The  Rome  Republic Chap 14 6th Grade
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

The Rome Republic Chap 14 6th Grade



Rome - The Republic

Rome - The Republic
Middle School 6-8



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



1 Embed 18 18



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

The  Rome  Republic Chap 14 6th Grade The Rome Republic Chap 14 6th Grade Presentation Transcript

  • The Rome Republic Chapter 14 509 BC – 30 BC
  • The Government Hierarchy of Government Chosen for life Veto power Administrators/ Military leaders handled daily problems protected rights of plebians 2 Consuls Senate 300 Senators Judges Assemblies Tribunes
  • The Twelve Tables
    • Roman law not written down
    • 450 BC 12 bronze tablets
    • Foundation for future Roman Law
    • Steps toward a democratic society
  • Section 2
    • Feared Etruscan Revival
      • Invasion
      • alliance
    • 290 BC – leading power in Central Italy
    • Legions- strong army (5000)
      • Subgroups of 60-120
    • Legionaries- soldiers
  • Legions vs. Phalanx
    • Legions
    • Smaller/move faster
    • Fight independently
    • Move to all sides of enemy
    • Phalanx
    • Fought as group
    • 1 direction to fight enemy
  • Legions as a Fighting Force
    • Well trained
    • Practiced with double edged swords
    • Built fortified camps before nightfall when on the move
    • Built roads from lava block for easier transportation of supplies
  • Those who were conquered…
    • Romans – mild rulers
    • Did not tax those they conquered (at first)
    • Allowed to keep their own government
    • Some allowed to become citizens
    • Serve in army
    • Support Roman foreign policy
  • Roman Expansion
  • Section 3 THE PUNIC WARS
    • The set-up
      • Romans still conquering lands
      • Moved towards Phoenician city-Carthage
      • Carthage controlled
        • North & West Africa
        • Most of present day Spain
        • Western ½ of Sicily
      • Romans wanted Sicily
        • Felt threatened by Carthaginians
        • Had some good grain on the island
  • 1st Punic War
    • Started 264 B.C.
    • Lasted 23 years!
    • Carthage power rested in a strong navy
    • Rome power came from its army
    • Romans found Carthaginian ship on beach
      • Modeled a ship after it
        • Corvus – movable bridge-improvement
        • Allowed Romans to board their ships
    • Romans defeated them in 241 BC-
      • Carthaginians left Sicily
  • 2nd Punic War
    • 218 B.C.
    • Carthaginians started this one
    • Led by General Hannibal Barca
    • Surprise attack from the North through Gaul (present day France) - Then over Alps
    • Used elephants for transportation
    • Successful until he marched into Rome
    • Didn’t have equipment need to break city walls
    • Rome controlled the Navy and the Sea
    • Hannibal wasn’t getting any supplies!
    • Wandered for 15 years on S. Italy
      • Raiding, burning towns, being rotten scoundrels!
    • Rome attacked Carthage
    • Hannibal called to protect it
      • Failed
      • Carthage paid $$$, gave up all its land and its resources –copper, gold, lead, iron
  • 3rd Punic War
    • 50 years of peace
    • Carthage began to regain power
    • Rome put the “thumbs down” on that
    • 149 BC attacked
    • Burned Carthage
    • Ruined land – salt to earth
    • Killed the people/sold into slavery
    • Same time people of Corinth rose up against Rome, bad idea
    • Corinth attacked – burned to the ground
    • Places under Roman control
      • Macedonia, Syria, Greece
  • What do you know?
    • What happened to Carthage in the Third Punic War?
    • What happened to Carthage in the Third Punic War?
    • City was burned, land was destroyed by plowing salt into the land, people killed/sold into slavery
    • Who led the Carthaginians in the 2 nd Punic War?
    • Who led the Carthaginians in the 2 nd Punic War?
    • Hannibal
    • What unusual mode of transportation did they use?
    • What unusual mode of transportation did they use?
    • Elephants
  • Section 4 Effects of Conquest
    • Changes in Rome and its people
    Decline of Roman Republic Flourishing democratic society City life Farm life Coming of slavery Many free people Big Estates Small Farms
  • Let’s break it down!
    • Agricultural changes
    Small Farmer Hard work Service To Rome Grew wheat Latifundias Crops,sheep Cattle-sell At market Imported wheat
  • Why the change?
    • Main reason-
    • Hannibal’s invasion
