A New Style of CreativityFrom Web of Documents to Web of Creativity<br />Hideaki Takeda<br />takeda@nii.ac.jp<br />Nationa...
Outline<br />Community Web<br />The model for Community Web<br />Social media<br />Massively collaborative creation<br />S...
Apple, Inc. 2001<br />
Information Circulation<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Create<br />Google<br />HTML editors<br />WWW Servers<br />A new cyc...
Information Circulation<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Create<br />Collecting information<br />Past: Libraries (limited jus...
Create<br />Internet as Information Activities<br />Create<br />Create<br />Create<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Donate<br...
Change of Information Circulation System<br />Pros:<br />Change of power: from limited people to everyone<br />Change of s...
Information and Communication Activities<br /><ul><li> Information layerconcerns how information is explicitly represented...
<ul><li> Information layerconcerns how information is explicitly represented and processed.
 Communication layer concerns how relationship among people are organized and maintained, which is potential route for inf...
Web as Communication<br />Web was created for research community<br />It is designed mainly for data and information excha...
Web as Communication<br />Typical Web Page<br />Data and information on research<br />Information for self introduction<br...
Web as Communication<br />Typical Web Page<br />Data and information on research<br />Information for self introduction<br...
Blog<br />Relate<br />Present<br />Collaborate<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Publishing information through identification...
SNS<br />Relate<br />Present<br />Collaborate<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Communication and publishing with personal net...
wiki<br />Relate<br />Present<br />Collaborate<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Publishing with collaboration<br />Informatio...
Community Web<br />Relate<br />Present<br />Collaborate<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Social Media<br />Explicit support f...
Social Media<br />Media consists of interaction among massive participants that are widely distributed in the society.<br ...
Massively Collaborative Creation<br />Creative activity through social media<br />Examples<br />BBS <br />Q&A Sites (Yahoo...
Massively Collaborative Creation (cont.)<br />Different ways of  affections by interaction to content creation<br />Conten...
What is “NicoNicoDouga” ?<br />NicoNicoDougais the one of the most popular video sharing website in Japan<br />The most in...
Three types of interaction on NicoNicoDouga<br />Embedded interaction on the system<br />Audience and Audience<br />Sharin...
HatsuneMiku<br />HatsuneMiku is a version of singing synthesizer application software (“vocaloid”)<br />A user can make a ...
Example!!<br />Title: Shooting star –short ver.- like an ending movie<br />Creator: ussy<br />URL: http://www.nicovideo.jp...
Re-using network on NicoNicoDouga & HatsuneMiku<br />Picture<br />Many pictures by many authors<br />Song<br />Shooting st...
A partof network of re-using relationship among creators using HatuneMiku on NicoNicoDouga<br />Our interests<br /><ul><li...
 How different types of creators interact to create   new content through their social network?</li></ul>Our approach<br /...
Social Data of HatsuneMiku on NicoNicoDouga<br />36,709 videos with tag ’HatsuneMiku’ (31 May 2008) <br />Select 7,138 vid...
How to make networks among movies<br />The description of the movie often includes hyperlinks to other videos showing trai...
Videos’ network<br /> nodes: 4,585<br /> edges: 12,507<br />
How to make network among creators<br />We set a relation from creator of video A to creator of video B if video A has lin...
Creators’ network<br /> nodes: 2,164<br /> edges: 4,368<br />Red: Songwriting<br />Blue: Song creation<br />Green: Illustr...
Characteristics of the Creators Network<br /><ul><li>The network is large and sparse</li></ul>The diameter of this network...
Category of Creation Activity<br />We classified creative activities related to HatsuneMiku into four categories: <br />So...
Relationship among categories of creation<br />Many creators re-use Songwriting creators’ contents<br />Many Illustration ...
Community on Creators Network<br />We analyze the creators’ community<br />The term ”creators’ community” means a tight gr...
Structure of the biggest clusters<br />Centralizaiton: an index of the centrality of a network<br />X^2: a degree of bias ...
