The  Rome  Republic Chap 14 6th Grade
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The Rome Republic Chap 14 6th Grade

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Rome - The Republic

Rome - The Republic
Middle School 6-8

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The  Rome  Republic Chap 14 6th Grade The Rome Republic Chap 14 6th Grade Presentation Transcript

  • The Rome Republic Chapter 14 509 BC – 30 BC
  • The Government Hierarchy of Government Chosen for life Veto power Administrators/ Military leaders handled daily problems protected rights of plebians 2 Consuls Senate 300 Senators Judges Assemblies Tribunes
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  • The Twelve Tables
    • Roman law not written down
    • 450 BC 12 bronze tablets
    • Foundation for future Roman Law
    • Steps toward a democratic society
  • Section 2
    • Feared Etruscan Revival
      • Invasion
      • alliance
    • 290 BC – leading power in Central Italy
    • Legions- strong army (5000)
      • Subgroups of 60-120
    • Legionaries- soldiers
  • Legions vs. Phalanx
    • Legions
    • Smaller/move faster
    • Fight independently
    • Move to all sides of enemy
    • Phalanx
    • Fought as group
    • 1 direction to fight enemy
  • Legions as a Fighting Force
    • Well trained
    • Practiced with double edged swords
    • Built fortified camps before nightfall when on the move
    • Built roads from lava block for easier transportation of supplies
  • Those who were conquered…
    • Romans – mild rulers
    • Did not tax those they conquered (at first)
    • Allowed to keep their own government
    • Some allowed to become citizens
    • IN RETURN
    • Serve in army
    • Support Roman foreign policy
  • Roman Expansion
  • Section 3 THE PUNIC WARS
    • The set-up
      • Romans still conquering lands
      • Moved towards Phoenician city-Carthage
      • Carthage controlled
        • North & West Africa
        • Most of present day Spain
        • Western ½ of Sicily
      • Romans wanted Sicily
        • Felt threatened by Carthaginians
        • Had some good grain on the island
  • 1st Punic War
    • Started 264 B.C.
    • Lasted 23 years!
    • Carthage power rested in a strong navy
    • Rome power came from its army
    • Romans found Carthaginian ship on beach
      • Modeled a ship after it
        • Corvus – movable bridge-improvement
        • Allowed Romans to board their ships
    • Romans defeated them in 241 BC-
      • Carthaginians left Sicily
  • 2nd Punic War
    • 218 B.C.
    • Carthaginians started this one
    • Led by General Hannibal Barca
    • Surprise attack from the North through Gaul (present day France) - Then over Alps
    • Used elephants for transportation
    • Successful until he marched into Rome
    • Didn’t have equipment need to break city walls
    • Rome controlled the Navy and the Sea
    • Hannibal wasn’t getting any supplies!
    • Wandered for 15 years on S. Italy
      • Raiding, burning towns, being rotten scoundrels!
    • Rome attacked Carthage
    • Hannibal called to protect it
      • Failed
      • Carthage paid $$$, gave up all its land and its resources –copper, gold, lead, iron
  • 3rd Punic War
    • 50 years of peace
    • Carthage began to regain power
    • Rome put the “thumbs down” on that
    • 149 BC attacked
    • Burned Carthage
    • Ruined land – salt to earth
    • Killed the people/sold into slavery
    • Same time people of Corinth rose up against Rome, bad idea
    • Corinth attacked – burned to the ground
    • Places under Roman control
      • Macedonia, Syria, Greece
  • What do you know?
    • What happened to Carthage in the Third Punic War?
    • What happened to Carthage in the Third Punic War?
    • City was burned, land was destroyed by plowing salt into the land, people killed/sold into slavery
    • Who led the Carthaginians in the 2 nd Punic War?
    • Who led the Carthaginians in the 2 nd Punic War?
    • Hannibal
    • What unusual mode of transportation did they use?
    • What unusual mode of transportation did they use?
    • Elephants
  • Section 4 Effects of Conquest
    • Changes in Rome and its people
    Decline of Roman Republic Flourishing democratic society City life Farm life Coming of slavery Many free people Big Estates Small Farms
  • Let’s break it down!
    • Agricultural changes
    Small Farmer Hard work Service To Rome Grew wheat Latifundias Crops,sheep Cattle-sell At market Imported wheat
  • Why the change?
    • Main reason-
    • Hannibal’s invasion
      • His soldiers lived off land
      • Roman farmers burned fields/crops to keep away from Hannibal’s men
      • Noble, but ruined land
      • No $ to fix farms, land after war for average guy
      • Patricians and rich business men bought small farms
        • Combined them to make latifundias
  • Introduction of Slavery
    • Remember the kind, gentle Roman take over? All Gone!
    • Greece, Syria, Carthage all had slaves
      • All were very wealthy
      • Romans impressed with how they used the slaves
      • Began enslaving the people they conquered
      • Worked them in the latifundias
  • Tradin’ in the plow for a tie!
    • Once the little guy sold his land
      • Stay and work for new owner
      • Go to the city for work
