The Rome Republic Chap 14 6th Grade


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Rome - The Republic
Middle School 6-8

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  • The Rome Republic Chap 14 6th Grade

    1. 1. The Rome Republic Chapter 14 509 BC – 30 BC
    2. 2. The Government Hierarchy of Government Chosen for life Veto power Administrators/ Military leaders handled daily problems protected rights of plebians 2 Consuls Senate 300 Senators Judges Assemblies Tribunes
    3. 5. The Twelve Tables <ul><li>Roman law not written down </li></ul><ul><li>450 BC 12 bronze tablets </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation for future Roman Law </li></ul><ul><li>Steps toward a democratic society </li></ul>
    4. 6. Section 2 <ul><li>Feared Etruscan Revival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alliance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>290 BC – leading power in Central Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Legions- strong army (5000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subgroups of 60-120 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legionaries- soldiers </li></ul>
    5. 7. Legions vs. Phalanx <ul><li>Legions </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller/move faster </li></ul><ul><li>Fight independently </li></ul><ul><li>Move to all sides of enemy </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanx </li></ul><ul><li>Fought as group </li></ul><ul><li>1 direction to fight enemy </li></ul>
    6. 8. Legions as a Fighting Force <ul><li>Well trained </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced with double edged swords </li></ul><ul><li>Built fortified camps before nightfall when on the move </li></ul><ul><li>Built roads from lava block for easier transportation of supplies </li></ul>
    7. 9. Those who were conquered… <ul><li>Romans – mild rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Did not tax those they conquered (at first) </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed to keep their own government </li></ul><ul><li>Some allowed to become citizens </li></ul><ul><li>IN RETURN </li></ul><ul><li>Serve in army </li></ul><ul><li>Support Roman foreign policy </li></ul>
    8. 10. Roman Expansion
    9. 11. Section 3 THE PUNIC WARS
    10. 12. <ul><li>The set-up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans still conquering lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved towards Phoenician city-Carthage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carthage controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North & West Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most of present day Spain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western ½ of Sicily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans wanted Sicily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Felt threatened by Carthaginians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had some good grain on the island </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 13. 1st Punic War
    12. 14. <ul><li>Started 264 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted 23 years! </li></ul><ul><li>Carthage power rested in a strong navy </li></ul><ul><li>Rome power came from its army </li></ul><ul><li>Romans found Carthaginian ship on beach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeled a ship after it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corvus – movable bridge-improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed Romans to board their ships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Romans defeated them in 241 BC- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carthaginians left Sicily </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. 2nd Punic War
    14. 16. <ul><li>218 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Carthaginians started this one </li></ul><ul><li>Led by General Hannibal Barca </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise attack from the North through Gaul (present day France) - Then over Alps </li></ul><ul><li>Used elephants for transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Successful until he marched into Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t have equipment need to break city walls </li></ul>
    15. 17. <ul><li>Rome controlled the Navy and the Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Hannibal wasn’t getting any supplies! </li></ul><ul><li>Wandered for 15 years on S. Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raiding, burning towns, being rotten scoundrels! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rome attacked Carthage </li></ul><ul><li>Hannibal called to protect it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carthage paid $$$, gave up all its land and its resources –copper, gold, lead, iron </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. 3rd Punic War
    17. 19. <ul><li>50 years of peace </li></ul><ul><li>Carthage began to regain power </li></ul><ul><li>Rome put the “thumbs down” on that </li></ul><ul><li>149 BC attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Burned Carthage </li></ul><ul><li>Ruined land – salt to earth </li></ul><ul><li>Killed the people/sold into slavery </li></ul>
    18. 20. <ul><li>Same time people of Corinth rose up against Rome, bad idea </li></ul><ul><li>Corinth attacked – burned to the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Places under Roman control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macedonia, Syria, Greece </li></ul></ul>
    19. 21. What do you know?
    20. 22. <ul><li>What happened to Carthage in the Third Punic War? </li></ul>
    21. 23. <ul><li>What happened to Carthage in the Third Punic War? </li></ul><ul><li>City was burned, land was destroyed by plowing salt into the land, people killed/sold into slavery </li></ul>
    22. 24. <ul><li>Who led the Carthaginians in the 2 nd Punic War? </li></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><li>Who led the Carthaginians in the 2 nd Punic War? </li></ul><ul><li>Hannibal </li></ul>
    24. 26. <ul><li>What unusual mode of transportation did they use? </li></ul>
    25. 27. <ul><li>What unusual mode of transportation did they use? </li></ul><ul><li>Elephants </li></ul>
    26. 28. Section 4 Effects of Conquest
    27. 29. <ul><li>Changes in Rome and its people </li></ul>Decline of Roman Republic Flourishing democratic society City life Farm life Coming of slavery Many free people Big Estates Small Farms
    28. 30. Let’s break it down! <ul><li>Agricultural changes </li></ul>Small Farmer Hard work Service To Rome Grew wheat Latifundias Crops,sheep Cattle-sell At market Imported wheat
    29. 31. Why the change? <ul><li>Main reason- </li></ul><ul><li>Hannibal’s invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His soldiers lived off land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman farmers burned fields/crops to keep away from Hannibal’s men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noble, but ruined land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No $ to fix farms, land after war for average guy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patricians and rich business men bought small farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combined them to make latifundias </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 32. Introduction of Slavery <ul><li>Remember the kind, gentle Roman take over? All Gone! </li></ul><ul><li>Greece, Syria, Carthage all had slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All were very wealthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans impressed with how they used the slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began enslaving the people they conquered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked them in the latifundias </li></ul></ul>