Structure of the biggest clusters<br />Songwriting is often a key person, meaning that Songwriting triggers creative activ...
Cluster 1<br />Type<br />Centered<br />Key person<br />Songwriting<br />Majority<br />Illustration<br />
Cluster 2<br />Type<br />Messy<br />Key person<br />none<br />Majority<br />Illustration<br />
Cluster 3<br />The key person of this cluster introduced a character called ``HachuneMiku&apos;&apos; (an infantilized ver...
Cluster 4<br /><ul><li>Type
Messy
Key person
None
Majority
Illustration</li></li></ul><li>Cluster 5<br />Type<br />Centered<br />Key person<br />Illustration<br />Majority<br />Illu...
Cluster 6<br />Type<br />Centered<br />Key person<br />Songwriting & Illustration<br />Majority<br />Song creation<br />
Cluster 7<br />Type<br />Centered<br />Key person<br />Songwriting<br />Majority<br />Song creation<br />
Possibility of “Web of Creativity”<br />Population of “Creative People”<br />Population of Social media People<br />
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02 0122 1000 2 Takeda 100122a

  1. 1. A New Style of CreativityFrom Web of Documents to Web of Creativity<br />Hideaki Takeda<br />takeda@nii.ac.jp<br />National Institute of Informatics<br />Joint work with Masahiro Hamasaki (AIST)<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Community Web<br />The model for Community Web<br />Social media<br />Massively collaborative creation<br />Social analysis of massively collaborative creation on a video sharing site<br />Conclusion<br />
  3. 3. Apple, Inc. 2001<br />
  4. 4. Information Circulation<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Create<br />Google<br />HTML editors<br />WWW Servers<br />A new cycle is emerged!<br />Modified from Ben Shneiderman’s matrix of human activities (“Leonardo&apos;s Laptop”) <br />
  5. 5. Information Circulation<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Create<br />Collecting information<br />Past: Libraries (limited just for books)<br />Now: Google<br />Creating new information<br />Past: creating from the scratch<br />Now: creating with knowing other existing information<br />Donating (publishing) information<br />Past: Books, Journals, Mass Media (difficult part for ordinary people)<br />Now: WWW<br />
  6. 6. Create<br />Internet as Information Activities<br />Create<br />Create<br />Create<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Donate<br />Collect<br />Collect<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Donate<br />Internet<br />
  7. 7. Change of Information Circulation System<br />Pros:<br />Change of power: from limited people to everyone<br />Change of scale: from limited sources to unlimited sources<br />Change of content: from qualified contents to everyday/everyone contents<br />Cons:<br />Lost of control<br />Even criminal information can be distributed <br />Lost of quality assurance<br />
  8. 8. Information and Communication Activities<br /><ul><li> Information layerconcerns how information is explicitly represented and processed.</li></ul>Information Layer<br />Create<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Two layers for our activities <br />WWW Servers<br />HTML editors<br />Google<br />something is missing<br />People!<br />
  9. 9. <ul><li> Information layerconcerns how information is explicitly represented and processed.
