Networked Performing ArtsBehindthe CurtainBen Fineman, Internet2
Photo by: R.A. Whiteside                           Sight and Sound
Capturing Sight and Sound
TransmittingSight andSound
Two-wayTransmission
Two-wayTransmission:AdvancedNetworks
Capture
Capture   Encode
Balancing Act
Balancing Act
Balancing Act: Quality
Balancing Act: Audio        Quality                        How             How        Often            Accurat            ...
Balancing Act: Sampling         Rate § Limits frequency range § CD quality is 44.1 kHz
Balancing Act: Audio         Quality                        How             How        Often            Accurat           ...
Balancing Act: Audio       Quality§ Limits quality§ CD quality 16 bit = 65,536 levels§ Studio quality 24 bit = 16,777,216 ...
Balancing Act: Audio        Quality                        How             How        Often            Accurat            ...
44.1 kHz x 16 bit x 2 channels        = 1.41 Mbps
Balancing Act: Audio         Quality• “Compression” – making digital signals  smaller
Balancing Act: Bit Rate• Distinct from bit depth• Many compression formats available § Lossy/lossless § Popular example: M...
Balancing Act: Audio      Quality
Balancing Act: Video        Quality                       How            How        Often           Accurat              e...
Balancing Act: Frame Rate § 60i: Standard for consumer   broadcast/DVD/VHS, some HDTV  • Actually 59.94i, or 29.97 fps § 2...
Balancing Act: Video         Quality                        How             How        Often            Accurat           ...
Resolution: How Accurate
Balancing Act: Video         Quality                        How             How        Often            Accurat           ...
Balancing Act: Video      Quality
Balancing Act: Video           Quality• Various compression formats available §   MPEG-1, MPEG-2 (eg VCD, DVD) §   MPEG-4 ...
Balancing Act: Video      Quality
Balancing Act
Balancing Act: Performance
Balancing Act:        Performance              Latenc                 y• How Fast § Network latency § Codec Latency
Balancing Act:      PerformanceLatenc   y
Balancing Act
Balancing Act:         Performance• How Much (bit rate)
Balancing Act: Bandwidth121086420
Balancing Act: Bandwidth121086420
Capture   Encode                   DV camera   DV camera                               with audio inputs
Canopus ADVC-300Encode               Canopus ADVC-700
SoftwareEncode     Send
PoorEncode   Send   OK                     Great
OK         PoorEncode   Send                     Great
VBrick                      GreatEncode   Send          Poor                              Digital River                 OK...
MPEG2• Latency: Broadcast only (in general)• Quality: § Audio: Compressed § Video: Compressed• Bandwidth: 6 - 25 Mbps
OKEncode   Send   OK     Polycom                OK                                 Tandberg                     Lifesize
Encode   Send
UltraGrid/iHDTVLOLA
DVTS: What is it?• “Open source” software developed by  the WIDE Project (ie it’s free!)• Sends firewire source over Inter...
DVTS: Vital Stats• Latency: Good enough for  conversation• Quality: § Audio: 48kHz/16 bit uncompressed § Video: Standard d...
DVTS: What do I need?• Capture: DV or standard camera• Encode: In DV camera, or separate  encoder• Send: Computer running ...
GreatOKOK
ConferenceXP• Latency: Good enough for  conversation• Quality: § Audio: Up to uncompressed § Video: Up to uncompressed• Ba...
ConferenceXP               Great       OK               Great
LOLA• Latency: Good enough for  simultaneous performance• Quality: § Audio: 44.1kHz, 24bit, uncompressed § Video: Up to un...
LOLA              Great              GreatPoor
iHDTV/Ultragrid• Latency: Good enough for  conversation• Quality: § Audio: 48kHz/16 bit uncompressed, 2+    channels § Vid...
iHDTV/Ultragrid                  Great       OKPoor
Balancing Act• H.323 Videoconferencing• Desktop Videoconferencing (egSkype)
Balancing Act                •                  Many kinds of MPEG-2 and                MPEG-4                •           ...
Balancing Act•  Uncompressed codecs•  DVTS
TansporCapture   Encode   Send                             t
• Appropriate BandwidthTanspor   t      • Low or 0% loss          • Low or no jitter          • Multicast (if            b...
MulticastUnicast
TansporCapture   Encode   Send             Receive   Decode                             t
Receive   Decode
SoftwareReceive   Decode
TansporCapture   Encode   Send             Receive   Decode   Display                             t
Display
EchoDisplay
Display     Polycom                      Tandberg                                 }   AEC          Lifesize
Display             Polycom          Music Mode
Display          EchoDamp
CodecRME Fireface 800      EchoDamp
Examples
New World Symphony: DVTS
Remote Master Classes: DVTS
DVTS: Example
DVTS: Example
DVTS: Example
Philadelphia Orchestra: MPEG2
MPEG2 Multicast     HD-DVTS                  AminoTandbergTV                        Amino                      Amino
Kinetic Shadows: MPEG2
MPEG2 ExampleVBrick                     VBrick
Screen          Screen                      ScreenDisplay                   Stage (Top down)
Strategic Camera Position                                       }                             Capture                     ...
