Clause As Exchange In Functional Grammar


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Clause As Exchange In Functional Grammar

  1. 2. Clause as Exchange The interpersonal function In Functional Grammar A presentation by Muhammad Sajid us Salam Mphil Linguistics Islamia University Bahawalpur [email_address]
  2. 3. Overview <ul><li>What is the significance of clause as exchange? </li></ul><ul><li>Components of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Mood and residue </li></ul><ul><li>Components of mood and residue </li></ul><ul><li>Elements outside mood and residue </li></ul><ul><li>Mood tags </li></ul><ul><li>Mood structures </li></ul><ul><li>Types adjuncts </li></ul><ul><li>Types of clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Revision through questions </li></ul>
  3. 4. Significance of clause as exchange It is about the relationship speakers forge with listeners through the form of language
  4. 5. Interpersonal <ul><li>In the act of speaking, the speaker adopts for himself a particular speech role, and in so doing assigns to the listener a complementary role which he wishes him to adopt in his turn. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Language as interaction <ul><li>. </li></ul>proposition proposal question command demanding Statement offer giving information goods & services
  6. 7. Language as interaction <ul><li>Offer: Would you like a cup of tea? </li></ul><ul><li>Command: Make me some tea! </li></ul><ul><li>Statement: I had to make the tea myself. </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Do you take sugar with your tea? What kind of tea do you prefer? </li></ul>
  7. 8. Language as interaction verbal disclaimer answer Question verbal (non-verbal) contradiction acknowledgement Statement non-verbal/verbal refusal undertaking Command verbal/non-verbal (gestural) rejection acceptance Offer way of responding discretionary response (confronting) expected response (supporting)
  8. 9. Language as interaction <ul><li>Response to offer: Yes please / No thanks. </li></ul><ul><li>Response to command: Hearer does something, or refuses to do something </li></ul><ul><li>Response to statement: Hearer acknowledges the proposition or contradicts it (e.g. yes; mm; right / No, you didn't; That's not true. ). </li></ul><ul><li>Response to question: Yes; No; I prefer herbal tea. / Why are you asking me that? </li></ul>
  9. 10. Language as interaction <ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>declarative: Subject^Finite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interrogative: Finite^Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>imperative: lacks mood element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. Riaz has finished his work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has Ali submitted his assignment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at him. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Mood-Residue residue mood adjunct complement predicator finite subject On my PC This handout writing am I
  11. 12. What is complement? <ul><li>According to F.G, object; direct or indirect or anything which completes the sense of the clause is complement. It is always a nominal group. Complement has a tendency to become a subject. </li></ul>
  12. 13. What are adjuncts? <ul><li>Prepositional phrases and adverbial phrases are called adjuncts. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>They arrived on Sunday. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Difference between adjunct and complement. <ul><li>1- she is making her father a cup of tea in the kitchen. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Ismail will sell Riaz his car at a low price. </li></ul><ul><li>3- Mr.Asif will send his friend some flowers on eid. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Adjunct & complement. <ul><li>1- She is making a cup of tea for her father in the kitchen. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Ismail will sell his car to Riaz at a cheap price. </li></ul><ul><li>3- Mr.Asif will send some flowers to his friend on eid. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Mood: Subject + Finite <ul><li>Mood: 'carries the burden of the clause as an interactive event' </li></ul><ul><li>- the nub of the proposition (Halliday ) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Mood consists of Subject + Finite <ul><li>Subject : </li></ul><ul><li>The element about which something is predicated . </li></ul><ul><li>the entity in respect of which the assertion is claimed to have validity (Halliday) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Mood: Subject + Finite <ul><ul><li>Finite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The functions of the Finite are to show: </li></ul><ul><li>tense (for what time in relation to that of speaking is the proposition valid?) </li></ul><ul><li>polarity (does the proposition have positive or negative validity?) </li></ul><ul><li>modality (to what extent is the proposition valid?) </li></ul>
  18. 19. Mood: Subject + Finite <ul><li>Finite </li></ul><ul><li>Other things to note: </li></ul><ul><li>the finite is a verbal operator </li></ul><ul><li>the finite and the Predicator may be realized together (simple past or simple present tense) </li></ul><ul><li>Example ? </li></ul>
