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Net governance   digital natives newsletter
Net governance   digital natives newsletter
Net governance   digital natives newsletter
Net governance   digital natives newsletter
Net governance   digital natives newsletter
Net governance   digital natives newsletter
Net governance   digital natives newsletter
Net governance   digital natives newsletter
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Net governance digital natives newsletter


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An online newsletter of the Digital Natives with a Cause project, Links in the Chain is brought forth by the Centre for Internet & Society, Bangalore, India. For more details, visit: …

An online newsletter of the Digital Natives with a Cause project, Links in the Chain is brought forth by the Centre for Internet & Society, Bangalore, India. For more details, visit:

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  • 1. Links in the ChainA Newsletter of the Digital Natives with a Cause? Project Vol. 8 Issue II Editorial Net Governance & RegulationOn the wrongside of order ing for the same resources do not adhere to or clicked away to the Recycle Bin. reason - they subscribe to governance. The timeline to our current state is provided The online world is no different from ‘real’ so- not as a history lesson and neither is it an ex- ciety in this regards. In the early 90s, the Inter- planation for the governments of the world to net was this proto-tribe or clan with no definite continue with their policies, which have steadi- chieftains staking claim to territories. Netizens ly entered the territory of human rights abuse. explored lands, settled down in areas where With increasing criminal activities online – and they found resources, formed communities, increasing complaints from common man – built tools and implements (web pages, soft- the governments of the world have found it ware, applications), interacted with neighbors easy to take charge and gain footholds into (in forums and groups) and mimicked certain our personal and private spaces. We now characteristics of offline modes of communi- know more about surveillance, it’s not just a cation, be it in individual expression, group piece of brilliant fiction out of George Orwell’s GUEST EDITOR: Nilofar Ansher | India behaviour, networking, conducting business mind. Everything from phone calls, messages Journalist | Editor | Digital Native | or indulging in leisure. to emails are censored, collated, archived, Blog: | studied and sometimes, stopped from being Twitter: @culture_curate As I see it, there is inevitability to this trajec- sent out. Bloggers have been jailed, digital ac-T tory and the Web would one day need gov- tivists have been killed, net services have been ry as I might, I am unable to climb out ernance. What accelerated external imposition shut down and services to websites have been of a clichéd well of parables and phrases of monitoring and regulations were other ac- denied arbitrarily. when it comes to piecing together a co- cidental – and sometimes, deliberate – eventsherent write-up on ‘net governance and on- that took place parallel to early net explora- That moral high ground that I started off de-line regulation’. My thoughts are insistent on tions. The first SPAM email was sent out on 3 fending earlier has crumbled. Now, there is adriving home the point about ‘great power May 1978; first “bootsector” virus Elk Cloner tightening circle that we are pigeon-holed intoand great responsibility’, ‘you sow what you was released in 1981, affecting floppy disks; and I no longer look to the ‘chief’ to keep mereap’, ‘freedom is never won, you earn it’, ‘your in 1984, William Gibson writes the book ‘Neu- safe. The chief is in cohorts with the toolmanfreedom ends where my nose begins’ – you romancer’ and coins the term ‘cyberspace’, (the group that harnesses technology to makeget the drift – a pronouncedly moral poker effectively distancing the net from the edu- weapons and design our security systems),stokes this fireplace. cational and scientific “classification” into the lulling us into thinking that we cannot do with- realm of pop-culture-science-fiction; by 1989 out them. The stage is set for a showdownSo, how do I come off on a moral high ground McAfee Associates were distributing free virus between techno-politico groups on one handand err on the side of governance, especially software. and civic-non-governmental factions on thesince I label myself a digital native – a post- other; one trying to hem us within boundaries,modern netizen, and therefore (perhaps, irra- It’s in the mid-1990s, with the increasing rival- the other constantly redefining the meaning oftionally), subscriber to all things free, open and ry between business corporations Microsoft, boundaries.even anarchic? And yes, this is a battle and IBM, CISCO, Apple and Sun that we also seethere are sides. Either you want a cyberspace the first government and legal interventions in What gives you hope for a better cyber soci-with curfews and lock downs or a Wild West the arena of cyberspace and net technologies. ety? More difficult to answer, which side of theFrontier, where it’s a free for all. Napster was created in 1999, incentivizing divide do you belong – the one that thrives in music sharing online and striking the matching chaos or the one that seeks order? I am stillPerhaps a call for governance comes from a of copyright and piracy wars. Also, in the same toeing the line on this one.self-defined righteousness of the situation. I year, we experienced our first mass annihila-consider myself in danger (will come to this tion thrill with the Y2K scare, and the year fol- As Pranesh Prakash puts it succinctly, “…toolater), and so, think it’s my moral right to ask lowing, the ‘dotcom busts’ shook our bubble- little regulation and you ensure that criminalfor protection. In turn, it’s the duty of the gov- grade faith in the invulnerability of the Web. activities are carried on with impunity; tooernment to protect me. Built-in are the dia- In November 2001, The European Council much regulation and you curb the utility oflectics of trust and responsibility, freedom and adopts the first treaty addressing criminal of- the medium.” But who do you turn to whenpower, order and privacy, safety and intrusion; fenses committed over the Internet. the law makers judge you guilty even beforethese antonyms constantly warring with each you commit a crime? I guess there’s no ‘one-other in a space that is nebulous - and vir- So there you have it, our forays in cyberspace solution-fits-all’ answer. What you can bettual. Unlike statehood or borders to a city, the were never really about responsible discovery; your last buck on is that for every argumentboundaries of virtual cities are not staked to criminality and juvenile behavior also went there’s a counter-argument. The anarchistrulers yet. hand in hand. A simple example would be who wants a law-less society is pitted against the annoying CAPTCHAs that we have to pass someone who wants balance and regulationHistory has taught us that no town or village, through before our comments can be made through open data, open government andno city or state progresses without the cre- visible on a blog. If spammers didn’t have so open culture initiatives. The cynic who is fedation and evolution of complex political struc- much leverage online or the tools to hood- up of governmental control is pitted againsttures of control and regulation. A burgeoning wink the system, we wouldn’t need such check the rationalist who calls for policy consultationpopulation signals the arrival of crime in vari- points, no? The same goes for piracy, phish- with citizen-led groups. The poet who lamentsous degrees and we turn to a single entity to ing, money laundering, cyber-stalking, unso- about surveillance might find solace with theset things in order. It’s a different matter that licited pornography, hacking and disruption academic stalwarts, who believe dialogue is athose in power also wreck havoc, however, it’s of secure, functional websites, and a host of better way to achieve our aims - freedom withalso true that a diverse set of people compet- other criminal activities that can’t be ignored balance – than taking up arms. July 2011
  • 2. CONTRIBUTORS Blast From the Past No Tolls on The Internet Excerpts from the article written for The Washington Post on Thursday, June 8, 2006 Pradeep Madhok | India ALBERT MUCUNGUZI Alaa Abd El-Fatah By Lawrence Lessig & Will we reinstate net neutrality and keep the sive deal-making with telephone and cable Morning: Assistant Manager @ Schneider Robert W. McChesney Internet free? Or will we let it die at the hands giants. C (Uganda) Founder, PC Tech Magazine Egypt | Pretoria, South Africa | Egyptian Electric | Evening: poet @ http://wo-khwab. Blogger | Director of Strategy and Business blogger, software developer, and political ongress is about to cast a historic vote of network owners itching to become content We would lose the opportunity to vastly ex- Development at PC Tech Communications Ltd. activist Web: | on the future of the Internet. It will de- gatekeepers? The implications of permanently pand access and distribution of independent Web/Blog: | Twitter: @alaa cide whether the Internet remains a free losing network neutrality could not be more news and community information through Twitter: @albertmuc and open technology fostering innovation, serious. The current legislation, backed by broadband television. More than 60% of Web economic growth and democratic commu- companies such as AT&T, Verizon and Com- content is created by regular people, not cor- nication, or instead becomes the property of cast, would allow the firms to create different porations. How will this innovation and pro- cable and phone companies that can put toll tiers of online service. They would be able to duction thrive if creators must seek permission booths at every on-ramp and exit on the in- sell access to the express lane to deep-pock- from a cartel of network owners? formation superhighway. eted corporations and relegate everyone else Most of the great innovators in the history of At the center of the debate is the most impor- to the digital equivalent of a winding dirt road. the Internet started out in their garages with tant public policy you’ve probably never heard Worse still, these gatekeepers would deter- great ideas and little capital. This is no acci- of: “network neutrality.” Net neutrality means mine who gets premium treatment and who dent. Network neutrality protections mini- simply that all “like” Internet content must be doesn’t. mized control by the network owners, maxi- treated “alike” (quote marks by me) and move Their idea is to stand between the content mized competition and invited outsiders in to Dr. Anja Kovacs |Delhi, India at the same speed over the network. The own- provider and the consumer, demanding a toll innovate. Net neutrality guaranteed a free and| Movements. Activism. Technology. Research. Hasina Hasan | India | Poet | critic | Magic to guarantee quality delivery. It’s what Timo- competitive market for Internet content. The Mistress | Midnight Hauntress | Activist | ers of the Internet’s wires cannot discriminate. Feminism. Marxism. Change. Fellow at the Elonnoi Hickock | India This is the simple but brilliant “end-to-end” thy Wu, an Internet policy expert at Columbia benefits are extraordinary and undeniable. Centre for Internet and Society, Bangalore Policy and Advocacy Advocate @cis_india | Performer | Epicurious Congress is deciding on the fate of the Inter- design of the Internet