Adding Machine: DVTS
ScreenScreen                      Screen         Stage (Top down)
ScreenScreen                      Screen         Stage (Top down)
Arthron
Conference XP: Remote Instruction
ConferenceXP: Example
ConferenceXP: Example
Simultaneous Performance
Bitflow ALT-PCE-AN1                            Industrial Camera         RME Fireface 800
Emerging Applications:          iHDTV  • ResearchChannel along with the    University of WashingtoniHDTV/Ultragrid
1Gbps Ethernet                    1Gbps Ethernet                                                   Blackmagic Decklink    ...
2000 -> 2010
Uncompressed HDSimultaneousRemote PerformanceReal-time ScreenMapping
Emerging Applications:    CineGrid 4k          4k  1080
121086420
CineGrid 4k
bfineman@internet2.edu     www.internet2.edu
•   References    § DTVS:      http://www.internet2.edu/communities/dvts/    § WIDE Project: http://www.sfc.wide.ad.jp/   ...
• References
Behind thecurtain benfineman_internet2
Behind thecurtain benfineman_internet2
Behind thecurtain benfineman_internet2
Behind thecurtain benfineman_internet2
Behind thecurtain benfineman_internet2
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Behind thecurtain benfineman_internet2

  1. 1. Networked Performing ArtsBehindthe CurtainBen Fineman, Internet2
  2. 2. Photo by: R.A. Whiteside Sight and Sound
  3. 3. Capturing Sight and Sound
  4. 4. TransmittingSight andSound
  5. 5. Two-wayTransmission
  6. 6. Two-wayTransmission:AdvancedNetworks
  7. 7. Capture
  8. 8. Capture Encode
  9. 9. Balancing Act
  10. 10. Balancing Act
  11. 11. Balancing Act: Quality
  12. 12. Balancing Act: Audio Quality How How Often Accurat e How Much• How Often: Sampling Rate
  13. 13. Balancing Act: Sampling Rate § Limits frequency range § CD quality is 44.1 kHz
  14. 14. Balancing Act: Audio Quality How How Often Accurat e How Much• How Accurate: Bit Depth
  15. 15. Balancing Act: Audio Quality§ Limits quality§ CD quality 16 bit = 65,536 levels§ Studio quality 24 bit = 16,777,216 levels
  16. 16. Balancing Act: Audio Quality How How Often Accurat e How Much• How Much: Bit Rate
  17. 17. 44.1 kHz x 16 bit x 2 channels = 1.41 Mbps
  18. 18. Balancing Act: Audio Quality• “Compression” – making digital signals smaller
  19. 19. Balancing Act: Bit Rate• Distinct from bit depth• Many compression formats available § Lossy/lossless § Popular example: MP3 § Popular consumer conferencing: Siren 14/22
  20. 20. Balancing Act: Audio Quality
  21. 21. Balancing Act: Video Quality How How Often Accurat e How Much• How Often: Frame Rate
  22. 22. Balancing Act: Frame Rate § 60i: Standard for consumer broadcast/DVD/VHS, some HDTV • Actually 59.94i, or 29.97 fps § 24p: Standard for film § 30p/60p: Some HDTV § Be aware of international differences!
  23. 23. Balancing Act: Video Quality How How Often Accurat e How Much• How Accurate: Resolution
  24. 24. Resolution: How Accurate
  25. 25. Balancing Act: Video Quality How How Often Accurat e How Much• How Much: Bit Rate
  26. 26. Balancing Act: Video Quality
  27. 27. Balancing Act: Video Quality• Various compression formats available § MPEG-1, MPEG-2 (eg VCD, DVD) § MPEG-4 Part 2, MPEG-4 AVC/SVC § Microsoft: WMV, VC-1 § H.263, H.264 (MPEG-4 AVC) § DV25
  28. 28. Balancing Act: Video Quality
  29. 29. Balancing Act
  30. 30. Balancing Act: Performance
  31. 31. Balancing Act: Performance Latenc y• How Fast § Network latency § Codec Latency
  32. 32. Balancing Act: PerformanceLatenc y
  33. 33. Balancing Act
  34. 34. Balancing Act: Performance• How Much (bit rate)
  35. 35. Balancing Act: Bandwidth121086420
  36. 36. Balancing Act: Bandwidth121086420
  37. 37. Capture Encode DV camera DV camera with audio inputs
  38. 38. Canopus ADVC-300Encode Canopus ADVC-700
  39. 39. SoftwareEncode Send
  40. 40. PoorEncode Send OK Great
  41. 41. OK PoorEncode Send Great
  42. 42. VBrick GreatEncode Send Poor Digital River OK TandbergTV