        • Most did this
      • Living conditions bad
        • Crowded into wooded apartment type buildings
        • No aqueducts for water
        • No sewer systems either
        • Buildings often collapsed/burned
        • Widespread Typhus
    • Little industry in Rome
    • Farmers were mainly construction workers
    • Businesses staffed by enslaved people from Greece
    • Main way to get money was to sell their “votes” to politicians
  • What goes up, must come down!
    • The bigger Rome got, the more demands they made upon its people
      • Demanded taxes
      • Slaves from conquered areas
      • Tax contracts-
        • Publicans prepaid taxes; then collected from conquered lands-at a higher rate (10%)
  • Cutting off you nose in spite of your face. . .
    • 135 BC Rome is feeling consequences for its actions
    • Farmers lost their economic & political independence with loss of their land
    • Merchants lost wealth- rich Romans bought luxuries elsewhere
    • Artisans lost work – rich Romans looked to Greece/Syria for goods
    • Government officials too busy getting rich- not minding the “store”
    • Huge division between rich/poor now-not politically stable
  • what do you remember?
    • What is a Latifundias?
    • What is a Latifundias?
    • Large farming estate
    • What is a publican?
    • What is a publican?
    • Roman Tax Collectors
    • What did Roman farmers do to keep Hannibal’s armies from using their land?
    • What did Roman farmers do to keep Hannibal’s armies from using their land?
    • Burned their fields and crops
  • Section 5 Roman Leadership
  • The Reformers
    • Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus-133 BC
      • Thought making small farmers leave their land caused Rome’s troubles
      • Became a tribune – wanted to limit how much land 1 person could own
      • Wanted to divide up public land and give it to the poor
      • Another tribune vetoed his idea; he talked to the assembly-got his idea in-other tribune out
      • Ran for 2 nd term-against law
      • Senate staged a riot-got he and hundreds of followers killed
    • 123 BC Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (brother) elected tribune
    • Thought should move poor back to the country
    • Continued work of his brother
    • Had government take over wheat sales
      • Sold to poor –below market
      • Soon given away – 1 out of 3 got free wheat
      • Senate began to feel threatened-had him killed
  • The Generals
    • 107 BC General Gaius Marius
      • Military hero
      • Son of a day laborer
      • 1 st lower class Roman to be elected to high office
      • Supported by military
      • Wanted to set up a professional army
        • Open to everyone; not just property owners
        • Convinced poor to join by offering pay, land, pensions
        • People loyal to the general/not the government
  • But I Want It!!!!!!!
    • General Lucius Cornelius Sulla
      • Given a military post
      • Marius wanted the same post
      • Marius tried to get Assembly to take it away from Sulla and give it to him
      • Sulla got mad and marched into Rome-Civil War ensued
      • Sulla declared himself “Dictator” at his victory
    • Immediately increased power of Senate-doubled their size
    • Weakened power of tribune
    • Generals could only hold command 1 yr
  • Julius Caesar
    • Sulla retires
    • Generals fight for control
    • Triumvirate is formed
      • 3 persons with equal power
    • 1 st Triumvirate
      • Marcus Licinius Crassus
      • Gnaeus Pomeius-believed in a republic ruled upper class senators
      • Julius Caesar- believed in one-man rule
    • Crassus dies
    • Pompey is murdered
    • Caesar is in control
    • 46 BC he is dictator of Rome
  • His Reforms
    • Redistributed state lands in Italy
    • Founded new colonies
    • Gave land to ex-soldiers
    • Began public works programs-roads etc.
    • Free gladiator games to public
    • Doubled the senate – gave business people a chance to gain entry
    • Cut back activities of publicans
    • Gave citizenship to Greeks, Spaniards, Gauls
    • Adopted a new calendar-based on Egyptian
      • Called the Julian- still used today
  • Beware the Ides of March!
    • Fears he would make himself King
    • 60 men-senators plotted his death
    • Entered the Senate on the “Ides of March” March 15- stabbed to death
  • End of the Republic
    • People turned away from the Senate
    • Power passed to another triumvirate
      • Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony)
        • Caesar’s closest follower- took eastern territory
      • Octavian
        • Caesar’s grand-nephew(adopted son) – took charge of West
        • Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
          • Caesar’s top officer- took over rule in Africa
    • Worked for a little while
    • Fights broke out between them
    • 31 BC Octavian won
    • Within 4 years- sole ruler of Roman Empire
  • Mind Bender
    • What is a triumvirate?
    • What is a triumvirate?
    • 3 person rule
    • What is a dictator?
    • What is a dictator?
    • Someone who rules with absolute power
    • Why was Julius Caesar murdered?
    • Why was Julius Caesar murdered?
    • They feared he would become King