that has made it such a University, calls “the Tony Soprano business | Email: | Twitter: @ Blog: | Researcher at Privacy India powerful force for economic and social good: model”: by extorting protection money from net. The question before it is simple: should anjakovacs Website: | Twitter: @wontonwarrior all of the intelligence and control is held by every website – from the smallest blogger to the Internet be handed over to the handful of Email: cable and telephone companies that control producers and users, not the networks that Google – network owners would earn huge connect them. profits. Meanwhile, they could slow or even online access for 98% of the broadband mar- The protections that guaranteed network neu- block sites and services of their competitors or ket? People are waking up to what’s at stake, trality have been law since the birth of the In- those who refuse to pay up. They’d like Con- and their voices are growing louder by the day. ternet -- right up until last year (2005), when gress to “trust them” to behave. As millions of citizens learn the facts, the mes- the Federal Communications Commission Without net neutrality, the Internet would start sage to Congress is clear: Save the Internet. (FCC) eliminated the rules that kept cable and to look like cable TV. A handful of massive Lawrence Lessig is a law professor at Stan- phone companies from discriminating against companies would control access and distribu- ford University and founder of the Center for content providers. This triggered a wave of tion of content, deciding what you get to see Internet and Society. Robert W. McChesney announcements from phone company chief and how much it costs. Major industries such is a communications professor at the Uni- executives that they plan to do exactly that. as health care, finance, retailing and gambling versity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Now Congress faces a legislative decision. would face huge tariffs for fast, secure Internet co-founder of the media reform group Free Samuel Tettner | USA / Europe María del Mar Zavala | Asunción, Paraguay use – all subject to discriminatory and exclu- Press. Researcher @CIS-India | Venezuelan Jew Member of the Environmental Law and Suffragette Surveillance, 1913who studied in the US | Science & Technology, James Mlambo | Harare, Zimbabwe Tech support, budding programmer | ICT action Economics Institute (Instituto de Derecho y knowledge, networks, innovation, and Economía Ambiental-Paraguay) | governance | Blog: | hero for kids and youth @CyberGateway Websites: Twitter: @tuyuyuPY Twitter: @Tettner index.html & | Twitter: @james_mlambo Nighat Dad | Pakistan James Bridle | UK TakeBackTheTech Campaigner | PrivacyAuthor of ‘Where the F**k Was I? (A Book)” Activist | Public Policy Researcher | Special| Has worked in a number of roles within and Mauricio Fino Garzón | Bogota, Colombia Public Prosecutor | Human Rights Activist |outside the publishing industry, from publicity Profesional en ciencia de la información - Twitter: @nighatdad and marketing to editorial, and from online bibliotecólogo, interesado en el infoactivismostrategy to web application development and y con ganas de ser backpacker // Professional production | Website: | information science librarian, interested in Twitter: @jamesbridle InfoActivism & willing to be backpacker | Twitter @maolibrarian Prashant Iyengar | India Simeon Oriko | Nairobi, Kenya Head researcher at Privacy India and The boy who changed the world | founder researcher @cis_india |and executive director of @TheKuyuProject Email: & @StorySpacesHQ | Website: http:// Pranesh Prakash | Bangalore, | Twitter: @mtotowajirani Policy wonk | Works on issues of IP reform, ‘openness’, freedom of expression, and transparency at the Centre for Internet and Society | Twitter: @pranesh_prakash / @cis_india ‘In 1912, Scotland Yard detectives bought their first camera, to covertly photograph suffragettes. The pictures were compiled into ID sheets for officers on the ground - BBC 1
  • 3. HijackTheTechWhere the F**k Was I? Let’s Talk Open Free Culture and Open Access initiatives don’t happen overnight and neither can they evolve purely in the realm of ideologies or revolutions. Let’s start by setting simple examples, says Samuel Tettner O ne of the main issues that I think about NGO handout: a manifesto of sorts (see im- cific nodes of impact-players have. If an ISP under the broad umbrella of “Internet age below), highlighting my goals, the meth- that provides access to 15% of the internet governance” is net neutrality. You all od and the process of this exercise. The actual population decides to impose limitations on have heard me rant about the evils of private implementation involved getting the team to websites that people can visit, can the misin- corporations and how they set an agenda that work together, share ideas and information, formation effects be traced and mapped on a usually pairs individuals and collective free- especially de-centralization – where one per- larger scale? It is the case that for internet gov- doms & rights versus profits. At the workshop son doesn’t control the entire workflow. ernance today, public and private interest and in Santiago (Feb 2011), I raised the issue of Of course, in the complex world we live in, the jurisdictions have bled into each other and how private corporations do not recognize specifics of an open cultural or political system created a situation in which the role of private “citizens” but “consumers” as legitimate heirs is not as simple as printing out a manifesto ISPs is crucial to the proper functioning of an of their ecosystems. At the Fear In The Digital and needs to be fleshed out in detail. For ex- information democracy. Age blogathon, I also voiced my fear about private corporations gaining too much power. The idea for me is to start talking about - ample, is it worth asking if there are types of Person First information that should not be open to every-and implementing - the culture of free and So, how do we move beyond concerns, fears one for security reasons? Having open access open access Person First and promote a to the Internet Consumer secondWhat would you do if you discover that your mobile handset records your location and rants against big companies and power- ful governments? How do we champion the to government budget allocations and private campaign contributions would increase ac- MY RIGHT TO INFORMATION Consumer second Person First transparent information ecosystem more as a fundamental right and feature of modern democracies ratherRESTRICTED! WILL NOT BE than a commoditized ser- Consumer second openness initiative? In my case, I was a good countability, but is it equally useful to know ofwhereabouts without your knowledge? James Bridle chose to take control and starting point for myself as I decided to put future military developments? MY RIGHT TO INFORMATION vice. This will curtail RESTRICTED! WILL NOT BE some of the restrictionsrecycle it into a book. In the process, he ends up assessing our status quo with digital the idea of openness into action. For this issue Person First effects and barriers that ISPs are allowed$ to institute It is also important to understand the Steps to exercising your rights of “Links in the Chain”, I created an information on the overall information network that spe- (and get away with). It may sound$ simple, but MY RIGHT TO INFORMATION $ sheet similar to the one you would see on an Consumer second 1. Steps to exercising your rights such a perceptual shift would be very helpful. 2.memories. $ $ Person First 1. $James Bridle proximation based on the device’s own “idea” breach a necessary act. Perhaps how Kevin MY RIGHT TO INFORMATION Consumer second WILL NOT BE RESTRICTED! 2. WILL NOT BE RESTRICTED! of place. The app cross-references me with puts it, in a recent talk, reappropriated for the“ MY RIGHT TO INFORMATION I have made another book from data; digital infrastructure, with cell towers and robots: “These are the astronauts for Earth, WILL NOT BE RESTRICTED! Steps to exercising your rights Steps to exercising message rightsyour local ISP Cut the your Person First Go to a printing-out of databases. This one is wireless networks, with points created by oth- and they’re inventing new ways to see rather Steps to exercising your rights$ $ Cut the message Person First Go to your local ISP $ called “Where the F**k Was I?” and con- ers in its database. than things to look at. And rather than invent- 3. 3. 4. 4. $ Consumer second 1. $ Person First 2. 2. $ $ MY RIGHT TO INFORMATION second Consumer Consumer second $ 1. WILL NOT BE RESTRICTED!TO INFORMATION ing new places to go, they’re inventing new MY RIGHTsists of 202 maps based on my movements $ 1. WILL NOT BE RESTRICTED!over the past year. We share the city, ways to travel.” 2. and increasinglyI say “based on” because the data the world, Or this: At the Worlds Literature Festival (June MY RIGHT TO INFORMATION Cut the message Go to your local ISP Cut the message Go crazycrazy Go Don’t get caught Don’t get caught WILL NOT BE RESTRICTED! Go to your local ISP with an- 2011) in Norwich, the Sri Lankan-Canadian Person Firstwas not recorded by me, but 3. Go 4. your local ISP Consumer second Cut the message to Go crazy Don’t get caught Image source: and MY RIGHT TO INFORMATION Image source: and Person First WILL NOT BE RESTRICTED! other writer Shyam Selvadurai spoke of the space 3. 4. Consumer secondby my phone. In April this year, MY RIGHT TO INFORMATION WILL NOT BE RESTRICTED!researchers Alasdair Allen and na- between his identities represented by that hyphen: a place where “the tectonic plates of Steps to exercising your rightsPete Warden revealed that the $ Go crazy Don’t get caught cultures rub against one another, producing Cut the message Go to your local ISP Image source: and http://www.moteng.comiPhone was storing location $ $ 1. 2. NewsBytesdata without the users’ knowl- the eruption of my work.” Where Selvadu- Go crazy Don’tFirst caught Person get 3. 4. Consumer second rai is interested in the space between Image source: and http://www.moteng.comedge. Using their instructions and my MY RIGHT TO INFORMATIONown scripts, I extracted 35,801 latitude- two human cultural identities, I WILL NOT BE RESTRICTED!longitude pairs stored on my phone between suppose I am interested in the Perfect filtering of information on the inter- jurisdictions, we should do nothing about and businesses without prior permission orApril and the previous June (when my phone space where human and artifi- net will lead to a fractured communication them — and allow them to be created and warning.was last updated, wiping its memory). These cial cultures overlap (“artificial” environment your local ISP Cut the message circulated here, too?” Go toare plotted on OpenStreetMap, one map for ture… is wrong, feels—what? Preju- ------------------------ Person First ------------------------each day, together with a brief note where I the other diced? Colonial? Anthropocen- Andrew 3. 