The Acculturation Model 1978 Presented to: Venerable Madam Dr. Mamuna Ghani Presented By : Muhammad Sajid us Salam. Roll No. 16, M. Phil. Linguistics.
Acculturation The modification of the culture of a group or an individual as a result of contact with a different culture. Or The Process of becoming adapted to a new culture (Brown 1980:129)
Vital Notion In 1978, Schumann established his model to account for the acquisition of an L2 by immigrants in majority Language Setting. e.g. Indian immigrants migrate to Pakistan Exclude Learners who receives formal Instructions i.e. Language Learning in a class room.
Schumann puts Forward “ Second language acquisition is just one aspect of acculturation and the degree to which a learner acculturates to the target-language group will control the degree to which he acquires the second language.” (1978a:34) Extract 1. This model deals with the learners in society (immigrants) not in formal settings (Students in classroom). & 2. Solely identify the major causal variable underlying natural 2 nd language acquisition . i.e. i. Learning Language without instruction & ii. In the environment where it is spoken.
Schumann Presents Taxonomy of Factors Influences 2 nd Language Acquisition Social (Major Casual Factor) Personal Aptitude Input Biological Cognitive Personality Psychological (Major Casual Factor)
Schumann Defines Acculturation as: “ Social & psychological Integration of the Learner with the Target Language Group” Kinds Of Acculturation 1 st Kind (Language) 2 nd Kind (Other than Language)
Type 1 Individual is socially integrated with the other community and Psychologically open to the other language . Type 2 Individual takes the other community as a reference group whose life style & values he consciously or unconsciously desires to adopt. Similarity Social Interaction is common in both types. Difference But in Type 2 Acculturation, individual strives to become like members of that community in more ways than linguistically . i.e. adopts customs, rituals, values, dress.
Social Factors Social Dominance (L2 Group Can be) Integration Pattern L2 Group may) Enclosure (L2 Group may share) Cohesiveness (The L2 Group is Characterized by) Size (L2 Group may be) Cultural Congruence (The Culture of the L2 Group may be) Intended Length Of Residence (L2 Group may Stay) Attitude (L2 & TL Group may Have Superior (Dominant) Equal Inferior (Subordinate) Politically Culturally Technically Economically Give up its own life Style & Values in Favor of TL Group Acculturate or Adopt The style & Values of TL Group While maintaining Its own for intra-group use Preserve its Life Style & Values The same Social Facilities May have Different Social Facilities Intra Group Contacts Inter Group Contacts Large in Number Small in Number Similar to the TL Group Different from the TL Group Positive Attitudes Towards Each other. Negative Attitudes Towards Each other. For a Long Time For a Short Time
Psychological Factors Language Shock Culture Shock Motivation Ego Permeability Member of L2Group Feel that It would look comic While Speaking L2 Member of L2Group Feel anxiety on entering In a new culture Members of L2 Group are Integrative (Wish) or Instrumentally (Job) Motivated to Learn L2 L2 Learner Perceive That L1 is Rigid or fixed boundaries L2 Learner Perceive That L1 is Permeable Or Flexible boundaries.
Opinion of Modern Linguists Schumann’s Acculturation Model is no doubt a good attempt to show relevance of social factors to informal language learning. But It can’t be generalized to all kinds of 2 nd Language learning and that is its handicap ness.