The erotic brain by adolf tobeña

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  • what are you writing this stuff for, Adolf? Is it a subject that interests you? Do you not think that it is 'overconfident' to openly discuss subjects like this? It isn't Dresden's loads of money.
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  • 1. El cerebro erótico: rutas neurales de amor y sexo Barcelona: La Esfera de los Libros, 2006 Adolf Tobeña Depto. Psiquiatria. Instituto de Neurociencias. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. Bellaterra.
  • 2. The erotic brain
    • Sexual Attractions
    • Desire, impulse
    • Sexual Orientation
    • Sexual pleasures
    • Clímax responses
    • Romantic Infatuation
    • Jealousies, Heartbreaks
    • Maternal/Paternal loves
    • Friendship attachments
    • Platonic devotions
    • Sentimental exploitations …
    Mind/brain states subserved by specific neuroendocrine (complex) mechanisms Social affiliation system: imperfect monogamy, in humans
  • 3. Evolutionary roots: Primate affections?... Parental care, playful/attachment and sex behaviors Or monogamous bird‘s mating systems???....
  • 4. SocioSexual rules in Apes HUMANS: - Imperfect monogamy (Serial monogamy, moderate polyginia..…) - Preference for a partner + frequent scanning for alternatives + collateral matings - High behavioural/social flexibility
  • 5. HUMAN IMPERFECT MONOGAMY/MODERATE POLIGYNIA
    • BIPARENTAL INVESTMENTS (Differences women vs. men)
    • - Neotenic infants (large period of brain maturation off utero)
    • - Extended learning period in childhood
    • 2. BATTLE OF THE SEXES :
    • - Concealed ovulation in women
    • - Concealed estrus (heat)
    • - Extended sexuality (nonrestricted receptivity)
    • - Feminine/masculine ornaments (attractive signals)
    • - Mate guarding
    • - Extrapair copulations (cuckoldry)
  • 6. Scatterplot of men (top) and women (down) in the 2-dimensional space defined by their attraction to men (x axis) and women (y axis) Lippa RA (2006), Psychological Science , 17, 1, 46-52. 1767 subjects (687 males and 1080 females) , mostly Psychology students from California State University, Fullerton, answering privately (through internet) valid questionnaires and scales about sexual attraction . HOMO/HETERO ATTRACTION/PREFERENCES
  • 7. Erotic brain: motivational/performance systems
  • 8. Hypothalamic sex-regulating areas: anterior/preoptic and medial regions - Sexual identity/orientation - Sexual motivation/performance
  • 9. Cameron JL (2004), in RE Dahl and LP Spear (Eds.): Adolescent brain development, Annals NYAS, Vol. 1021, 110-123.
  • 10. Mean youth values of steroid hormones in each sex Females (N=81) Males (N=102) Follicular Luteal DHEAS (ng/ml) 1,32 (0,64) 1,3 (0,62) 2,07(0,93) AD (ng/ml) 3,8 (2,56) 5,99 (2,78) 0,99 (0,6) DHEA (ng/ml) 6,24 (6,5) 3,2 (3,4) 1,48 (1,03) LH (miu/ml) 15,06 (6,17) 30,,57 (17,6) 10,75 (4,8) T (ng/ml) 0,6 (0,4) 0,73 (0,4) 4,98 (2,56) TEBG (nmol/l) 57,8 (21,7) 67,4(33,9) 46,75( (13,7) FTI 0,04 (0,04) 0,04 (0,03) 41,8 (26,6) P (ng/ml) 1,08 (1,23) 4,53 (5,73) - E (ng/ml) 0,066 (0,058) 0,19 (0,10) - DHEA= Dihidroepiandrosterone; AD: Androstenodione; LH: Luteinizing hormone; T= Testosterone; TEBG=Testosterone binding globuline; FIT= Free testosterone; P= Progesterone; E= Estradiol. From Udry (1990).