4. Consumer second Keen: Compulsive sharing of every- MY RIGHT TO INFORMATION ------------------------ crazy Go AuthoritiesDon’t get produce evidence urged to caughtwanted to tie it to a real event. city is the ab- tric? Carboncentric?). WILL NOT BE RESTRICTED! thing through e-mail, Facebook, and Twitter The shadow of cyber regulation that jailed bloggerand well is alive and stract machine: is really a trap. The logical conclusion of all In response to growing Internet security Image source: The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)I think: this digital memory is better than the digital networks, There are no digital natives but this personal diarrhea — Keen says “we are concerns, governments are working toward and the Arabic Network for Human Rightsmine—it frequently recalls things and places access points, substa- the devices themselves; no digi- our own Wikileakers” — creates a frightening further regulation, with the end result pos- Information today called on the SyrianI have no personal, onboard memory of, and tions and relay points, data- tal immigrants but the devices world in which private lives all but disappear. caught being its fragmentation into discrete Go crazy Don’t get sibly government to produce immediate evidenceover time I come to rely on it over my own centers and fiber rings; its in- too. They are a diaspora tenta- national networks. To avoid such fragmenta- showing that unjustly imprisoned blogger Tal Image source: and http://www.moteng.commemories. Just as I recall my sister’s birth not habitants are sensors and screens. tively reaching out to the world, to understand it and themselves, ------------------------ tion of the Internet, states should negotiate a al-Mallohi is alive and well. The demand fol-through my own vision, but in the form of a Seeing through the machine’s eyes is a kind of breach: accessing a grosstoplogy of and across the network to find The (in)Visible Subject: Power, Privacy framework convention on cyberspace. lows several recent news reports saying thatphotograph of the event, I appear (physicallyand impossibly) in my own mental image. the network. and touch one another. This map- and Social Networking al-Mallohi died in a Syrian prison a month ping is a byproduct, part of the process by Rebecca Schild ------------------------ ago.This digital memory sits somewhere between This is an atlas, then, made by that other na- by which any of us, separate and indistinct so Schild argues that the interplay between Australia, Seeks To Censor The Internet and non-experience; it is also an ture, seen through other eyes. But those eyes long, find a place in the world.” privacy and power on social network sites After much pressure from the Australian blogger/approximation and a lie. These location re- have been following me, unseen and without works ultimately to subject individuals to the government, the country’s two largest ISPs, ------------------------cords do not show where I was, but an ap- permission, and thus I consider provoking More at gaze of others, or to alternatively render Telstra and Optus (along with two smaller Does the internet inhibit democracy? them invisible ISPs, itExtreme and Webshield) have agreed Video: to start censoring the internet, blocking a watch?v=Uk8x3V-sUgU& ------------------------ secret list of websites from view. In this new RSA Animate adapted from a Next Issue: Group Behavior Online. Privacy, By Design For me, the most interesting questions to come out of Saturday’s open-space discus- ------------------------ Africa’s First National Open talk given in 2009, Evgeny Morozov presents an alternative take on ‘cyber-utopianism’ - the seductive idea that the internet plays a Deadline: August 5. sion of Privacy, By Design at CIS were those Data Initiative: largely emancipatory role in global politics. that focused around how the notion of Kenya becomes the first country in Africa to ------------------------ ‘privacy’ is constructed and negotiated. launch a national open data initiative. Let’s take back the Internet! In this powerful talk from TEDGlobal, Re- ------------------------ first-national-open-data-initiative-kenya/ becca MacKinnon describes the expanding Please send your contributions to: What next for privacy? ------------------------ struggle for freedom and control in cyber- “The internet is in part a marketplace for Yahoo planning to spy on user’s emails: space, and asks: How do we design the next horrific images of violence and abuse. Should we say that, because these images According to the new change in ‘terms of conditions of use,’ Yahoo will also be able phase of the Internet with accountability and freedom at its core, rather than control? are created and circulated via many different to spy on incoming emails from individuals Video: Guest Editor: Nilofar Ansher | Design: Albert Mucunguzi ( / Ronald Muhwezi (@Arr_emRonnie ) 2
  • 4. Big Brother’s Legal Eagles Watching Government Agencies Withhold-ing Information on Data-Gathering Whistleblower Is Pakistan putting the UN Millennium Goals at risk? from Facebook, Twitter, and Other Online Communities The recent disclosures from Wikileaks have shown that the right San Francisco - The Electronic Frontier to information, whistle-blowing, and privacy are interconnected. Foundation (EFF), working with the Samuelson Law, Technology, and Public Elonnai Hickok looks at the different ways in which the three are Policy Clinic at the University of Cali- related, as well as looking at the benefits and drawbacks to Wikileaks in fornia, Berkeley, School of Law (Samu- With the 2011 Internet Governance Forum we have also easily – and readily – learnt how cyber-crime related complaints. terms of privacy. (IGF) slated for a September run this year, to use these platforms for subversive intents. elson Clinic), filed suit today against a A call to action for the UN half-dozen government agencies for Nighat Dad looks back at the forum in Vilin- The situation is especially acute for young On 16 September 2010, the UN Secretary-refusing to disclose their policies for us- Introduction whistleblowers and as the tribunal to protect ius, Lithuania last year where she argued for women and children who have no training or General Ban Ki-moon launched the 2010 a proactive UN engagement with women & exposure to cyber crimes and unwittingly fall MDG Gap Task Force Report with the following Iing social networking sites for investiga- whistleblowers. Structuring the power to allow tions, data-collection, and surveillance. n a recent interview, the Canadian Privacy one body to fulfil both functions runs the risk of youth in the area of Internet regulation to prey to criminal actions. words: “Tremendous progress has been made Commissioner was quoted as saying “Infor- bias and could breed distrust that would cause fully realize the MDG3. What is not often understood, even in sup- in strengthening (international) partnerships T mation and the manipulation of information people to avoid the system altogether. posedly inclusive and well-informed commu- but the agreed deadline of 2015 is fast ap- ------------------------ he IGF is an international body, set up is the key to power. Those who can control the nities like the IGF, is the appalling impact these proaching and there is still much to be done”.Transparent Government, via Web- by the United Nations (UN) to address information can influence society enormously.” In these situations, Wikileaks is an interesting actions can have, particularly in developing Mr Secretary General, for all the progress cams in India global issues of governance in the on- nations with more restrictive or conservativeThat is the premise for the webcam that History and present-day society have both and powerful tool for individuals who either line world. It was instituted five years ago and you mention towards stronger international proven the truth in this statement. It is one do not want to leak their information to a cultures. What might, in some Western na- partnerships, I hope this report makes it clear a top government official - Oommen is linked to the UN’s Millennium Development tions, amount to no more than an immature among many reasons that the right to infor- judicial body or are not protected if they do so Goals, of which Millennium Development Goal that in some respects, we are actually worse Chandy, the chief minister of Kerala but harmless prank, can – in countries like mation is important to uphold. In India, and in their own country. Leaking information to 3 (MDG3i) is specifically concerned with the off now than we were a little under two yearsstate, in southern India - has installed in Pakistan, have the most dire results: a home- in other countries, there are statutes – in India, Wikileaks is in one sense analogous to leaking evolution of women’s rights. ago, in November 2009. Our government his office, as an anticorruption experi- made, manipulated video of a young Pakistani the Right to Information Act – that entitle the information to the press, but it is not precisely shows little interest in giving its citizens either ment. Goings-on in his chamber are The IGF as an inclusive forum girl, uploaded and disseminated online, can legal protection, or practical guidance on how public to request and receive information that the same because it is not a news media out- viewable to the public, 24/7. The discussions I witnessed at IGF 2010 really cause untold harm to the subject, who may to protect themselves. pertains to public bodies and their conduct, in- let, but instead is a way for a person to post In an India beset by kickback scandals brought home the scale of challenges we still find herself facing subsequent loss of personal The deadline for MDG3 is not just challenging- formation that is publicly available. information on a mass media outlet. It should at the highest reaches of govern- face. For instance, although the Internet has liberty, mobility and recreation, and even de- ly close: it is seriously at risk. If member states be noted, however, that informants who leak ment, and where petty bribes at police been with us for a decade-and-a-half, no one prived of educational, employment and mari- such as Pakistan are allowed to do nothing, An entirely separate but equally critical way in to Wikileaks are not afforded the same immu- stations and motor vehicle depart- can seriously claim that government regula- tal opportunities, leading to social boycott and the UN cannot meet its Millennium Develop- which the public is kept informed is through nity that individuals who leak to authorities are ments are often considered a matter of tions concerning cyberspace does enough to parental censure. ment Goals. whistle-blowing. Traditionally, whistle-blowing granted. When an individual shares documents course, Oommen Chandy is making an combat violence against women in the cyber The legal dimension As the chief sponsor of the IGF and the Mil- is any disclosure made in the name of public or information with Wikileaks, the site in turn online stand. world. The technology may have evolved at a I freely admit: these are complex social and lennium Development Goals, please send the interest. Recent events such as the leaks of US acts as a platform to publish the information on phenomenal pace, but social, cultural and le- cultural issues, and neither technology nor law following message to the governments of Pak- diplomatic cables have brought to light the re- the web and with the press. ------------------------ gal changes proceed at a far slower pace. And alone can offer a solution. However, it seems istan and other developing nations: lationship between the public’s right to infor- yet, the time stipulated to achieve the MDG3 to me that one sure way to fail is to try and ad- • Act now, to engage stakeholders such as Video Surveillance and Its Impact mation, the rights of whistleblowers, and the Privacy and Whistleblowing is just five years! dress them in the absence of legal protections the women and the young; don’t allow on the Right to Privacy rights of individuals to privacy. These recent The need for video surveillance has cases have shown that the right to information, When looking at the act of whistleblowing A national perspective against cyber crime. their valuable input to be lost through grown in this technologically driven era whistle-blowing, and the right to privacy are through the lens of privacy, there are obvi- While the discussions and initiatives at IGF Pakistan’s own ‘Prevention of Electronic Crime inaction on your part; interconnected, because privacy can provide ous privacy concerns for the whistleblower, are welcome, I challenge whether they are Ordinance 2007’ was allowed to lapse several as a mode of law enforcement. Video enough, in the absence of serious national • Act now, to establish the right legal Surveillance is very useful to govern- individuals with the means to sustain auton- for the person or entity whose information months earlier, and there is no sign of new leg- framework within which your citizens’ omy against potentially overwhelming forces has been leaked, and for possible third parties debate – particularly in developing countries islation being brought forward. Unfortunately,ments and law enforcement to maintain rights can be protected against malicious of government and persons who might have involved. Paul Chadwick, the Victorian Privacy like Pakistan, where such discourse remains in absence of cyber law, only one remedy is social control, recognize and monitor and criminal online activity; mixed motivations. Commissioner, pointed out that for the whistle- extremely rare. available under Section 509 of the Pakistanthreats, and prevent/investigate criminal • Act now, to make the internet a safer blower the main privacy concerns include the There is mounting evidence that Pakistani girls Penal Code, which allows victims to register activity. In this regard it is pertinent to and women are victims of cyber crimes, in- place, where your culture and society One of the key questions that Wikileaks raises individual’s identity, safety and reputation. For complaints against harassment through thehighlight that not only are governments cluding cyber stalking, cyber pornography and can thrive, evolving in pace with technol- is this: if whistleblowing is supposed to be dis- the alleged wrongdoer, the privacy concerns in- Police Enforcement Authority. using this system, but residential com- cyber bullying. I see a certain irony in our in- ogy, not threatened by it. closure in the public interest -- i.e., to protect clude identity, safety, employment, and liberty The enforcement authority which deals with munities in certain areas are also using teractions with web technology. While on one cyber crime (the Federal Investigation Author- the public – should disclosure of personal in- (where sanctions may include imprisonment). But above all, act. this system to create a safer environ- formation be permissible only if a person can For third parties, reputation and safety can both hand we have quickly adapted to online ser- ity, or FIA) says there is no law in the country Read the original post here: http://www.gen- ment. demonstrate that he/she is trying to remedy be jeopardized by disclosures. The Wikileaks vices like YouTube, Facebook, mobile SMS as at the moment to check cyber crimes, and as or avoid actual wrongdoing rather than simply saga squarely presents the question whether well as MMS (multimedia messaging service), a result they are unable to take action on any millennium-goals-risk ------------------------ publishing information that is “interesting to the intent should be brought into the analysis of Americans Soon Facing Harsh Pen- public?” privacy and whistleblowers. If a whistleblower is alties for Illegal Downloads Text: After years of negotiations with What is a whistleblower and how does a disclosing with the intent to protect the public, the protections afforded to this person should What Open Data Means to Marginalized Communities Hollywood and the music industry, the whistleblower benefit from Wikileaks? weigh differently against the privacy interests nation’s top Internet providers have of alleged wrongdoers and third parties than Joshua Goldstein available map of Kibera, is the brainchild of creation) will help us collectively answer T agreed to a systematic approach to Whistleblowing is the modern counterpart to for someone who is simply defining the public Mikel Maron, a technologist and Open Street questions about how open data itself, and the identifying customers suspected of “informers” – people who reveal others’ wrong- interest as “interesting to the public,” or, worse, wo symbols of this era of open data are Map founder, and Erica Hagen, a new media narration of such data through citizen media digital copyright infringement and doing. In many countries, a person may pres- is looking to leak information to disrupt public President Obama’s Open Governance and development expert, and is driven by a and face-to-face conversations, can help then alerting them via e-mail or other ent information of a whistleblowing nature to a interest. Initiative, a directive that has led agen- group of 13 intrepid mappers from the Kibera even the most marginalized transform their means. Under the new process, which judicial body. The judicial body then determines cies to post their results online and open up community. In partnership with SODNET (an communities. was announced this July, several warn- the validity of the information, the degree of Even though Wikileaks works to protect the data sets, and Ushahidi, a tool for crowd- incredible local technology for social change We hope the methodology we develop,ings would be issued, with progressively public interest involved, and the proper form anonymity of individuals who leak information, sourcing crisis information. While these tools group), Phase I was the creation of the initial which will be captured on our wiki, can be harsher consequences if the initial cau- of redress to be taken. The judicial body offers it is not bound by any law to protect the privacy are bringing openness to governance and map layer on Open Street Map (see Mikel’s incorporated into other communities around tions were ignored. legal protection to the whistleblower. Another of individuals involved in the leak. The concept crisis response respectively, I believe we have recent presentation at Where 2.0). Phase II, Kenya, and to places like Haiti, where it is method of whistleblowing is to leak information behind Wikileaks is important. By interacting yet to find a good answer to the question: with the generous support of UNICEF, will critical to enable Haitians to own their own to the press. Once information is in the public with government information, it has the abil- what does open data means for the long- focus on making the map useful for even the vision of a renewed nation. ------------------------ domain – at least if there is freedom of press -- ity to bring accountability and transparency term social and economic development of most marginalized groups, particularly young Read the original post here When Data Means Privacy, What the information can no longer be covered up. to governments, but the only regulation over poor and marginalized communities? girls and young women, within the Kibera __________________________ Traces Are You Leaving Behind? Neither the right to free press, nor the right to Wikileaks is internal (and thus inherently sub- I came to Nairobi on a hunch. The hunch community. Joshua Goldstein is a What does privacy really mean? In a protection as a whistleblower is universal. jective). Wikileaks needs to change its struc- society that is increasingly relying on was that a small digital mapping experiment What we have in mind is quite simple: add technology policy PhD candidate at Princeton ture to take into account leaks shared without information to identify people, collect- taking place in the Kibera slum would matter massive amounts of data to the map around University’s Woodrow Wilson School, where The current critique of the Indian Whistle Blow- the intent of protecting the public interest and ing and archiving ‘personal’ details of ing Bill is that the right to protection will not deeply, both for Kiberans who want to im- 3 categories (health services, public safety/ he works with the Center for Information even then needs to monitor to prevent leaks your lives, your name, age, passport be ensured. A Times of India (newspaper) ar- that could place individuals in precarious situa- prove their community, and for practitioners vulnerability and informal education) then Technology Policy. He is also on the Board of details, ration card number, call records ticle issued in September 2010 points out that tions or damage reputations with no validating keen to use technology to bring the voiceless experiment with ways to increase awareness the Ugandan software consultancy Appfrica etc, how private is your tweet, status the Whistle Blowing Act’s biggest weakness is information. into a conversation about how resources are and the ability to advocate for better service Labs and has worked extensively in East update, text message or simply, your that the Bill’s Central Vigilance Commission is allocated on their behalf. provision. The resulting toolbox, which will in- Africa. restaurant bill? designated to play both the role as compe- Read the original post here: So far I haven’t been disappointed. Map volve no tech (drawing on printed maps), and He blogs at | tent authority to deal with complaints file by hYUmVK Kibera, an effort to create the first publicly tech (SMS reporting, Ushahidi and new media Twitter: @african_minute Guest Editor: Nilofar Ansher | Design: Albert Mucunguzi ( / Ronald Muhwezi (@Arr_emRonnie ) 3
  • 5. The Contrarian ViewBeing a Reluctant Anarchist Accolade for McSpeedyCould anarchy be the answer to the political turmoil and disenchantment of modern society? Alaa Abd El-Fatah reflects about Written in the Hindi language by Indian poet Pradeep Madhok, the poem bids a fond farewell to McSpeedy,‘dispossession’ as a means of being in control. the courier pigeon.R ecently, I discovered that there are as- The love letters bound us together. pects of myself that I was very assertive एक चिट्ठी अपने पहचान वाले को लिख रहा हूँ पाता He flits in my mind, McSpeedy and his flight कुछ पुरानी यादें फेर ताज़ा कर रहा हूँ लेकिन ये मुशसादी की तरह लिखने वाले की खुशबू, of back home in Egypt, but never re- Now he’s best remembered as legacy, एक वक़्त था जब संदेशो वाले कबूतर उसके घर स्याही नही लाताally expressed while traveling. Now that I live The hearty messenger with wings भेजा करता था बस मुस्सदि चिट्ठिया खोल के पढ़ता नही थाin South Africa, I find myself feeling constantly For email s have buried McSpeedy, कबूतर का नाम मुस्सदि रखा था मैने किसी संदेशे को ले जाने पे अकड़ता नही थाdispossessed of them. I write on the pages of Facebook, Google & मुस्सदि कभी इस मुंडेर पे कभी उस मुंडेर पे बैठ मेरे लिखे शब्दो पे कभी सवाल नही किया उसने Twitter Inc. जाया करता था मेरी पहचान पे कभी कोई बवाल नही किया उसनेI have been mitigating this ‘loss’ by over ex- The e-McSpeedy is no different मैं डरता था कि कोई संदेशा खो ना जाए बस इसी रिश्ते भर की दोस्ती थी अपनीpressing some of it online and it’s turning me He follows in the footsteps of his antecedent बरस के बादल कच्ची स्याही धो ना जाए मैं लिखा करता था वो सुना आता था..into a loud, incessant and boring voice. Being And moves around with upgradable options! लेकिन हर बार उसका जवाब आता थाalienated from my blog is making things worse, But the fear no longer is about speed हर बार अपनी दुआओं पे यकीन आता था.. ---- I lie awake thinking of the needas I only express myself in the very limited and वो कबूतर समझते थे मेरी चाहत शायद As I write a letter to someone familiar, Of spies to pry open my mailcrippling medium of twitter (I really don’t get भाँप लेते थे बंद लिफाफे से मोहब्बत शायद I refresh memories that are old & unclear Rain no longer dampens my paradepeople who champion the 140-character limit आज भी याद है मुझे वो मुस्सदि अपना There used to be letter carriers, It’s those evil viruses that put me nakedto communicate). पैग़ाम ला के उसका छत पे गुटरगूं करना Of the winged varieties For they know not the scent of a page पर अब वो मासूम डाकिया कहीं खो सा गया है that flocked together They know of only filter & damage.So I came to the Digital Natives workshop with अब e-mail ही सबका मुस्सदि हो गया है This one particular pigeon, I called him These private letters from me to youmy own personal agenda. I wanted to use it आज का कबूतर Facebook, Google और Twitter McSpeedy, the winged deliverer of letters Would never be read by any but youas a space to learn to express these aspects in हो गया है Twittering here, settling there, chirping For McSpeedy had eyes only on targetEnglish, and outside of my own context. With अब भी वो कभी इस मुंडेर, कभी उस मुंडेर रुका करते of stories from everywhere. He nv’r questioned what he was told tothis agenda in mind, I chose the word “The हैं Fear would strike me not unlike, forget.Dispossessed” to express my political iden- हाँ मगर अब संदेशे ज़रा जल्दी पहुचते हैं.. the thunderous clouds with lightning strikes, It is this friendship I remember todaytity in a word-matching activity. “The Dispos- पहले बारिश से डरता था, अब लिफाफे मे virus का Perhaps their tear drops would wash away For McSpeedy I write in praise,sessed” is the title of a science fiction novel by ख़ौफ़ होता है The words inked on paper, as pliable as clay. Let me end my email hereUrsula K. Le Guin, about a truly anarchist hu- तब कलम घिसा करता था, आज उंगलिया घिसता But my prayers have never gone unanswered The Draft folder is now society, living with no government, power हून लिखने मे With every flight, McSpeedy brought answershierarchies or private property. ये भी मुशसादी की तरह भारी संदेशे ले के उड़ नही He understood my yearnings unspoken to see how an understanding of my reluctant And activism is at its essence a practice in my- anarchy is shared with participants from dif- thology. We have to invent an unreal world,Dispossession ferent political backdrops and frameworks of and imagine it being possible. Then, we invent Colombia’s Copyright Bill 241 viewing democracy. ways to get there and it is the strength of thatIn Ursula’s novel, dispossession is a positive belief that carries us closer (to our goals).thing and a choice. But I also chose the wordbecause it can be understood in many ways I guess this has been my frustration withand carries negative connotations as well. “I don’t buy any of the narratives South Africa. I read the freedom charter andI’m a reluctant anarchist: I don’t buy any of the that justify states, borders, capital it brought tears to my eyes that such a docu- Mauricio Fino Garzon gives us the lowdown on a new copyright bill filed by his or governments; I abhor power innarratives that justify states, borders, capital all its forms” ment can be imagined collectively by a people living under such harsh political conditions. country’s Congress.or governments; I abhor power in all its forms I read blogs and newspapers today and feeland totally distrust representative democracy. nothing but anger that a people living in lib-And yet, I live within modern society. I con- Restoration erty can’t be bothered with imagination.sume. I have a career. I engage in politics asthey are (and I enjoy these activities). I find Khanyile from Zimbabwe chose restoration to Bullshitmyself very able to imagine the world Ursula symbolize the need for Zimbabweans to re-describes (and even see (and live) glimpses of store their sense of power, their control over My friend Amine from Morocco touched ait in spaces as diverse as slums, free software their destinies and livelihoods. We first dis- nerve here, talking about the layers of deceitmovements and youth camps. cussed how power is always within the people. and bullshit we all engage in even as activists. All power is derived from the masses but we Do we truly know who we are? What we want?While I am unable to imagine a move from What is our agenda? Are we working for the seem to need to relearn that constantly. I triedhow we are today to a state of dispossession change we say we are working for? Are we liv- to imagine the situation in Zimbabwe (despite- if it can happen - I have no patience for peo- ing the change we want to be? What are our all its horrors) in a positive way – the way Ur-ple who cannot imagine anarchy. People, who true agendas? sula saw dispossession as positive.are not only comfortable with the status quo(of semi, quasi democracy), but cannot bring Passion and Hope This resonated with the reluctant part of mythemselves to imagine other possibilities (of anarchism. Is the gulf between my reality andun-governance). Evelyn from Uganda chose passion. To her, my dream just bullshit? Even on a more per- passion is what drives one to try and change sonal level, am I a true feminist like I want toPart of the reasons why I chose to live in South the world. Marlon from South Africa chose think of myself or is my relationship with myAfrica is to do with the romantic notion that I hope. He works with the dispossessed (in the wife a replication of the power dynamics I ab-will be living among a victorious people. As very traditional sense); some have been dis- hor?Arabs, we are resigned to a very pessimistic possessed even of a place in society (beingview of the future; history and politics are a members of gangs or sex workers), but it is To Amine, the important thing is that youlong list of defeats; my personal short history hope that they’ve truly been dispossessed of, engage in the process of self reflection andas an activist is full of optimism, but entirely and it is hope that they need to regain control examination that explores your bullshit. Wemade of defeats; I thought living in post- of their lives. talked about how this matters on the personalApartheid South Africa would teach me and level more than the collective. The motivationsinspire me. Instead, what I found is a very right I found it interesting that such basic human of each individual in a movement are not es-wing, conformist society. I met the fiercest de- traits like passion and hope need to be re- sentially relevant to the success or failure offenders of the status quo. Not a day passes learned. I guess that’s what we need to reaf- that movement; good positive change canwhen I don’t feel that Egypt, with all its despair firm our power. Loss of passion or hope can happen despite all our petty failings.and decay, is a much more dynamic and free be a state that befalls anyone; even those whosociety (than South Africa). To read the full version of this write-up, visit: live in harsh environments can find hope and passion. Possession and dispossession in theirIt was with joy that I participated in the word- positive and negative aspects are functions ofmatching activity at the Digital Native work- the because it provided me with the chance Guest Editor: Nilofar Ansher | Design: Albert Mucunguzi ( / Ronald Muhwezi (@Arr_emRonnie ) 4
  • 6. Freedom Inc ‘Ltd’Limits to PrivacyWhen does the right to information supersede the right to privacy? Prashant Iyengar talks about privacy of online communication within In the name of fairnessthe framework of the Indian IT Act of 2008T he legal alibis that the State employs to Communications laws e) Public order or The common man needs safeguards from cyber crimes while having his freedom of expression protected justify its infringement of our privacy are All laws dealing with mediums of inter-per- f ) Preventing incitement to the commission of online. Diego Caseas makes a case for limited government regulations. numerous, and range from ‘public inter- sonal communication – post, telegraph and any cognizable offence relating to above orest to ‘security of the state to the ‘maintenance telephony and email – contain similarly word- When I was asked to write about Internet private spaces. shape the bill. The Marco Civil is intendedof law and order’. In this paper, I attempt to g) For investigation of any offence, ed provisions permitting interception under Governance and Online Regulation, I to be voted in the Congress, and when thisbuild a catalog of these various justifications, This discussion is the same everywhere, with specified conditions. Thus, Section 26 of the From a plain reading of these sections, there immediately accepted, because this is one happens, many rights such as anonymity andwithout attempting to be exhaustive, with the little change from country to country. In Brazil, India Post Office Act 1898 confers powers of appears to be a gradual loosening of stan- topic that most activists of freedom of privacy, safety and security, will be considered.objective of arriving at a rough taxonomy of our major problem is the Digital Crimes Bill. interception of postal articles for the “public dards from the Post Office Act to the latest expression are actively engaged with through This will go a long way in protecting humansuch frequently invoked terms. In addition I It is still proceeding, and it is intended to be good”. According to this section, this power Information Technology Act. The Post Office debates, policy or implementation. We want rights defenders and allowing free speech onalso examine some the more important justi- voted very soon (protests of the hacker groups may be invoked “On the occurrence of any Act requires the existence of a ‘state of public to make sure that the Internet is not regulated the Web.fications such as ‘public interest’ and ‘security LulzSec and Anonymous have caused a stir public emergency, or in the interest of the emergency’ or a ‘threat to public safety and into a place where basic human rights areof the state’ that have been invoked in statutes inside the Congress), but what this bill does is When it comes to regulating the Internet, public safety or tranquility”. The section further tranquility’ as a precursor to the exercise of violated, or where control over access and theand upheld by courts to deprive persons of typify common practices such as cyber crimes, there are two types of legislation: one that clarifies that “a certificate from the State or the power of interception. This requirement is user’s activities online are monitored by thetheir privacy. punishing users with restrictive sanctions and will punish the user and benefit ISPs and continued in the Telegraph Act with the addi- government. Central Government” would be conclusive even arrests. What it does is ignore all public- Intellectual Property agencies, on the excuseArticle 12 of the Universal Declaration of Hu- tion of a few more conditions, such as expedi- proof as to the existence of a public emer- I guess what drives people into fighting for a civil discussions about the subject and the new that they want to promote the market andman Rights (1948) refers to privacy in the fol- ency in the interests of sovereignty etc. Under gency or interest of public safety or tranquility. free and open Internet is the fear that people’s practices that have emerged with the use of the liability of the service; the other way islowing terms: “No one shall be subjected to the most recent IT Act, the requirement of a voices are not going to be taken into account in the Web. ensuring that at least the bare minimumarbitrary interference with his privacy, family, Most recently, Section 69 of the Information public emergency or a threat to public safety the decision-making process. We do not know To make sure that net users’ concerns are of opinions from users are heard, and thathome or correspondence nor to attacks upon