  43. 43. MPEG2• Latency: Broadcast only (in general)• Quality: § Audio: Compressed § Video: Compressed• Bandwidth: 6 - 25 Mbps
  44. 44. OKEncode Send OK Polycom OK Tandberg Lifesize
  45. 45. Encode Send
  46. 46. UltraGrid/iHDTVLOLA
  47. 47. DVTS: What is it?• “Open source” software developed by the WIDE Project (ie it’s free!)• Sends firewire source over Internet with no additional compression
  48. 48. DVTS: Vital Stats• Latency: Good enough for conversation• Quality: § Audio: 48kHz/16 bit uncompressed § Video: Standard definition, DV25 compression• Bandwidth: 30 Mbps
  49. 49. DVTS: What do I need?• Capture: DV or standard camera• Encode: In DV camera, or separate encoder• Send: Computer running DVTS• Transport: 30Mbps network + +
  50. 50. GreatOKOK
  51. 51. ConferenceXP• Latency: Good enough for conversation• Quality: § Audio: Up to uncompressed § Video: Up to uncompressed• Bandwidth: Variable, 1Mb to >30Mb
  52. 52. ConferenceXP Great OK Great
  53. 53. LOLA• Latency: Good enough for simultaneous performance• Quality: § Audio: 44.1kHz, 24bit, uncompressed § Video: Up to uncompressed (SD)• Bandwidth: 92Mbps to 460Mbps
  54. 54. LOLA Great GreatPoor
  55. 55. iHDTV/Ultragrid• Latency: Good enough for conversation• Quality: § Audio: 48kHz/16 bit uncompressed, 2+ channels § Video: 1080i HD, compressed or uncompressed• Bandwidth: 250 Mbps to 1.5 Gbps
  56. 56. iHDTV/Ultragrid Great OKPoor
  57. 57. Balancing Act• H.323 Videoconferencing• Desktop Videoconferencing (egSkype)
  58. 58. Balancing Act • Many kinds of MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 • Lossless compressions • HDDVTS
  59. 59. Balancing Act• Uncompressed codecs• DVTS
  60. 60. TansporCapture Encode Send t
  61. 61. • Appropriate BandwidthTanspor t • Low or 0% loss • Low or no jitter • Multicast (if broadcasting)
  62. 62. MulticastUnicast
  63. 63. TansporCapture Encode Send Receive Decode t
  64. 64. Receive Decode
  65. 65. SoftwareReceive Decode
  66. 66. TansporCapture Encode Send Receive Decode Display t
  67. 67. Display
  68. 68. EchoDisplay
  69. 69. Display Polycom Tandberg } AEC Lifesize
  70. 70. Display Polycom Music Mode
  71. 71. Display EchoDamp
  72. 72. CodecRME Fireface 800 EchoDamp
  73. 73. Examples
  74. 74. New World Symphony: DVTS
  75. 75. Remote Master Classes: DVTS
  76. 76. DVTS: Example
  77. 77. DVTS: Example
  78. 78. DVTS: Example
  79. 79. Philadelphia Orchestra: MPEG2
  80. 80. MPEG2 Multicast HD-DVTS AminoTandbergTV Amino Amino
  81. 81. Kinetic Shadows: MPEG2
  82. 82. MPEG2 ExampleVBrick VBrick
  83. 83. Screen Screen ScreenDisplay Stage (Top down)
  84. 84. Strategic Camera Position } Capture ImmersionStrategic Display Position Display
  85. 85. Adding Machine: DVTS
  86. 86. ScreenScreen Screen Stage (Top down)
  87. 87. ScreenScreen Screen Stage (Top down)
  88. 88. Arthron
  89. 89. Conference XP: Remote Instruction
  90. 90. ConferenceXP: Example
  91. 91. ConferenceXP: Example
  92. 92. Simultaneous Performance
  93. 93. Bitflow ALT-PCE-AN1 Industrial Camera RME Fireface 800
  94. 94. Emerging Applications: iHDTV • ResearchChannel along with the University of WashingtoniHDTV/Ultragrid
  95. 95. 1Gbps Ethernet 1Gbps Ethernet Blackmagic Decklink Aja Xena HS1Gbps Ethernet 1Gbps Ethernet
  96. 96. 2000 -> 2010
  97. 97. Uncompressed HDSimultaneousRemote PerformanceReal-time ScreenMapping
  98. 98. Emerging Applications: CineGrid 4k 4k 1080
  99. 99. 121086420
  100. 100. CineGrid 4k
  101. 101. bfineman@internet2.edu www.internet2.edu
  102. 102. • References § DTVS: http://www.internet2.edu/communities/dvts/ § WIDE Project: http://www.sfc.wide.ad.jp/ § New World Symphony: http://www.nws.edu/internet2/ § iHDTV: http://www.washington.edu/ihdtv/ § Ultragrid: http://dragon.maxgigapop.net/twiki/bin/view/DRAGON/ UltraGrid § EchoDamp: http://echodamp.com/
  103. 103. • References

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