  • 11. The erotic brain
    • Sexual Attractions
    • Desire, impulse
    • Sexual Orientation
    • Sexual pleasures
    • Clímax responses
    • Romantic Infatuation
    • Jealousies, Heartbreaks
    • Maternal/Paternal loves
    • Friendship attachments
    • Platonic devotions
    • Sentimental exploitations …
    Mind/brain states subserved by specific neuroendocrine (complex) mechanisms Social affiliation system: imperfect monogamy, in humans
  • 12. Body form and healthy/young attributes as a source of sexual cues Salient/Appealing Cues + Neural Templates for physical attractiveness SEXUAL ADVERTISING QUALITIES OF THE HUMAN BODY-SKIN
  • 13. Mate choices in young humans: preferred atributes for long-term relationships
    • Men want partners: Women want partners:
    • 1. Affectionate, caring Affectionate, caring
    • 2. Physically Attractive ** Easygoing, good temper
    • 3. Easygoing Intelligent *
    • 4. Interesting High education/status*
    • 5. Intelligent * Ambitious
    • 6. High education/status* Physically attractive **
    • 7. A bit younger A bit older
    • 8. Smaller Taller
  • 14. Meeting with strangers and sex: David Buss (1994) classical Hawai City study
    • Questions on casual/brief “spontaneous” encounter:
    • 1. Would you go out on a date with me tonight?
    • 2. Would you go back to my apartment with me tonight?
    • 3. Would you have sex with me tonight?
    • WOMEN MEN
    • 1. (50%) (50%)
    • 2. ( 6%) YES !! (68%)
    • 3. (0%) (75%)
    Prudent vs. Impulsive!!
  • 15. MATE CHOICE STRATEGIES AND DARWINIAN SEXUAL SELECTION
    • Physical attractiveness features :
    • - ORNAMENTS AS HONEST SIGNALS OF REPRODUCTIVE VALUE
    • - FITNESS SIGNALS
    • - TEMPERAMENTAL/COGNITIVE ATTRIBUTES
    • - SOCIAL SIGNALS
    • - SHORT-TERM VS. LONG-TERM CHOICES
    • Women versus Men choices
  • 16. Physical Beauty/Sex appeal variations : - Age - Race/Ethnicities - Culture/Fashion …. Continuities : - Feminine morph/faces/bodies (estrogenic) - Masculine morph/faces/bodies (androgenic)
  • 17. Neural systems for reward and addiction: from actions, to habits to compulsions. Everitt BJ and Robbins TW (2005) Nature Neuroscience , 8, 1481-9. Green arrows: Glutamate Orange arrows: Dopamine Pink arrows. GABA ATTRACTION SYTEMS: FACES
  • 18. Aharon I et al. (2001) Neuron ,32, 537-551.
  • 19. Aharon I et al. (2001) Neuron ,32, 537-551.
  • 20. Knut K, Kampe W, Frith ChD, Dolan RJ and Frith U (2004), Nature , 413, 589-590.
  • 21. Knut K, Kampe W, Frith ChD, Dolan RJ and Frith U (2004), Nature , 413, 589-590.
  • 22. Bare skin + Gaze + Gesture as salient/sexy cues Neural systems for reward and addiction: from actions, to habits to compulsions. Everitt BJ and Robbins TW (2005) Nature Neuroscience , 8, 1481-9. Green arrows: Glutamate Orange arrows: Dopamine Pink arrows: GABA Sexual stimuli Sex-appeal cues and reward systems
  • 23. SEXUAL ADVERTISING + INDUCING QUALITIES OF THE BODY-SKIN
    • Visual cues from a distance
    • Direct cues from touch and taste
    • Indirect cues (aware/nonaware) as smell
  • 24. Redouté J et al (2000) Human Brain Mapping , 11, 162-177. EROTIC IMAGING
  • 25. Redouté J et al (2000) Human Brain Mapping , 11, 162-177. Stimuli N= neutral videos; H= Humorous videos; A: nonarousing women pictures; B: moderately arousing women pictures; C. highly arousing women pictures; S: Explicit heterosexual coitus videos.
  • 26. Redouté J et al (2000) Human Brain Mapping , 11, 162-177.
  • 27. Miyagawa Y et al (2007), Neuroimage , 36, 830-842. Six healthy heterosexual men, age= 30-39 years, sexually mature (T and semen measures), had penile recordings and PET scans while viewing sexually explicit intercourses (S) vs. control clips (N,M). Left Figure: specific activations at the ventral right putamen during sexual plateau (Sp). Differences in activation also obtained on the left anterior hypothalamus, ACC, insula and right posterior parieto/temporal regions .