  19. 20. Mood: Subject + Finite <ul><li>there is analysed as subject, followed by Finite^Complement </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>There was a collection of dolls. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Mood: Subject + Finite <ul><li>Mood tags: </li></ul><ul><li>refer back to the mood element </li></ul><ul><li>may be useful in identifying the Subject and the Finite </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: It is hot ,isn’t it ? </li></ul>
  21. 22. Elements outside the Mood + Residue structure <ul><li>1- vocatives (interpersonal) </li></ul><ul><li>Hamza , how are you? </li></ul><ul><li>2- expletives </li></ul><ul><li>Heavens , how beautiful the flower is ! </li></ul><ul><li>3- conjunctive adjuncts </li></ul><ul><li>Yes , it usually does rain. </li></ul><ul><li>4- conjunctions </li></ul><ul><li>but,while,and etc. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Mood structures in interrogatives <ul><li>yes/no interrogatives are marked by the order Finite^Subject and ask the listener to specify the polarity of the message </li></ul><ul><li>wh -interrogatives ask the listener to fill in a missing part of the message, marked by a wh -element. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Mood structures in interrogatives <ul><li>when he wh -element combines with the function of Subject, we have the order Subject^Finite, and the wh -element is part of the Mood. </li></ul><ul><li>when the wh -element combines with a complement or adjunct, we have the order Finite^Subject, and the wh-element is part of the Residue. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Mood structure in imperatives <ul><li>Imperatives have no Mood element </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. Listen to me ) </li></ul>
  25. 26. Mood adjuncts <ul><li>Mood adjuncts express </li></ul><ul><li>temporal relationships (e.g. yet, already, still ) </li></ul><ul><li>polarity (e.g. yes, no, not ) </li></ul><ul><li>modality </li></ul><ul><li>probability (e.g. definitely, maybe ) </li></ul><ul><li>usuality (e.g. never, always, sometimes ) </li></ul><ul><li>inclination / obligation (e.g. gladly, reluctantly ) </li></ul>
  26. 27. Comment adjuncts <ul><li>Comment adjuncts express </li></ul><ul><li>the speaker’s attitude to the proposition as a whole, viz. opinion, admission, persuasion, entreaty, presumption, desirability, reservation, validation, evaluation, prediction. (See Halliday p 49) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: frankly, unfortunately , actually, to be honest </li></ul>
  27. 28. Question What is the difference between mood and residue? <ul><li>Answer. In clause as exchange, the part of the clause has the subject and finite is called mood and the remaining part of the clause is called residue. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Question. What is a non-finite clause? How is it different from a finite clause? How do we analyse non-finite clause? <ul><li>Answer. A non-finite clause does not show time or judgment.and a finite clause vice versa; for example. </li></ul><ul><li>Nasir: Why did you go to Faisalabad? </li></ul><ul><li>Sarfraz: to see my mother . </li></ul><ul><li>To see is a non finite clause.We don’t analyse a non-finite clause. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Q.No. How many types of clauses we come across in analysis? <ul><li>Declarative. </li></ul><ul><li>Elliptical. </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative. </li></ul><ul><li>Finite. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-finite. </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative. </li></ul><ul><li>Minor. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Question. How many types of mood are there? <ul><ul><li>declarative: Subject^Finite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interrogative: Finite^Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>imperative: lacks mood element </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Question Is it necessary for the mood to come only in the beginning of the clause? exemplify <ul><li>Answer. No, it is not. </li></ul><ul><li>Example. </li></ul><ul><li>Where are you going?. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Question What is a minor clause? Give an example. How do we analyse it? <ul><li>Minor clause does not contain subject and predicate. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Saqib:Have you passed your phonetics paper? </li></ul><ul><li>Sajid:Yes </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yes”is a minor clause .We don’t analyse it. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Practice: 1 <ul><li>1- Zahid, the Sun is shining inside. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Now they extended their programme. </li></ul><ul><li>3- In that movie they included him. </li></ul><ul><li>4- They used the lever. </li></ul><ul><li>5- May be we can get this flower. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Practice: 2 <ul><li>1- There was one pen in the shelf. </li></ul><ul><li>2- On another wall there was a small box. </li></ul><ul><li>3- There was a record player in a corner. </li></ul><ul><li>4- And beside it was a vase. </li></ul><ul><li>5- On the table was a book . </li></ul>
  35. 36. Practice -3 <ul><li>6- It would be difficult to enjoy it. </li></ul><ul><li>7- It’s surprising (that) they said it. </li></ul><ul><li>8- It irritates me (that) he did not apologize. </li></ul><ul><li>9- It’s a relief (that) he has left. </li></ul><ul><li>10- It’s true (that) he comes late. </li></ul>
  36. 37. The End <ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul>