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  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH Assignment On “Conjunctions” Presented to: Muhammad Irfan Lodhi (Visiting Faculty) Submitted by: Riaz Ahmad Class: M. Phil. (Linguistics) Roll No. 15 Session: 2008-10.
  2. 2. Department of English The Islamia University of Bahawalpur
  3. 3. CONJUNCTIONS DEFINITION:- A conjunction is a word which joins together sentences, clauses and words. e.g. and , But after as long as before since till whenever although as soon as even though so that unless where as as though if than until wherever as if because in order that though when e.t.c. 1. “God made the country and man made the town.” (Join Two Sentence Conjunction) 2. “Two and two make four.” ( Join Two Words Conjunction) There are three chief kinds of conjunctions. 1. Coordinating Conjunctions 2. Subordinating Conjunctions 3. Correlative Conjunctions. 1. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS The conjunctions which join together clauses of equal rank. The chief conjunctions of this class are: and, but, for, or, nor, also, etc. 2. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Which join together a principal clause with its dependent or subordinate clause or clauses? The chief conjunctions of this group are after, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, unless, as, where, when, while, since, except, than, until etc. 3. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
  4. 4. Which are used in pairs, as either --------- or, neither---------nor, both --------- and, whether---------- or, not only----------- but also, sacredly---------- when or before, hardly ---------- when or before, no sooner ---------- than, as soon ------------- as, etc. RULES 1. The proper correlative of ‘both’ is ‘and’ therefore, if both is used in the beginning of a sentence, it must be followed by ‘and’ not by any other conjunction. E.g he is both a fool and a rogue. 2. When a sentence begins with a correlative negative in meaning, some helping verb must be used before the subject. E.g. not only was the man accused of theft, but of murder also. No sooner had he heard the news then he wept. 3. ‘Neither’ must be used with ‘nor’ and ‘either’ with ‘or’. E.g. the boy is neither a fool nor a knave. The boy is either a fool or a knave. 4. Both is positive in meaning and as such it must not be used in a negative sentence, we should use neither ------ nor, in place of both in negative sentences. E.g. neither of them went. Neither Aslam nor his sister passed the examination. 5. ‘Lest’ must be followed by ‘should’ and not by may not e.t.c. e.g. you must work hard lest you should fail. 6. As a conjunction ‘that’ should never be used before a sentence in the direct narration, before world of interrogation, before ‘if’ and ‘whether’. E.g. he said, I shall soon meet you again. I asked that if he would help me. 7. ‘That’ is used after ‘hope’ and ‘fear’ but not after ‘doubt’ if should be used after doubt. E.g. i hope that he will pass the examination. I doubt if he will pass the examination. 8. ‘Such’ is followed by the conjunctions ‘as’ ‘same’ is followed by ‘that’ if there is a verb after ‘that’. If there is no verb then the ‘same’ must be followed by
  5. 5. ‘as’. E.g. he is not such a man as I admire. This is the same man that came here yesterday. 9. The correlative ‘so--------as’ are used in negative sentences and ‘as ----- as’ in the affirmative. E.g. I am not so strong as I once was. 10. When the conjunction ‘when’, ‘while’, ‘before’, ‘till’, ‘after’ are used with a subordinate clause with future event. Or in reference to some future event they are never followed by a verb in the future tense. E.g. when you come to me, we will go to bazaar. Before the rain stops, the train would have left the station. 11. ‘Since’, when used as a conjunction to express time extending back from the present into the past, takes Present Perfect before it, and is followed by Past Indefinite Tense. E.g. two years have passed since my father died. (Present Perfect), a month has passed since I came here. (past indefinite) 12. ‘Until’ is used to express the time before an action takes place, ‘as long’ and ‘while’ are used to express the duration (the period during which) of an action. E.g. wait until I come, I will come soon. As long as you work hard, you will improve. 13. Certain verbs must be followed by their correlative ‘ as’ they are regard, describe, represent, portray, depict, define, treat, e.t.c. e.g. I regard you as an honest man. He is described as a strange fellow. He is mentioned as an artist of great talent. 14. ‘Because’ should not be followed by ‘therefore’ and ‘until’ by ‘not’. Because shows ‘cause’ or reason, ‘so that’ purpose. Still the two are often confused. E.g. she must not be allowed to attend class, until she does not pay the fine. She came here, because she may study at the college.
  6. 6. Activity # 01. Fill in the blanks with suitable conjunctions. 1. They were defeated indeed------------- not disgraced. 2. In the discharge of his duty, he was sincere--------------- honest. 3. Stone walls don’t make a prison---------------iron bars a cage. 4. Heaven and earth may pass away ---------------- my words shall never pass away. 5. He declared, he would never leave his post --------------- he fled away at the first sight of danger. 6. No sooner had he gone to bed -------------- a telegram was brought in. 7. What can be gained in a place --------------- every one is poor. 8. Remain ------------- you are -------------- I return. 9. I am quiet as much ashamed --------------- you are. 10. I can not fear any evil -------------- you are near.
  7. 7. Activity # 2 Correct the following Sentences. 1. He is regarded the best teacher in the class. 2. He was appointed as an honorary magistrate. 3. When you shall meet me, I shall tell you the truth. 4. After you will return from Lahore, I will visit you. 5. Neither he or his brother is present. 6. I shall go, when I am invited. 7. Both the brothers did not pass. 8. I doubt that he will pass. 9. Wait here until I don’t return. 10. There is no such place which you mention.
  8. 8. Activity # 3 Fill in the blanks with appropriate conjunction. 1. Be just ----------- fear not. 2. I am sure -------------- he said so. 3. Ali is slow------------- sure. 4. Three ----------- three makes six. 5. Water ------------------ oil will not mix. 6. They left -------------- we returned. 7. This --------------- that must suffice. 8. She writes slowly -------------- neatly. 9. Catch me ------------- you can. 10. Please write --------------- I dictate.