  • 28. Giorgiadis JR et al (2006), European Journal of Neuroscience , 24, 3305-3316. 12 heterosexual women volunteers, mean age 34 years, range 21-47, accompanied by their partners who manually stimulated them during the PET scan sessions. In addition to main effects (Figure) there were specific results patterns in the contrasts Stim vs. Rest, Orgasm vs. Rest and Orgasm vs. Stim.
  • 29. Giorgiadis JR et al (2006), European Journal of Neuroscience , 24, 3305-3316. Positive correlations between sexual arousal (perceived) and rectal pressure with regional blood flow PET-scan measures. Significant level in this figure is P < .001. Superimposed on T1-weighted MR standard single subject image from SPM99.
  • 30. Men and women differ in amygdala response to visual sexual stimuli Hamman S et al (2004), Nature Neuroscience , 7, 411-416. Average fMRI signal change for males and females for couples, opposite-sex and neutral stimuli (vs. fixation baseline), for ROIs in the left amygdala, right amygdala and hypothalamus . Couples = couples stimuli; O.S. = opposite-sex stimuli; Neutral = neutral stimuli. Error bars indicate s.e.m. Regions of significant overlap (conjunction) between group activations for males and females . The statistical conjunction between the activation maps for males and females ( P < 0.05 corrected,  10 contiguous voxels) for the couples stimuli versus neutral, non-sexual stimuli. ( a ) Axial view ( z = -4) showing common activation in ventral striatum and occipital cortex. Color bar indicates maximal Z values. ( b ) Brain-surface rendered view of the same map, showing parieto-temporal-occipital and frontal activations spanning regions associated with visual processing, attention, and motor and somatosensory function. Regions in red surpassed a P < 0.05 corrected threshold. The right hemisphere is on the bottom of the image.
  • 31. The erotic brain
    • Sexual Attractions
    • Desire, impulse
    • Sexual Orientation
    • Sexual pleasures
    • Clímax responses
    • Romantic Infatuation
    • Jealousies, Heartbreaks
    • Maternal/Paternal loves
    • Friendship attachments
    • Platonic devotions
    • Sentimental exploitations …
    Mind/brain states subserved by specific neuroendocrine (complex) mechanisms Social affiliation system: imperfect monogamy, in humans
  • 32. EROTIC/ROMANTIC INFATUATION
    • Being in love
    • - Intense attraction
    • - Neurogonadal urges
    • - Exaggerated Mood Oscillations (Euphoria/desperation)
    • - Perceptual/affective interpersonal fusion (f olie a deux )
    • Function
    • Neuroendocrine Tempest to strengthen monogamous binding (transient vs. long-lasting)
  • 33. Intensity 1 2 3 4 Time (Years) Love/sex kynetics: Passion ( red ); Affect/companionship ( green )
  • 34. Neurogonadal cascades: main stars
    • Desire/Sexual drive :
    • Testosterone , dihidrotestosterone, androstenodione, others…
    • Appeal/Atractiveness :
    • Dopamine , androstens, copulins...
    • Satisfaction, sexual pleasure :
    • Opioids , oxitocine…
    • Possession/Jealousy :
    • Vasopressine , serotonin…
    • Affection/attachment/companionship:
    • Oxitocine , endozepines, prolactine…
    • Memories of affective pleasures :
    • Glutamate , nitric oxide……
    Love/Sex profiles dependent on these different neurohormonal systems. Men/Women differences !!!
  • 35. Hormonal changes when falling in love Marazitti D and Canale D (2004) Psychoneuroendocrinology , 29, 931-936. Depts. of Psychiatry and Endocrinology, Pisa University, (Italy).
  • 36. Hormonal changes when falling in love Marazitti D and Canale D (2004) Psychoneuroendocrinology , 29, 931-936. When subjectes were retested 12-24 months later no differences remained!!!
  • 37. Prairie voles: a model for monogamous love Ethology of pair bonding : Sue Carter and Carroll Horbaugh Neurobiology of Affective Attachments : Larry Young and Thomas Insel National Institutes of Mental Health, Bethesda Washington DC
  • 38. Prairie voles: ethology of monogamous fusion
  • 39. Sexual maturity main regulators: Hypothalamic-Hypophysis-Gonadal interactions
  • 40. OXYTOCIN RELEASE AND STIMULATION
  • 41. Pair bonding neurochemistry in Prairie Voles Partner preference test
  • 42. A neurochemical map of pair-bonding mechanisms in monogamous voles From detailed neuroanatomy to transgenic/transpecies manipulations
  • 43. Donaldson JR and Young L (2008), Science , 322, 900-904.
