Bushra Critcal Theory


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Bushra Critcal Theory

  1. 1. Critic and Criticism <ul><li>One who estimates and passes judgment on the nature, value and quality of artistic works </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between critic and scholar </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis, study and evaluation of individual work of art and formulation of general principles </li></ul>
  2. 2. Kinds of critical Theories <ul><li>Critical Theories Discriminate Four Elements </li></ul><ul><li>The Work </li></ul><ul><li>The Artist </li></ul><ul><li>The Universe </li></ul><ul><li>The Audience </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Mimetic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Objective Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>These theories are themselves the material of critical debate </li></ul>
  4. 4. History of Criticism <ul><li>Mimetic theory- Classical age </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-classical age </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatic theory- Horace </li></ul><ul><li>Nineteenth century </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive theory- Romantic age </li></ul><ul><li>Objective theory- Nineteenth century </li></ul>
  5. 5. Historical review <ul><li>Aristotle- 4 th century, mimetic theory </li></ul><ul><li>Longinus- 3 rd century, imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Latin critics </li></ul><ul><li>Horace- 3 rd century, Art of poetry as an informal epistle </li></ul><ul><li>The Middle ages- </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism deals with versification, rhetoric and grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Dominancy of ecclesiastical theologians </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings of Saint Augustine- 430 Ad. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of distrust on literature </li></ul><ul><li>Aisidore of Seville- 6 th and 7 th century </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>End of the Medieval Period </li></ul><ul><li>Dante discusses: </li></ul><ul><li>The Problem of vernacular literature </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection of Classical Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Petrarch & Boccaccio- 14 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance Period- 16 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction against theological interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Art and Humanistic Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Italy, Vida, Robertelli, Daniello, Minturno etc. Concerned with: </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry as form of philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation of life </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrine of Verisimilitude </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction as the object of poetry </li></ul><ul><li>The theory of drama </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The theory of tragedy, Tragic hero, unities and epic poem </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of Classicism in Renaissance: Rationalism, Humanism, Aristotelians, Platonism and Nationalism acting as Romantic forces </li></ul><ul><li>These tendencies accentuated and actuated: </li></ul><ul><li>Italian criticism- 16 th century, imitation of the classics, </li></ul><ul><li>French Criticism- 17 th century, imitation of the classic, </li></ul><ul><li>Codification of the principles of structure, </li></ul><ul><li>Rational Crystallizing of poetic theory </li></ul><ul><li>English Renaissance- Early Criticism deals with rhetoric and diction by : </li></ul><ul><li>Caston (15 th century) Cox (1530), Thomas Wilson(1553), Thomas Elyot (1531) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Condition of English in 16 th century: </li></ul><ul><li>A vernacular dialect </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the English </li></ul><ul><li>Attention given to decorum and imitation </li></ul><ul><li>The first English technical treatise by Gascoigne “certain notes of instruction” deals with verse devices, rhyme schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney and Campion- condemnation of rhyme </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespearean Tragedies developed in spite of critical insistence on unities </li></ul>
  9. 9. Puritan Age <ul><li>Defense of literature regardless of Puritan attack based on moral grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Gosson’s The school of abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney’s defence of Poesie </li></ul><ul><li>exalted it above philosophy and history and set the objections to poetic art </li></ul><ul><li>examined types of poetry </li></ul><ul><li>blamed writers to show conformity to Italian classics </li></ul><ul><li>Francis Bacon’s advancement of learning & Ben Johnson's Timber or discoveries show tendency towards neo-classicism </li></ul><ul><li>John Dryden’s essay of dramitck poesie </li></ul><ul><li>Addition of practical criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical criticism </li></ul>
  10. 10. NEO-CLASSICISM <ul><li>Alaxander Pope’s Perefaces on Homer, addition of Shakespeare and essay on criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Poetic diction following nature, description of good critic </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Addison’s critical papers in the Spectator </li></ul><ul><li>Textual criticsm- reason, correctness, taste, Genres, rules, imagination, classical </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Johnson’s criticism- defender of the older order, ‘addition of Shakespeare’ and ‘lives of the poets’ </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Warton’s essay on the Genius and writings of Poe, criticism on Pope’s poetry, deals with the emotional quality of the Poet </li></ul><ul><li>Hurd’s letters on Chivalry and Romance justified Goethic manners and design, Spencer’s poety and Italian poets, and attacked Augustans because of lack of imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of Romantic Impulse </li></ul>
