Clause As Representation In Functional Grammar


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Clause As Representation In Functional Grammar

  1. 1. <ul><li>CClause </li></ul>
  2. 2. Clause as Representation in Hallidayan Functional English By Muhammad Sajid us Salam Mphil Linguistics Islamia University Bahawalpur [email_address]
  3. 3. Halliday’s concept of language <ul><li>According to Halliday A language evolves in response to the specific demands of the society in which it is used </li></ul><ul><li>“ the nature of language is closely related to the functions it has to serve” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It reflects aspects of the situation in which it occurs” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Representation of human experience <ul><li>we use language as an instrument of thought or to conceptualize or represent the experiential or real world to ourselves, including the inner world of our own consciousness. Therefore, another name for clause as representation is clause as experiential construct </li></ul><ul><li>Halliday terms this aspect as the ideational function of language. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Halliday’s Functional Grammar
  6. 6. Components of Clause as representation
  7. 7. Ali gave me a book yesterday with a smile in the garden . <ul><li>Process: gave </li></ul><ul><li>Participants: Ali ,me, a book </li></ul><ul><li>Circumstances: yesterday,with a smile,in the garden </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is centrally important in clause as representation? Process . It is so because it is process that largely determines the types of participants that are possible.Halliday refers to it as the system of transitivity.Transitivity is the overall resource for constructing goings on(experience). It means the kind of activity expressed by a sentence,participants and the manner of participants.The following figure shows the importance of process in transitivity .
  9. 9. Transitivity structure Process participants circumstances
  10. 10. Types of processes
  11. 11. 1.Material process 2.Mental Process 3.Relational process Behavioral process Verbal process Existential process
  12. 12. Material Processes (processes of doing) <ul><li>They express the notion that some participant(called actor)does something(may be to some other entity,called goal). </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs of action like run,kick,climb,spring ,etc are used. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Material process Participant Process Participant The post kicked The boy Example (no goal) resigned The mayor Example Goal (optional) Material process Actor
  14. 14. Mental processes processes of perception,affection,cognition (thinking,knowing) <ul><li>These are expressed by verbs of feeling,perceiving and thinking such as like,hate,love,know,think and understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Here, participants have different names of Senser(the conscious being animate or inanimate that is feeling,thinking or seeing) and Phenomenon(that which is sensed or felt) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Mental process The king Can recognize I Example Participant Process Participant The gift liked Mary Example (Implied phenomenon) knows Jim Example Phenomenon Mental process Senser
  16. 16. Relational processes (being and having) <ul><li>In these clauses a relation is being set up between two separate entities. </li></ul><ul><li>Relational clauses construe being and do this in two different modes – attribution and identification.These two types of this process have different sets of participants roles:(1)attributive clauses with Carrier+attribute, and (2)identifying clauses </li></ul>
  17. 17. Attributive clauses complete nonsense. timid creatures wise tall a poet sounds are is is is Your story Mice Sarah My brother Ali Attribute Process Carrier
  18. 18. Attributive and Identifying modes <ul><li>In attributive mode we ascribe some quality to some entity and it means that entity is a member of the class having that quality. Ali is a poet. Poet is the name of a class.So Ali is a member of the class of poets. </li></ul><ul><li>1.My brother is tall . </li></ul><ul><li>My brother (carrier=member) is tall (attribute=class) </li></ul><ul><li>My brother belongs to the class of people who are tall.It implies that there are other tall people besides. </li></ul><ul><li>My brother is the tallest one in the family. </li></ul><ul><li>My brother(identified)is the tallest one in the picture(identifier) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Identifying mode Hamlet The clever one Played Is Mr. Garrick Alice Identifier Process Identified
  20. 20. The difference of reversibility <ul><li>The identifying clauses are reversible.It can be said The tallest one in the picture is my brother. But we can not say Tall is my brother. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Behavioral processes physiological and psychological,verbal and mental behavior <ul><li>They are expressed by verbs such as cough,yawn smile,breathe,faint,sleep, , look,watch,stare,listen,think,worry,dream,sing ,dance,lie(down).sit up/down. chatter,grumble,talk,cry ,laugh, smile,frown,sing ,snarl,whine. </li></ul><ul><li>As distinct from other groups, only one participant is required ,the person doing the laughing,smiling and coughing or yawning.This participant is termed the BEHAVOR,a conscious being like the SENSOR but the process is more like one of “doing” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Participant Process participant laughed They Example frowned He Example Behavioral process Behavior
  23. 23. Verbal processes (processes of saying) <ul><li>This is a large category that not only includes not only the different modes of saying(asking,commanding,offering ,stating) but also semiotic processes that are not necessarily verbal(showing,indicating),as in His face tells stories untold. </li></ul><ul><li>The central participant is the SAYER. The VERBIAGE is what is said and TARGET or RECEIVER is the person it is said to </li></ul>
  24. 24. Verbal process Willie He Sayer it said Example a story me told Example verbiage Receiver Verbal process
  25. 25. Existential processes <ul><li>These represent that something exists or happens, as in There was a cat .or There was a solitary girl.. In these cases what we are doing is affirming the existence of something,or someone. </li></ul><ul><li>As with behavioral verbs there is only one participant here. </li></ul><ul><li>In these clauses there acts as a grammatical subject but it doesn’t fulfill any function outside of its grammatical role.The only significant element is the thing ,or person,being affirmed as existing.This is termed the existent. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Existential verbs Example Example Example A problem Seems to be There An old woman Was There A picture hangs there On the wall Existent entity Existential process Grammatical subject Circumstance
  27. 27. Processes and their components existent Existential Receiver/target Sayer Verbal Behavor Behavioral Attribute/identifier Carrier / identified Relational Phenomenon Sensor Mental goal Actor Verbal participant 2 Participant 1 process
  28. 28. Main types of Circumstance in English With a hammer Means, quality, comparison Manner In June, from Paris Place, time Location For three hours Distance, duration Extent Example Specific categories Type
  29. 29. Examples of circumstance <ul><li>Ali had slept in the car. (location,place) </li></ul><ul><li>See you in the morning (location,time) </li></ul><ul><li>They pulled the ropes again (extent frequency) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Recap <ul><li>Significance of clause as representation </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of process </li></ul><ul><li>Components of process </li></ul><ul><li>types of processes </li></ul><ul><li>participants </li></ul><ul><li>Types of circumstance </li></ul>
  31. 31. Questions
  32. 32. What do we mean by clause as representation ? <ul><li>According to Halliday functions of language according to its users are of two types, </li></ul><ul><li>1 ideational function, </li></ul><ul><li>2.interpersonal function of language. </li></ul><ul><li>In clause as representation we deal with ideational functional.Speaker’s experience of the real world including his own inner world of consciousness is represented or conceptualized. </li></ul>
  33. 33. What is centrally important in clause as representation? <ul><li>Answer : Process </li></ul>
  34. 34. What are the components of clause as representation? <ul><li>1.Process </li></ul><ul><li>2.Participant </li></ul><ul><li>3.circumstances </li></ul>
  35. 35. What are the different types of processes? What are the main types of processes? <ul><li>There are six types of processes </li></ul><ul><li>Material processes(main)(doing) </li></ul><ul><li>Mental processes (main)(thinking) </li></ul><ul><li>Relational processes(main)(being and having) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral processes </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal processes </li></ul><ul><li>Existential processes </li></ul>
  36. 36. What is VERBIAGE? What is PHENOMENON? <ul><li>In verbal processes,main participant is SAYER,and VERBIAGE is what is said and RECEIVER or TARGET is the person it is said to. </li></ul><ul><li>PHENOMENON is the term used in mental processes it refers to the thing sensed or felt by the SENSOR </li></ul>
  37. 37. What are the three main types of circumstance? <ul><li>Extent </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Manner </li></ul>
  38. 38. Thank You