  • 44. Donaldson JR and Young L (2008), Science , 322, 900-904.
  • 45. Donaldson JR and Young L (2008), Science , 322, 900-904.
  • 46. Walum H et al (2008) PNAS , 105, 37, 14153-14157. 552 twin pairs and their spouses (Swedish Registry), mostly white middle class, born between 1944-1971. 82% married and 18% cohabiting. 238 MZ.
  • 47.  
  • 48. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love Andreas Bartels and Semir Zeki Neuroimage (2004), 21, 1155-1166
    • Procedure :
    • 20 Mothers, 34 years age (27-40) provided photos of their own child (oc) or an acquainted child (ac) same age (9months-6 years, mean 24 months).
    • Also provided photos of a best friend (all females: 36,9 years age, relationship time > 15 years)
    • fMRI sessions in a 2T Siemens equipment.
    • Subjects only had to view the photos and relax
    • Pictures presented on a screen, in pseudorandom order, against a gray background, in a passport format.
    • Each picture presented 6 times for 15 sec.
  • 49. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love Andreas Bartels and Semir Zeki Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK Neuroimage (2004), 21, 1155-1166.
  • 50. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love Andreas Bartels and Semir Zeki Neuroimage (2004), 21, 1155-1166 Activations with maternal love Maternal love activations: viewing own child vs. acquaintance child same age
  • 51. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love Andreas Bartels and Semir Zeki Neuroimage (2004), 21, 1155-1166 Contrasting maternal (n=19) versus romantic (n=17) female populations.
  • 52. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love Andreas Bartels and Semir Zeki Neuroimage (2004), 21, 1155-1166 Specific and Overlapping areas
  • 53. Maternal and romantic love: Summary of fMRI ACTIVATION results Bartels A and Zeki S (2004), Neuroimage , 21, 1155-1166
    • Specific of Maternal love :
    • PAG
    • Lat. Orbito-frontal cortex
    • Lat Fusiform gyrus
    • Frontal eye fields
    • Dorsal Occipital cortex Shared by both Maternal/Romantic Love :
    • Insula medial
    • Anterior Cingulate
    • Caudate, putamen
    • Specific of Romantic Love : Subthalamic nucleus
    • Hypothalamus G. Pallidum
    • Dentate gyrus Substantia Nigra
    • Ventral Tegmental Area
  • 54. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love Andreas Bartels and Semir Zeki Neuroimage (2004), 21, 1155-1166 Same deactivated areas: maternal (oc-ac) and romantic (lover – friend)
  • 55. Maternal and romantic love: fMRI DEACTIVATED areas Bartels A and Zeki S (2004) , Neuroimage, 21, 1155-1166
    • In both Maternal and Romantic Love :
    • Middle Prefrontal Cortex **
    • Parietal Cortex
    • Medial Temporal Cortex
    • Temporal Pole Thinking and warning systems
    • Posterior Cingulate *
    • Medial Precuneus
    • Amygdala **
  • 56. Regions rich in Oxytocin and Vasopressin receptors : fMRI activations Maternal and romantic love Bartels A and Zeki S (2004), Neuroimage , 21, 1155-1166
  • 57. Gordon I et al (2008) Psychophysiology , 45, 349-352. 45 students (21 males, 24 females), with a mean age of 24,6 years (SD=3,2) voluntereed for a small payment. In a subsample (N=18), hormonal mesures were repeated; consistency of OT levels, R=0,93.
  • 58. Neurogonadal love/sex cascades: main stars
    • Desire/Sexual drive :
    • Testosterone , dihidrotestosterone, androstenodione, others…
    • Appeal/Atractiveness :
    • Dopamine , androstens, copulins...
    • Satisfaction, sexual pleasure :
    • Opioids , oxitocine…
    • Possession/Jealousy :
    • Vasopressine , serotonin…
    • Affection/attachment/companionship:
    • Oxitocine , endozepines, prolactine…
    • Memories of affective pleasures :
    • Glutamate , nitric oxide……
    Love/Sex profiles dependent on these different neurohormonal systems. Individual differences in motivation, pleasure, preferences and intimate affect !!!
  • 59. El cerebro erótico: rutas neurales de amor y sexo Barcelona: La Esfera de los Libros, 2006