  11. 11. Romanticism <ul><li>Wordsworth’s Preface as a manifesto for the new school and set forth his own critical creed </li></ul><ul><li>Condemned the use of personification and Poetic diction; that there should not be difference between the language of prose ands metrical compositions </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of Poet- man speaking to men </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry defined </li></ul><ul><li>Coleridge’s Biographia Literaria </li></ul><ul><li>“ Should be directed to person’s and characters supernatural, or at least romantic; yet so as to transfer from our inward nature a human interest and a semblance of truth, sufficient to procure for these shadows of imagination that to willing suspension of disbelief for the moment which constitutes poetic faith” </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>However, Wordworth was “to propose to himself as his object, to give the charm of novelty to things of every day, and to excite a feeling analogous to the supernatural, by awakening the mind’s attention to the loveliness and the wonders of the world before us” </li></ul><ul><li>Coleridge’s disagreement with Wordsworth about meter, diction, rustic life for the formation of intelligible diction </li></ul><ul><li>Coleridge views poetry as ideal and generic </li></ul><ul><li>Imagination and Fancy </li></ul><ul><li>English romanticism found some sources in the philosophy and aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Shelly’s defense of poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Reminiscent of Renaissance’s treatises </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative opinions dominated by periodical criticism </li></ul>
  13. 13. Nineteenth Century <ul><li>Mathew Arnold’s the function of criticism, the study of poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry as a criticism of life “to know the best that is known and thought in the world and by in its turn making this known, to create a current of true and fresh ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Form, order of classics admired </li></ul><ul><li>Use touchstone method for literary evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>sensitive taste in forming judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Grand style arises in poetry when a noble nature poetically gifted, treats with simplicity or with severity, a serious subject </li></ul><ul><li>Poet’s greatness lies in his powerful and beautiful application of ideas to life </li></ul>
  14. 14. Later Nineteenth century <ul><li>Arrival of Realism </li></ul><ul><li>Impressionism- Walter Pater </li></ul><ul><li>Victorian critics discussed function of art, literature, role of morality, place of imagination, problems of style, province of the novel and theory of comics </li></ul><ul><li>Historical criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism tended away from the application of standards by the use of impressionistic method </li></ul><ul><li>Thackeray- On English Humorists </li></ul><ul><li>J.S. Mill- On the nature of poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Pater- on Style </li></ul><ul><li>Meredith- On comic spirit </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism in America </li></ul>
  15. 15. Criticism in America <ul><li>Early- Nineteenth Century criticism in America growing out of transplanted culture </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative </li></ul><ul><li>Imitative </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of Puritan Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Classical </li></ul><ul><li>Later Romantic attitude triumphant </li></ul><ul><li>Early critics are: </li></ul><ul><li>Poe- stressed workmanship, technique, structure, reason and separates art and morality, craftsmanship, attention to detail, devotion to logic, symmetry, invented short story, science fiction, deductive fiction, symbolist poem, advanced new criticism, having practical critical spirit suffused with the thought and practice of their contemporaries </li></ul><ul><li>Lowell- Ist Impressionistic and Romantic, revolt against sentimentalism, later classical and ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Emerson- believed art for moral ends </li></ul>
  16. 16. After the Civil War <ul><li>Strong critical movement toward realism </li></ul><ul><li>Henry James- Advanced the theory of fidelity of the work to the universe in terms of materialistic, psychological- social sense was the object of art, made a significant formulation of critical principles about fiction </li></ul><ul><li>Howell- defines realism as “nothing more and nothing less than the truthful treatment of material” </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with Pragmatic theory as it sees moral obligation resting on the artist in terms of the effects of the works on the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Revival of mimetic theory under the influence of Emile Zola </li></ul><ul><li>Application of scientific method even of Quasi- scientific law to enhance seriousness and increase the depth of the portraying of the actual by the artist </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific method is also called the Naturalism expounded by Norris </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The End </li></ul>