  10. 10. Communication layer concerns how relationship among people are organized and maintained, which is potential route for information. </li></ul>Communication Layer<br />Collaborate<br />Relate<br />Present<br />Information and Communication Activities<br />Information Layer<br />Create<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Two layers for our activities<br />
  11. 11. Web as Communication<br />Web was created for research community<br />It is designed mainly for data and information exchange<br />But it was soon used for communication too <br />
  12. 12. Web as Communication<br />Typical Web Page<br />Data and information on research<br />Information for self introduction<br />What’s new<br />Links for colleagues<br />Pages for groups<br />Information for Communication<br />My web page around 1996<br />
  13. 13. Web as Communication<br />Typical Web Page<br />Data and information on research<br />Information for self introduction<br />What’s new<br />Links for colleagues<br />Pages for groups<br />Weblog(Blog)<br />SNS<br />Wiki<br />Information for Communication<br />
  14. 14. Blog<br />Relate<br />Present<br />Collaborate<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Publishing information through identification over time<br />Information Layer<br />Create<br />Blog (Blog tools9<br />Communication Layer<br />Blog as Identity for individual<br />Blog as Identity for individual<br />
  15. 15. SNS<br />Relate<br />Present<br />Collaborate<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Communication and publishing with personal network<br />Information Layer<br />Create<br />Communication Layer<br />
  16. 16. wiki<br />Relate<br />Present<br />Collaborate<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Publishing with collaboration<br />Information Layer<br />Create<br />Communication Layer<br />
  17. 17. Community Web<br />Relate<br />Present<br />Collaborate<br />Collect<br />Donate<br />Social Media<br />Explicit support for both layers<br />Seamless support over two layers<br />Compound support over two layers: social media and its extension<br />Information Layer<br />Create<br />Communication Layer<br />
  18. 18. Social Media<br />Media consists of interaction among massive participants that are widely distributed in the society.<br />Via Social Network<br />Via Communities<br />Examples<br />Mass Media (TV, News Papers) …No<br />Web … No in general <br />BBS … Yes<br />Blogs … Yes<br />SNS … Yes<br />Social tagging (Social bookmarking, Social news)… Yes<br />Video Sharing … Yes<br />
  19. 19. Massively Collaborative Creation<br />Creative activity through social media<br />Examples<br />BBS <br />Q&A Sites (Yahoo! Answers[usa], Yahoo!Chiebukuro[jp], Naver Knowledge iN [kr] …)<br />Wikipedia<br />NicoNicoDouga (Video sharing site) cf. Youtube<br />Features<br />Massive participation<br />Generating new contents<br />Interaction affects generation of new contents<br />
  20. 20. Massively Collaborative Creation (cont.)<br />Different ways of affections by interaction to content creation<br />Contents = Interaction<br />Interaction logs are used as contents<br />Ex.) BBS, Q&A, etc<br />Interaction influences content generation <br />Content =/= Interaction<br />Contents are generated under the influence of interaction<br />Ex.) Flickr (images vs. tags), Youtube (movies vs. comments),<br />Interaction is embedded into content generation<br />Contents are created collaboratively <br />Ex.) Wikipedia, NicoNicoDouga<br />
  21. 21. What is “NicoNicoDouga” ?<br />NicoNicoDougais the one of the most popular video sharing website in Japan<br />The most interesting function is the direct overlaying of comments on videos<br />Video<br />Overlaid comments <br />Timeline view of user comments<br />
  22. 22. Three types of interaction on NicoNicoDouga<br />Embedded interaction on the system<br />Audience and Audience<br />Sharing comments to same video<br />Feeling pseudo synchronization<br />Users feel they watch a video together!<br />Emergent Interaction<br />Audience and Creators<br />Good feedback for creators<br />Creators can get pin-point comments from users<br />Creators and Creators<br />Audience become a creator<br />
  23. 23. HatsuneMiku<br />HatsuneMiku is a version of singing synthesizer application software (“vocaloid”)<br />A user can make a singing song by giving a music note with lylic (piano roll)<br />It has inspired many people to produce various music, picture, and video compositions<br />
  24. 24. Example!!<br />Title: Shooting star –short ver.- like an ending movie<br />Creator: ussy<br />URL: http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm2030388<br />
  25. 25. Re-using network on NicoNicoDouga & HatsuneMiku<br />Picture<br />Many pictures by many authors<br />Song<br />Shooting star<br />Creator: minato<br />Song and Movie<br />3D model<br />Shooting star –short ver.-<br />like an ending movie<br />Creator: ussy<br />Shooting star–complete ver.-<br />Creator: FEDis<br />3D model<br />Movie<br />3D Miku sings ‘01_ballede’<br />Creator: kiokio<br />Song<br />melody…<br />Creator: mikuru396<br />melody… 3D PV ver1.50 <br />Creator: ussy<br />
  26. 26. A partof network of re-using relationship among creators using HatuneMiku on NicoNicoDouga<br />Our interests<br /><ul><li> What types of social network do creators have?