    31. 33. Tradin’ in the plow for a tie! <ul><li>Once the little guy sold his land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay and work for new owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to the city for work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most did this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living conditions bad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crowded into wooded apartment type buildings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No aqueducts for water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No sewer systems either </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings often collapsed/burned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread Typhus </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 34. <ul><li>Little industry in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers were mainly construction workers </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses staffed by enslaved people from Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Main way to get money was to sell their “votes” to politicians </li></ul>
    33. 35. What goes up, must come down! <ul><li>The bigger Rome got, the more demands they made upon its people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demanded taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves from conquered areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax contracts- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Publicans prepaid taxes; then collected from conquered lands-at a higher rate (10%) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 36. Cutting off you nose in spite of your face. . . <ul><li>135 BC Rome is feeling consequences for its actions </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers lost their economic & political independence with loss of their land </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants lost wealth- rich Romans bought luxuries elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans lost work – rich Romans looked to Greece/Syria for goods </li></ul><ul><li>Government officials too busy getting rich- not minding the “store” </li></ul><ul><li>Huge division between rich/poor now-not politically stable </li></ul>
    35. 37. what do you remember?
    36. 38. <ul><li>What is a Latifundias? </li></ul>
    37. 39. <ul><li>What is a Latifundias? </li></ul><ul><li>Large farming estate </li></ul>
    38. 40. <ul><li>What is a publican? </li></ul>
    39. 41. <ul><li>What is a publican? </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Tax Collectors </li></ul>
    40. 42. <ul><li>What did Roman farmers do to keep Hannibal’s armies from using their land? </li></ul>
    41. 43. <ul><li>What did Roman farmers do to keep Hannibal’s armies from using their land? </li></ul><ul><li>Burned their fields and crops </li></ul>
    42. 44. Section 5 Roman Leadership
    43. 45. The Reformers <ul><li>Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus-133 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought making small farmers leave their land caused Rome’s troubles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became a tribune – wanted to limit how much land 1 person could own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to divide up public land and give it to the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another tribune vetoed his idea; he talked to the assembly-got his idea in-other tribune out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ran for 2 nd term-against law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate staged a riot-got he and hundreds of followers killed </li></ul></ul>
    44. 46. <ul><li>123 BC Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (brother) elected tribune </li></ul><ul><li>Thought should move poor back to the country </li></ul><ul><li>Continued work of his brother </li></ul><ul><li>Had government take over wheat sales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sold to poor –below market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soon given away – 1 out of 3 got free wheat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate began to feel threatened-had him killed </li></ul></ul>
    45. 47. The Generals <ul><li>107 BC General Gaius Marius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military hero </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Son of a day laborer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st lower class Roman to be elected to high office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to set up a professional army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open to everyone; not just property owners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convinced poor to join by offering pay, land, pensions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People loyal to the general/not the government </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 48. But I Want It!!!!!!! <ul><li>General Lucius Cornelius Sulla </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given a military post </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marius wanted the same post </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marius tried to get Assembly to take it away from Sulla and give it to him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulla got mad and marched into Rome-Civil War ensued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulla declared himself “Dictator” at his victory </li></ul></ul>
    47. 49. <ul><li>Immediately increased power of Senate-doubled their size </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened power of tribune </li></ul><ul><li>Generals could only hold command 1 yr </li></ul>
    48. 50. Julius Caesar <ul><li>Sulla retires </li></ul><ul><li>Generals fight for control </li></ul><ul><li>Triumvirate is formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 persons with equal power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 st Triumvirate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marcus Licinius Crassus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gnaeus Pomeius-believed in a republic ruled upper class senators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar- believed in one-man rule </li></ul></ul>
    49. 51. <ul><li>Crassus dies </li></ul><ul><li>Pompey is murdered </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar is in control </li></ul><ul><li>46 BC he is dictator of Rome </li></ul>
    50. 52. His Reforms <ul><li>Redistributed state lands in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Founded new colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Gave land to ex-soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Began public works programs-roads etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Free gladiator games to public </li></ul><ul><li>Doubled the senate – gave business people a chance to gain entry </li></ul><ul><li>Cut back activities of publicans </li></ul><ul><li>Gave citizenship to Greeks, Spaniards, Gauls </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted a new calendar-based on Egyptian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called the Julian- still used today </li></ul></ul>
    51. 53. Beware the Ides of March! <ul><li>Fears he would make himself King </li></ul><ul><li>60 men-senators plotted his death </li></ul><ul><li>Entered the Senate on the “Ides of March” March 15- stabbed to death </li></ul>
    52. 54. End of the Republic <ul><li>People turned away from the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Power passed to another triumvirate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caesar’s closest follower- took eastern territory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Octavian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caesar’s grand-nephew(adopted son) – took charge of West </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marcus Aemilius Lepidus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caesar’s top officer- took over rule in Africa </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 55. <ul><li>Worked for a little while </li></ul><ul><li>Fights broke out between them </li></ul><ul><li>31 BC Octavian won </li></ul><ul><li>Within 4 years- sole ruler of Roman Empire </li></ul>
    54. 56. Mind Bender
    55. 57. <ul><li>What is a triumvirate? </li></ul>
    56. 58. <ul><li>What is a triumvirate? </li></ul><ul><li>3 person rule </li></ul>
    57. 59. <ul><li>What is a dictator? </li></ul>
    58. 60. <ul><li>What is a dictator? </li></ul><ul><li>Someone who rules with absolute power </li></ul>
    59. 61. <ul><li>Why was Julius Caesar murdered? </li></ul>
    60. 62. <ul><li>Why was Julius Caesar murdered? </li></ul><ul><li>They feared he would become King </li></ul>