Technology Act 2008 (India) contains a more is dispensed with entirely – here, the Govern- if our representatives will defend the position addressed, the Ministry of Justice has made basic human rights are considered as pillarshis honor and reputation. Everyone has the expanded power of interception which may be ment may intercept merely if it feels it ‘neces- of the user/citizen, or rather the interests of initiated a public hearing, collecting ideas and of this regulation. If we don’t do so, we riskright to the protection of the law against such exercised “when they [the authorized sary or expedient’. ISPs. And that is why it is so important to bring opinions from citizens, promoting discussion being used as puppets in the hands of privateinterference or attacks.” officers] are satisfied that it is necessary or ex- How much of a difference does it make? this debate to many areas of social life, be it on the subject and calling on citizens to help companies and governments.Similarly Article 17 of the International Cov- pedient” to do so in the interest of in schools, universities, at your work place or Excerpts from the research paper Limits toenant of Civil and Political Rights (to which In- a) Sovereignty or integrity of India, Privacy. The full version can be downloadeddia is a party) declares that: “No one shall be here: It smells like coffee in here,subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference b) Defense of India, its-privacy.pdf/with his privacy, family, home and correspon- c) Security of the State,dence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honor MAKE QUOTATION Symbol in the center ofand reputation.” d) Friendly relations with foreign States or this article – in a box: “When does public inter- est supersede the right to privacy?” How to Promote Net Freedom? *at least for now* James Mlambo cautions us to take systematic action against excessive government cyber regulation - or face a future without flavoured coffee beans.Simple, Support Cyber Anarchy! T he issue of Internet regulation is bitter- old. In many African countries, it is less than If the US congress had thrown Mark Elliot sweet for me. If I fall victim to identity a decade old. Zimbabwe is currently emerg- Zuckerberg an internet red book, I don’t think theft and the culprits are brought to ing from a decade-long economic meltdown he could have come up with Facebook (and book by government agencies, then I am all the highlight of which was a world record infla- the same applies to other web app develop-Simeon Oriko rants against the ‘hackivist’ groups online who rip apart legitimate and legal cyber platforms under the guise of digital activ- for letting the government regulate the Net. tion rate of 13.5 billion percent. Infrastructure ers). Governments in developing countriesism and free culture. But, if a blogger is thrown into filthy police cells should leave students and youths to experi-T for simply posting blogs that are critical of the ment with their ideas without much regulation. he last few months have been really email messages from him. This data was later ed a similarly shady response to the Cham- government – all in the name of internet regu- We want our African university and college eventful for net users and digital activ- shared on the Internet via a peer-to-peer file ber of Commerce in its campaign against the lation - then I certainly won’t stand for govern- campuses to produce Afro-centric solutions ists and for me in particular. There has sharing service. They also took over his Twitter Chamber’s political opponents including non- ment control of cyberspace. and platforms for furthering development inbeen increasing chatter concerning net free- account, published his social security number, profit organizations and unions.” our continent. For that to happen, the currentdom and I’m genuinely concerned about the remotely wiped his iPhone, exposed his World Why are calls to regulate the Internet grow- criticism of Internet regulation needs to per-repercussions of our efforts to keep the web of Warcraft character name(s), and revealed Naturally, this embarrassed Barr, his clients and ing loud these days? The first people to drink sist. If changes are to be made, then it mustopen and self-regulated. personal details from his life. the U.S government...but that’s the lesser part coffee did so under no one’s regulations. But only be deregulation of already existing rules of the damage. Both the actions of Anony- when coffee started spreading across the that are stifling internet development.Take for example the recent wave of cyber It gets interesting. Forbes reports: “Anony- mous and Barr have far reaching effects be- breadth and length of the world, an endlessattacks. Two “hacktivist” groups, LulzSec and a darker side to HBGary Fed- yond the scope of their individual groups/or- list of players ranging from researchers, trad- Internet regulation can be visualized in capi-Anonymous, went about defacing websites, ganizations. The actions possibly put millions ers, capitalists and industrialists jumped in to talist democracies, where dissent is possiblehacking servers and illegally obtaining user “Worse, these actions have trig- of users at risk of having their digital identities regulate coffee. Before we know it, demon- – in case government tightens the strings toocredentials online. While their actions are root- gered a cyber warfare that includes unmasked and their privacy ripped apart for strators are up in arms against the police at much – and also receives institutionalized sup-ed in a cause, the means to achieve this end stealing data, defacing websites other cyber utopians to “lol” about (as in the the WTO meetings over coffee grievances. No port. In oppressive African states, the idea ofis cruel and has caused suffering and embar- and Denial of Service Attacks, all of case of hacker group LulzSec). Ironically, Barr which go against the principles of wonder why our grandmas are saying today’s internet regulation will be used as an excuserassment to the victims. fell on the same path of the axe he had set out Internet Freedom” coffee no longer taste and smell the same as by dictators to abuse, suppress and victimize to attack the groups with.Take for example one Aaron Barr, former CEO the ones produced earlier. people – bloggers, political commentaries,of HBGary Federal, a US-based cyberspace eral’s business that offered a variety of dirty Worse, these actions have triggered a cyber critics, media and citizen journalists and activ- In the same vein, if the current discourse on in- firm. Barr had found himself at the tricks to its clients. In a proposal intended for warfare that includes stealing data, defacing ternet regulation is not handled systematically,center of a scandal that began when he told Bank of America and written on behalf of a websites and Denial of Service Attacks, all of then a couple of years into the future we will Isn’t it time to let the Internet graduate, fromthe Financial Times of his plans to reveal the law firm referred to the bank by the U.S. De- which go against the principles of Internet have a case of netizens complaining about the maybe its adolescent stage to adulthood?names of some “leaders” of the hacker group partment of Justice, Barr suggested border- Freedom. net ‘losing its flavour’. I find it funny to imag- Haven’t we listened to the other voices shout-Anonymous. line illegal tactics that aimed at responding to So what exactly are we doing? Destroying the ine that decades later, we might have digital ing “Let the Internet self-regulate”? As soon as a potential release of the bank’s documents development or rehabilitation of the telecomWhen members of Anonymous discovered moral and ethical fabric of the digital world? activists standing alongside coffee growers this Internet baby made its first birth cry across by Wikileaks. Those methods included cyber sector as well as providing web technologyBarr had been involved in the investigation, attacks, misinformation, forged documents, Supporting a cause by bringing down other and consumers at the WTO, demanding the several African nations, we are in a hurry to return of their original flavours for drinking - training and services to consumers super- strangle its voice. Do we ever think of ‘regulat-they engaged in an intense counter-attack, pressuring donors and even blackmailing legitimate structures? Championing anarchy and surfing! sedes the need to regulate or take control ing’ a baby? Do we ‘govern’ a child, or guidewiping his iPad along with its backup storage, Wikileaks supporter and Salon journalist Glenn for the sake of Internet Freedom? Yeah, right! over users’ activities online. it, is the tough question that both the govern-and copying large amounts of work-related Greenwald. In another deal, HBGary suggest- The Internet is still young, less than 20 years ment and citizens need to discuss. Guest Editor: Nilofar Ansher | Design: Albert Mucunguzi ( / Ronald Muhwezi (@Arr_emRonnie ) 5
  • 7. Alt / Tab The Next Step Towards an Open Killing the Internet Softly with Its Rules InternetWhile regulation of the Internet is a necessity, the Department of IT, through recent Rules under the IT Act, is guilty of over-regulation. This over-regulation is not only a bad idea, but is unconstitutional, and gravely How about a Federal Friendship Commission anendangers freedom of speech and privacy online, says Pranesh Prakash offshoot of the Federal Communications CommissionR egulation of the Internet, as with regulation or communication link made available or hosted. It terms of service? It will require intermediaries to bar denying them a fundamental right. Many parts of the to regulate social networks and ‘friendships’? of any medium of speech and commerce, is qualifies that by stating that they are not liable if they users from engaging in speech that is disparaging’. It Internet are in fact public spaces and constitute an a balancing act. Too little regulation and you follow certain precautions (basically, to show that doesn’t cover only intermediaries that are public-fac- online public sphere. A law requiring private parties Joshua Kroll and there are no measures in place to Nensure that criminal activities are carried on with im- they are real intermediaries). They observe ‘due dili- ing. So this means that your forwarding a joke via e- to curb speech in such a public sphere is unconstitu- ensure that friends provide a neutralpunity; too much regulation and you curb the utility gence’ and don’t exercise an editorial role; they don’t mail, which “belongs to another person and to which tional insofar as it doesn’t fall within Art.19(2) of the ow that the FCC has finally and balanced set of viewpoints. For-of the medium. This is especially so with the Inter- help or induce commission of the unlawful act; and the user does not have any right” will be deemed Constitution. acted to safeguard network tunately, policy-makers have a rarenet, as it has managed to be the impressively vibrant upon receiving ‘actual knowledge’, or on being duly to be in violation of the new rules. While gambling neutrality, the time has come opportunity to pre-empt the danger-space it is due to a careful choice in most countries notified by the appropriate authority, the intermedi- (such as betting on horses) isn’t banned in India and Since intermediaries would lose protection from to take the next step toward creating ous consequences of leaving this newof eschewing over-regulation. India, however, seems ary takes steps towards some kind of action. casino gambling is legal in Goa, for example, under the law if they don’t take down content, they have