  27. 27. How different types of creators interact to create new content through their social network?</li></ul>Our approach<br /><ul><li>We adopted a method of social network analysis</li></li></ul><li>Findings<br />The creator’s network consists of a large and sparse component<br />Different categories of creators have different roles in evolving the network<br />Creators’ behavior is similar to audiences’ one<br />It likes Web2.0 style (A consumer is a creator!)<br />Some of communities in the network are centralized, and have specific tags<br />The characteristic (“a few popular creator and others”) becomes stronger with time<br />
  28. 28. Social Data of HatsuneMiku on NicoNicoDouga<br />36,709 videos with tag ’HatsuneMiku’ (31 May 2008) <br />Select 7,138 videos viewed more than 3,000 times<br />Crawled during 1–5 June 2008<br />The metadata include view times, uploaded date, uploader name, tags, and a description<br />7,138 videos were uploaded by 2,911 unique contributors<br />Note: <br />We regard the uploader as the video creator <br />On NicoNicoDouga, only the uploader is identified<br />The uploadermay not be the creator of the vide<br />
  29. 29. How to make networks among movies<br />The description of the movie often includes hyperlinks to other videos showing trail of the video’s creation<br />On NicoNicoDouga, a creator often cites other videos if a sound, image, or any part of another video is used as acknowledgement<br />By tracing these hyperlinks, we generated a reference network of videos<br />Among the collected videos, 4,585 videos include hyperlinks in the description<br />Movie network<br />4,585 nodes (videos)<br />12,507 links (hyperlinks)<br />
  30. 30. Videos’ network<br /> nodes: 4,585<br /> edges: 12,507<br />
  31. 31. How to make network among creators<br />We set a relation from creator of video A to creator of video B if video A has link to video B<br />It implies that Creator A uses contents of Creator B<br />In this way, we generated a network among creators<br />Creators network<br />2,164 nodes (creators) <br />4,368 links (relationships among creators)<br />We regard this network as a social network of creators<br />Video’s network<br />A<br />B<br />video<br />video<br />Creator’s network<br />
  32. 32. Creators’ network<br /> nodes: 2,164<br /> edges: 4,368<br />Red: Songwriting<br />Blue: Song creation<br />Green: Illustration<br />
  33. 33. Characteristics of the Creators Network<br /><ul><li>The network is large and sparse</li></ul>The diameter of this network is 21<br />Scale free network<br />A few nodes (creators) gather many links (citation)<br />Network centrality correlated to the number of play times<br />Many cited videos are popular for users<br />Creators’ behavior is similar to audiences’ one<br />
  34. 34. Category of Creation Activity<br />We classified creative activities related to HatsuneMiku into four categories: <br />Songwriting<br />Create an original song (lyrics and melody)<br />Song creation<br />Tune the software to create singing songs<br />Illustration<br />Drawpictures, textures, and create 3D models<br />Produce many different scenes and facial expressions<br />Editing<br />Choice videos and package them to one video<br />We classify creators semi-automatically using tags on videos<br />
  35. 35. Relationship among categories of creation<br />Many creators re-use Songwriting creators’ contents<br />Many Illustration creators re-use others’ contents<br />58<br />203<br />70<br />I<br />(Illustration)<br />C<br />(Song creation)<br />131<br />102<br />65<br />200<br />149<br />59<br />58<br />I&C<br />W<br />(Songwriting )<br />W&C<br />75<br />149<br />241<br />unknown<br />53<br />68<br />W&I<br />W&I&C<br />152<br />
