Anglo-SaxonConsider the fighting, hunting, farming and loving Anglo-Saxonheritage. The Non-Christians only hope was for fame andheritage. The Non-Christians only hope was for fame andcommemoration in poetry.commemoration in poetry.BeowulfBeowulf is considered the shining star of Old English literature.is considered the shining star of Old English literature.The Book of ExeterThe Book of Exeter is the largest surviving collection of poetry.is the largest surviving collection of poetry.
A Brief Glimpse of the History ofA Brief Glimpse of the History ofEnglish from “Our Father”English from “Our Father”OLDENGLISH400-1066BeowulfFæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum si þin nama gehalgod tobecume þin rice gewurþe þin willa oneorðan swa swa on heofonum urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us to dæg and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum and ne gelæd þu us on costnunge ac alys us of yfele soþlice.MiddleEnglish1066-1485ChaucerOure fadir þat art in heuenes halwid be þi name;þi reume or kyngdom come to be. Be þi wille don in herþe as itis doun in heuene.yeue to us today oure eche dayes bred.And foryeue to us oure dettis þat is oure synnys as we foryeuento oure dettouris þat is to men þat han synned in us.And lede us not into temptacion but delyuere us from euyl.Early ModernEnglish1485-1800Shakes-peareOur father which art in heauen, hallowed be thy name.Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth as it is inheauen.Giue us this day our daily bread.And forgiue us our debts as we forgiue our debters.And lead us not into temptation, but deliuer us from euill.Amen.ModernEnglish1800-presentAusten Extra Credit! Write “The Our Father” in Modern English.
So, what do I need to know about theSo, what do I need to know about theHistory of the Englsih Language?History of the Englsih Language?Major datesMajor dates55 B.C.55 B.C.43 A.D.43 A.D.410 A.D.410 A.D.597 A.D.597 A.D.1066 A.D.1066 A.D.
Major people…Major people…Julius CaesarJulius CaesarSt. AugustineSt. AugustineKing Ethelbert of KentKing Ethelbert of KentKing Alfred “the great”King Alfred “the great”William the ConquerorWilliam the ConquerorWilliam, Duke of NormandyWilliam, Duke of Normandy
3. Old English Period3. Old English Period469 AD - 1066 AD469 AD - 1066 AD Three conquests.Three conquests. The Song of Beowulf:The Song of Beowulf:
Middle English LiteratureMiddle English Literature Bible translations,Bible translations, Geoffrey Chaucer:Geoffrey Chaucer: The Canterbury TalesThe Canterbury TalesQuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.
Renaissance LiteratureRenaissance Literature Vernacular Literature.Vernacular Literature. William Caxton.William Caxton. Book of Common Prayer.Book of Common Prayer.
Early Modern PeriodEarly Modern Period Elizabethan EraElizabethan Era Jacobean LiteratureJacobean Literature Caroline and Cromwellian LiteratureCaroline and Cromwellian Literature Restoration LiteratureRestoration Literature Augustan Literature.Augustan Literature.
Elizabethan EraElizabethan Era William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare Hamlet,Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet,Romeo and Juliet, The Merchant of VeniceThe Merchant of Venice MacbethMacbethQuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.
Jacobean LiteratureJacobean Literature Post-Shakespeare.Post-Shakespeare. Dramatist Ben Jonson:Dramatist Ben Jonson:TTheory of Humorsheory of HumorsBeaumont and FletcherBeaumont and FletcherThe Knight of the Burning PestleThe Knight of the Burning Pestle
Caroline and CromwellianCaroline and CromwellianLiteratureLiterature Commonwealth.Commonwealth. Samuel Pepys.Samuel Pepys. Great Plague.Great Plague. Great Fire of London.Great Fire of London.QuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.
Restoration LiteratureRestoration Literature John Milton:John Milton: Paradise LostParadise Lost The Country WifeThe Country Wife Pilgrim’s ProgressPilgrim’s ProgressQuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.
Augustan LiteratureAugustan Literature Jonathan Swift:Jonathan Swift: A Tale of a TubA Tale of a Tub Gulliver’s TravelsGulliver’s TravelsQuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.
18th Century18th Century Age of Enlightment.Age of Enlightment. Age of Sensibility.Age of Sensibility. Horace Walpole:Horace Walpole: The Castle of OtrantoThe Castle of Otranto
RomanticismRomanticism Industrialism.Industrialism. William Blake: Romantic AgeWilliam Blake: Romantic Age Oscar WildeOscar Wilde Mary Shelley:Mary Shelley:QuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.
Victorian LiteratureVictorian Literature Charles Dickens.Charles Dickens. Arthur Conan Doyle:Arthur Conan Doyle: Sherlok HolmesSherlok HolmesQuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.
English Literature since 1900English Literature since 1900 Modernism: Rudyard Kipling, James Joyce,Modernism: Rudyard Kipling, James Joyce,Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf Post-Modern Literature: Truman CapotePost-Modern Literature: Truman Capote Post World War II: J.R.R. TolkienPost World War II: J.R.R. TolkienQuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.