a level playing field on the rest of the technology to develop be taking a different turn with a three sets of new these Rules, all speech ‘promoting gambling’ is pro- no incentives to uphold freedom of speech of their Information Superhighway. Networkrules under the Information Technology Act. So, rules were needed to clarify what ‘due diligence’ hibited. users. They instead have been provided incentives neutrality rules are designed to en- The time has come to create a Federal involves (i.e., to state that no active monitoring is re- to take down all content about which they receive sure that large telecommunications Friendship Commission to ensure thatThese rules deal with the liability of intermediaries quired of ISPs), what ‘actual knowledge’ means, and The rules are very onerous on intermediaries, since complaints without bothering to apply their minds companies do not squelch free speech the immense power of social networks(i.e., a large, inclusive, groups of entities and indi- to clarify what happens in happens in case of con- they require them to act within 36 hours to disable and coming to an actual conclusion that the content and online innovation. However, it is is not abused. For example, social net-viduals that transmit and allow access to third-party flicts between this provision and other parts of IT Act access to any information that they receive a com- violates the rules. increasingly evident that broadband work users who have their friend re-content), the safeguards that cyber cafes need to fol- and other Acts. plaint about. Any ‘affected person’ can complain. In- companies are not the only threat to quests denied currently have no legallow if they are not to be held liable for their users’ termediaries will now play the role that judges have Given that all of these were pointed out by both the open Internet. In short, federal recourse. Users should have the op-activities, and the practices that intermediaries need Impact on freedom of speech and privacy traditionally played. Any affected person can bring civil society organizations, news media, and industry regulators need to act now to safe- tion to appeal friend rejections to theto follow to ensure security and privacy of customer forth a complaint about issues as diverse as defa- bodies, when the draft rules were released, it smacks guard social network neutrality. FFC to verify that they don’t violatedata. However, that is not what the rules do. The rules in- mation, blasphemy, trademark infringement, threat- of governmental high-handedness that almost none social network neutrality. Unregulated stead propose standard terms of service to be noti- ening of integrity of India, ‘disparaging speech’, or of the changes suggested by the public have been The time to examine this issue could social networks will give many usersWhat does the Act require? fied by all intermediaries. This means everyone from the blanket ‘in violation of any law’. It is not made incorporated in the final rules. not be better. Facebook is the domi- a distorted view of the world domi- Airtel to Hotmail to Facebook to Rediff Blogs to You- mandatory to give the actual violator an opportu- nant social network in countries other nated by the partisan, religious, andSection 79 of the IT Act states that intermediaries are Tube, to organizations and people that allow others nity to be heard, thus violating the cardinal principle Read the full post here: than Brazil, where everybody uses cultural prejudices of their immediategenerally not liable for third party information, data, to post comments on their website. What kinds of of natural justice of ‘hearing the other party’ before Friendster or something. Facebook neighbors in the social graph. The FFC has achieved near-monopoly status in can correct this by requiring social net- the social networking market. It now works to give equal time to any biased dominates the web, permeating all wall post.You have the right to remain silent aspects of the information landscape. More than 2.5 million websites have However, others have suggested integrated with Facebook. Indeed, lighter-touch regulation, simply re- there is evidence that people are turn- quiring each person to have friendsIndia has a long history of censorship that it justifies in the name of national security, but new laws governing the Internet are unreasonable and — given the multitude of online voices — poorly thought out, says ing to social networks instead of face- of many races, religions, and politicalAnja Kovacs less search engines for many types of persuasions. Still others have suggest- queries. ed allowing information harms to beI remedied through direct litigation— n March 2011, Indian media - both social What connects all these efforts? A belief that 66F(1)(B) of the IT (Amendment) Act 2008 defines Social networks will soon be the pri- perhaps via tort reform that recogniz- and traditional - was ablaze with fears that suppressing speech and opinions makes it “cyberterrorism” so broadly as to include the unau- mary gatekeepers standing between es a new private right of action against a new set of rules, proposed to comple- possible to contain the conflicts that ema- thorised access to information on a computer with a average Internet users and the web’s violations of the “duty to friend.” As so-ment the IT (Amendment) Act 2008, would nate from India’s tremendous diversity, while belief that that information may be used to cause in- promise of information utopia. But cial networking software will soon bethwart the freedom of expression of India’s simultaneously ensuring its homogenous jury to...decency or morality. The suggested sentence can we trust them with this new-found found throughout all aspects of soci-bloggers: contrary to standard international moral as much as political development. But may extend to imprisonment for life. power? Friends are unlikely to be an ety, urgent intervention is needed topractice, the Intermediary Due Dilligence if the advent of satellite television already unbiased or complete source of in- forestall “The Tyranny of The Farmville.”Rules seemed intent on making bloggers re- revealed the vulnerabilities of this strategy, The proposed Cyber Cafe Rules 2011 order that chil- dren who do not possess a photo identity card need formation on most topics, creatingsponsible for comments made by readers on the Internet has made clear that in the longtheir site. Only a few weeks earlier, the threat term, it is simply untenable. It is not just that to be accompanied by an adult who does, constrain- silos of ignorance among the dispa- Of course, social network neutrality isof online censorship had manifested itself the authors of a speech act may not be resi- ing the Internet access of crores of young people rate components of the social graph. just one of the policy tools regulatorsin a different form: although the block was dents of India; it is that everybody can now among the less advantaged sections of society in Meanwhile, social networks will have should use to ensure a level playingimplemented unevenly, mobile applications become an author, infinitely multiplying the particular. And while the US and other Western coun- the power to make or break Internet field. For example, the Department ofmarket space Mobango, bulk SMS provider number of expressions that are produced tries continue to debate the desireability of an Inter- businesses built atop the enormous Justice may need to more aggressivelyClickatell, hacking-related portal each year and that thus could come within net Kill Switch, the Indian government obtained this quantity of referral traffic they will be employ its antitrust powers to combatand blogs hosted on Typepad were suddenly the law’s ambit. In this context, even if it may prerogative through section 69A of the IT (Amend- able to generate. What will become of the recent dangerous concentrationno longer accessible for most Indian netizens, still have a role, suppression clearly can no ment Act) 2008 years ago. these businesses when friendships and of social networking market share onwithout warning or explanation. longer be the preferred or even dominant tastes change? For example, there is popular micro-blogging services. But technology of choice to manage disagree- Proponents of such legislation often point to the new recent evidence that social networks enacting formal social network neu-An appetite for censorship does not only ments. What is urgently needed is the build- threats to safety and security that the Internet poses are hastening the decline of the music trality rules is an important first stepexist among India’s legislature and judiciary, ing of a much stronger culture of respectful to defend these measures, and it is indeed a core industry by promoting unknown artists towards a more open web.however. Especially since the early nineties, disagreement and debate within and across obligation of any state to ensure the safety of its citi- who provide their music and stream-instances of vigilante groups destroying art, the country’s many social groups. If more zens. But the hallmark of a democracy is that it care- ing videos for free. Joshua Kroll is a graduate student frompreventing film screenings, or even attack- and more people are now getting an op- fully balances any measures to do so with the con- the Department of Computer Science,ing offending artists, writers and editors have portunity to speak, what we need to make tinued guarantee of its citizens’ fundamental rights. Social network usage patterns reflect Princeton University. He blogs at Free-become noteworthy for their regularity. But it sure is that they end up having a conversa- Despite the enormous changes and challenges that deep divisions of race and class. Un- dom to worth noting that even more progressive tion. the Internet brings for freedom of expression every- regulated social networks could rap-sections of society have not been averse to where, such an exercise seems to sadly not yet have The original post appears here idly become virtual gated communi-censorship: for example, section of the In- Yet the government of India so far has been systematically undertaken in India so far. and was written ties, with users cut off from others whodian feminist movement have voiced strong mostly continued on the beaten track, put- on April 1 on All Fool’s Day Excerpts from an article written for The Sunday could provide them with a diversitysupport for the Indecent Representation of ting into place a range of legislations andWomen Act that seeks to censor images of policies to meticulously monitor and po- Guardian. of perspectives. Right now, there’s no regulation of the immense decision- Read more on FCC and net neu-women which are derogatory, denigrating or lice the freedom of expression of netizens trality here: &likely to corrupt public morality. within its borders. Thus, for example, section Read the original version here: influencing power that friends have, Guest Editor: Nilofar Ansher | Design: Albert Mucunguzi ( / Ronald Muhwezi (@Arr_emRonnie ) 6