  36. 36. Community on Creators Network<br />We analyze the creators’ community<br />The term ”creators’ community” means a tight group of nodes within social network of creators<br />We adopt Newman clustering to detect such communities from the social network of creators<br />Newman clustering generated 83 clusters (communities) from the social network of creators<br />We especially investigated 7 clusters of which the size is greater than 50<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Structure of the biggest clusters<br />Centralizaiton: an index of the centrality of a network<br />X^2: a degree of bias of tags in the clusters<br />Key person: a node that has the most links<br />The number of links of the node should be more than 10 percent of the cluster<br />W: SongWriting, C: Song Creation, I: Illustration<br />
  39. 39. Structure of the biggest clusters<br />Songwriting is often a key person, meaning that Songwriting triggers creative activity<br />Centered clusters often have a high degree of bias of tags<br />Centralized community often have community specific tags <br />W: SongWriting, C: Song Creation, I: Illustration<br />
  40. 40. Cluster 1<br />Type<br />Centered<br />Key person<br />Songwriting<br />Majority<br />Illustration<br />
  41. 41. Cluster 2<br />Type<br />Messy<br />Key person<br />none<br />Majority<br />Illustration<br />
  42. 42. Cluster 3<br />The key person of this cluster introduced a character called ``HachuneMiku&apos;&apos; (an infantilized version of the HatsuneMiku mascot) with leak<br />Type<br />Centered<br />Key person<br />Illustration &Song creation<br />Majority<br />Illustration ,Song creation<br />
  43. 43. Cluster 4<br /><ul><li>Type
  44. 44. Messy
  45. 45. Key person
  46. 46. None
  47. 47. Majority
  48. 48. Illustration</li></li></ul><li>Cluster 5<br />Type<br />Centered<br />Key person<br />Illustration<br />Majority<br />Illustration<br />The key person of this cluster developed the tool to program complex motions to 3D model<br />
  49. 49. Cluster 6<br />Type<br />Centered<br />Key person<br />Songwriting & Illustration<br />Majority<br />Song creation<br />
  50. 50. Cluster 7<br />Type<br />Centered<br />Key person<br />Songwriting<br />Majority<br />Song creation<br />
  51. 51. Possibility of “Web of Creativity”<br />Population of “Creative People”<br />Population of Social media People<br />
  52. 52. How many people can manga?<br />Total Male (20s) Male(30s) Male(40s) Female(20s) Female(30s) Female(40s)<br />Drew it in past<br />Drawing manga regularly<br />Just copying<br />http://www.kddi-ri.jp/pdf/KDDI-RA-200904-02-PRT.pdf<br />
  53. 53. How many people can write novels? <br />Total Male (20s) Male(30s) Male(40s) Female(20s) Female(30s) Female(40s)<br />Wrote novels in past but not now<br />Writing novels regularly<br />
  54. 54. How many people can create movies?<br />Total Male (20s) Male(30s) Male(40s) Female(20s) Female(30s) Female(40s)<br />Creating movies regularly<br />Created them in past but not now<br />
  55. 55. Social Media in Japan<br />Blog: 17M Users (3M active)/July,2008<br />Many bloggers, Wide rage <br />Hosting<br />Very Large BSS : 2-channel<br />Many topics, Many users<br />12M unique users / Nov., 2008<br />SNS<br />Mixi(17 M Users /June, 2009)<br />Wikipedia<br />One of Top five languages in Wikipedia<br />Video sharing <br />Youtube<br />NicoNicoDouga: 15M users / Dec 14, 2009<br />Picture sharing<br />Pixiv: 1.5M users/Dec 26, 2009<br />Mircoblog (twitter)<br />Now Emerging<br />(Population of Japan: 120 M)<br />(Twitter: 45M users worldwide/ June, 2009)<br />
  56. 56. Conclusion<br />Our use of Web is shifting<br />Web of Documents: Linking documents is New! Cool!<br />Web of People: Linking people is New! Cool!<br />Web of Creativity: Linking creative activity is New! Cool!<br />The model<br />“Community Web” model<br />3 Information activities and 3 Communication activities<br />Creative activity is a composite of the above 6 activities<br />Massively Collaborative Creation<br />A new style of creation<br />A natural extension of our use of web<br />A full use of “community web” activities <br />
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