  • 8. Funny Bone End Note REGULUS REGULATORE v/s ANNA Of Politically Agnostic Technologies ANARCHICA The politics of design, of interface and the potentials of exclusion and discrimination that are built into the very structure of technology are often overlooked or made invisible, says Nishant Shah. I Maria del Mar Zavala often wear multiple hats (sometimes one And yet, for anybody studying the history of – in itself is not political in nature. In fact, it is so on the top of the other – like Dobby technology, it is obvious that this sheet of pa- in the realm of the cultural and the everyday W henever I come upon an article or in the Harry Potter books) in my inter- per did indeed revolutionise and change the that its design and application does not have a debate on internet governance, I actions with digital and internet technology world. The advent of the printing press, the any political charge. This disavowal of politi- always find myself torn. While I tend – amateur coder, information architect, Web ability to mass-produce paper, the possibility cal ambition and intervention on the part of to lean more towards a liberalized Internet— 2.0 user, cybercultures researcher, technology of sending disembodied messages and com- digital technologies is something that scares without any restrictions—I do think that some enthusiast… the list is longer than one would munications, the power of the paper to store me. It makes opaque not only the more obvi- sort of regulation is necessary at some level, have imagined. In recycling myself through information which can then be retrieved, has ous political economies of digital technologies so as to provide individual users, companies these various roles, – who owns them? Who and even states with protection. there is one thing that supports them? Who pays It is a complicated issue, and whenever I think has often worried me, for them? Who benefits about it, it is as if I have two people with com- especially when I talk from them? Who controls pletely different points of view arguing in my to many who use these and regulates them? Who head. It is sort of like when in cartoons, you technologies for mak- remains excluded? Who see the little angel and little devil popping ing change – and it is is being made to bear the up on each side of the hero/ine’s head, tell- this inherent belief that burdens? More significant- ing him/her what to do. Only that in my head, technologies are dis- ly, it reduces all politics instead of having the little angel and devil, I connected from poli- to the level of content – have Regulus Regulatore and Anna Anarchica tics. Let me dwell on so that we constantly get urging me to pick their side. Here goes their this for a bit (or a byte, new ‘readings’ of the data chatter: if you will). streams that they generate. Anna Anarchica: Seriously, Maria del Mar? You are even considering supporting limiting The debates around In all these questions, the manage to get their voices heard. It is through mal body having to intervene. freedom? That is not what you stand for! You the Internet that people can share their views Regulus Regulatore: Anna, that is not how whether the rise and politics of design, of in- dedicate your work to freedom of access to and opinions! things work. If there is no formal internation- spread of decentral- terface and the poten- information and freedom of speech! Regulus Regulatore: But it is also through the ally-agreed system in place, then the stronger ized, digital easy to ac- tials of exclusion and Regulus Regulatore: Anna, why are you being Internet that companies and governments get party will always be at an advantage. Don’t cess technologies have discrimination which are so melodramatic? Maria doesn’t want to limit hacked…and cyber bullies attack! you think that this is a good reason for cre- proven to be a catalyst built into the very struc- freedom, she just wants a bit of control. Anna Anarchica: The pros far outweigh the ating an international regulatory body dedi- for social change and ture of technology are Anna Anarchica: Control??!!! So, are we cheer- cons. cated solely to net management? political participation often overlooked or made ing for Big Brother now? Regulus Regulatore: What about creating an Anna Anarchica: No, Regulus, I don’t. I believe is fraught with parti- invisible. Regulus Regulatore: Hey! People need to be international body for Internet dispute resolu- in laissez-faire… san positions. On the responsible for their actions online. Right now, tion? That has proven to be efficient for inter- And the debate between Anna Anarchica and one hand are people anyone can do whatever they want, and it is been transforming the world the last five hun- • How do technologies determine who gets national agreements in other areas of gover- Regulus Regulatore goes on and on… They who celebrate the negotiation and interven- a voice? not only the good guys who are using the In- nance, policy and regulation. both raise very important points, but I can tion making power of these technologies dred years. It is a technology – print or writing ternet after all! It is a total free-for-all! Anna Anarchica: I don’t believe that is neces- never decide whom to side with. How about and attribute to them great agential power – that, by its very design possibilities and limi- • How do the digital webs exclude those Anna Anarchica: Keyword being “free”! It is sary. Things will eventually settle without a for- you? Are you more of an Anna or a Regulus? tations, is able to shape, not only how we have who shall always remain outcasts? that can change the world. On the other are by means of the Internet that the oppressed communicated with each other, but also how those who look at these tech developments we think of ourselves. Let us remember that • Whatare the kind of people who get to Poetry in Motion with great suspicion, trying to make a case for the first proof of our identity, is not in images become digital natives? the power of the human will rather than the scope of technology design. On either side of or in sounds but in a document, printed on a • What happens to our understanding of the the Technology line, the arguments rage, fast piece of paper, that declares us human and relationship between the state and the citi- A tale-in-verse of gastronomic mishaps, retold by Hasina Hasan. alive and legally present – the birth certificate. and furious, and often futile. While they see a zen? The parts of a poem Only then did they realise, Mister Lorry spoke at length: cause-and-effect link between technology and I take the example of the blank sheet of paper, were so constructed they didn’t know The Law “Now you see that words of joint co-author- politics – technology as a tool in the hands of because we have grown so use to the world • What are our digital rights? by four co-authors To whom could the verses cling, ship need to be co-jointly intended by the those demanding and making change, there is of letters, of writing and of printing that we • How does the technology design and while being seated, Who governed it all? authors who intended to co-write firstly on a a deafening silence around the idea of Politi- have appropriated paper as an integral part of structure mitigate social evils? in diverse global locations joint platform. Yes. Also note that individual cal Technologies. the human socio-cultural fabric. However, it is with their hearts-n-minds-unitedly-working, ((((Oink)))) ((((Oink)))) ((((Oink)))) contribution should be indistinguishable from The functional focus on digital technologies necessary to realize that technology interfaces • How does technology emerge as the de- to the socially just cause The piggy couldn’t just wait group distinguishing characteristics. Post and products have not only a political agenda facto arbitrator of law? – economic prosperity, time-space shrinkage, of a simple affirmation... She rushed to her lawyer partum, do be ....” transparent interaction and governance – has in their design, but also the power to shape In its very presence, technology is political. of L.I.F.E. Mr Lorrie, who was an expert been so overwhelming that in the realm of the the ways in which human history and memory Politics play a part not only in the tool-based So, on to an FB status message they piled, in these lyrical matters. Phew! Sighed the piggy, WWW, technologies are imagined as agnostic function. That the blank sheet of paper, in its approach (remix-share-reuse) but in the very line after line, Ears ringing with music, to politics; more scarily, for me, there seems inability to capture oral traditions, eradicates nature and rise of the digital technologies. To in spritely synchronocity. the lyrics of Mr Lorrie to be this established disconnect between them. The tyranny of a piece of paper makes think of them, in the postmodern fashion, as Below the Panda’s status message, was intestinally manic *_* the everyday practices of technology and the invisible the ways by which human articulation a-political, as agnostic to politics, as without the Piggy posted a comment, Piggy didn’t wait to hear the rest spectrum of politics within which we operate. is recorded and fixed, instead of allowing it the an ideological mooring, and as disconnected the little Ladybug another, Piggy huffed and Piggy did fret Let me give a hypothetical (and hence the negotiation power that fluidity brings with it. from the everyday personal politics, is some- and a Spelling Bee followed. Piggy rushed from Mr. Lorry, P , absolute truth; as opposed to factual) ana- The conventions of writing, the processes of thing that scares me… because it lets people Posting LineAfterLine, Bee & Bug logue example to explain this further. reading, the very technologies by which print believe that they can interact with technolo- making lyrical progression. Not for a moment realising products are produced, are determined by gies without worrying about the often contra- Take a blank sheet of paper, for example. To dictory and generally tyrannical structures of The poetry jam and butter was sandwiched that it was just the material, formal, efficient and final design all appearances, the blank sheet of paper, is being that it produces. It makes others believe to a final version. A simple case of stomachly upset and potentials of this interface. To think of the completely agnostic to the uses it can be put that digital natives, hence, can be located en- It was a sight to behold! Yes THAT’S RIGHT! paper as bereft of political design, ambition to. It can become a letter of love, drenched tirely in the realm of lifestyle shopping and cul- Their ping-Like-click fest turning Piggy had a case of indigestion. and destiny, would be to neglect the lessons in overpowering affections, it can be a note tural consumption and not to be reckoned as LIVE into a blessed poe-m! learned in human history. of dismissal shattering dreams for somebody actors of political change and transformation. Back home, Piggy to the Bee The digital interface (and the surrounding who is fired, it can be a financial promissory But | but | but | but | but | erm, Rattled subversive cacophony paraphernalia of tools and apps) is right Like the feminists of old, it is time perhaps to note facilitating complex legal and economic the piggy butted in When all she need have done now facing a similar problem. There is, in the proclaim that like the personal, the “The Tech- transactions, or it can become the rag you use “POST PRODUCTION” was take a simple colon test seductive nature of the interface, a value of nological is the Political” to mop a spill on your desk. It is generally pre- Piggy said, “Give it to me now!” Ooh, Aah, Ouch clucked agnosticism which allows for the proliferation Nishant Shah is Director (Research) at the sumed, that the piece of paper does not really POST PRODUCTION Piggy with crackling poo of these digital interfaces. It is presumed that Centre for Internet & Society, Bangalore have any design or agency that will change Piggy nearly caused a little pow-wow Pained Piggy / looking silly the digital interface – home for so many of us the world forever. POST PRODUCTION. in her irritable bowel distress. Guest Editor: Nilofar Ansher | Design: Albert Mucunguzi ( / Ronald Muhwezi (@Arr_emRonnie ) 8