      • His soldiers lived off land
      • Roman farmers burned fields/crops to keep away from Hannibal’s men
      • Noble, but ruined land
      • No $ to fix farms, land after war for average guy
      • Patricians and rich business men bought small farms
        • Combined them to make latifundias
  • Introduction of Slavery
    • Remember the kind, gentle Roman take over? All Gone!
    • Greece, Syria, Carthage all had slaves
      • All were very wealthy
      • Romans impressed with how they used the slaves
      • Began enslaving the people they conquered
      • Worked them in the latifundias
  • Tradin’ in the plow for a tie!
    • Once the little guy sold his land
      • Stay and work for new owner
      • Go to the city for work
        • Most did this
      • Living conditions bad
        • Crowded into wooded apartment type buildings
        • No aqueducts for water
        • No sewer systems either
        • Buildings often collapsed/burned
        • Widespread Typhus
    • Little industry in Rome
    • Farmers were mainly construction workers
    • Businesses staffed by enslaved people from Greece
    • Main way to get money was to sell their “votes” to politicians
  • What goes up, must come down!
    • The bigger Rome got, the more demands they made upon its people
      • Demanded taxes
      • Slaves from conquered areas
      • Tax contracts-
        • Publicans prepaid taxes; then collected from conquered lands-at a higher rate (10%)
  • Cutting off you nose in spite of your face. . .
    • 135 BC Rome is feeling consequences for its actions
    • Farmers lost their economic & political independence with loss of their land
    • Merchants lost wealth- rich Romans bought luxuries elsewhere
    • Artisans lost work – rich Romans looked to Greece/Syria for goods
    • Government officials too busy getting rich- not minding the “store”
    • Huge division between rich/poor now-not politically stable
  • what do you remember?
    • What is a Latifundias?
    • What is a Latifundias?
    • Large farming estate
    • What is a publican?
    • What is a publican?
    • Roman Tax Collectors
    • What did Roman farmers do to keep Hannibal’s armies from using their land?
    • What did Roman farmers do to keep Hannibal’s armies from using their land?
    • Burned their fields and crops
  • Section 5 Roman Leadership
  • The Reformers
    • Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus-133 BC
      • Thought making small farmers leave their land caused Rome’s troubles
      • Became a tribune – wanted to limit how much land 1 person could own
      • Wanted to divide up public land and give it to the poor
      • Another tribune vetoed his idea; he talked to the assembly-got his idea in-other tribune out
      • Ran for 2 nd term-against law
      • Senate staged a riot-got he and hundreds of followers killed
    • 123 BC Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (brother) elected tribune
    • Thought should move poor back to the country
    • Continued work of his brother
    • Had government take over wheat sales
      • Sold to poor –below market
      • Soon given away – 1 out of 3 got free wheat
      • Senate began to feel threatened-had him killed
  • The Generals
    • 107 BC General Gaius Marius
      • Military hero
      • Son of a day laborer
      • 1 st lower class Roman to be elected to high office
      • Supported by military
      • Wanted to set up a professional army
        • Open to everyone; not just property owners
        • Convinced poor to join by offering pay, land, pensions
        • People loyal to the general/not the government
  • But I Want It!!!!!!!
    • General Lucius Cornelius Sulla
      • Given a military post
      • Marius wanted the same post
      • Marius tried to get Assembly to take it away from Sulla and give it to him
      • Sulla got mad and marched into Rome-Civil War ensued
      • Sulla declared himself “Dictator” at his victory
    • Immediately increased power of Senate-doubled their size
    • Weakened power of tribune
    • Generals could only hold command 1 yr
  • Julius Caesar
    • Sulla retires
    • Generals fight for control
    • Triumvirate is formed
      • 3 persons with equal power
    • 1 st Triumvirate
      • Marcus Licinius Crassus
      • Gnaeus Pomeius-believed in a republic ruled upper class senators
      • Julius Caesar- believed in one-man rule
    • Crassus dies
    • Pompey is murdered
    • Caesar is in control
    • 46 BC he is dictator of Rome
  • His Reforms
    • Redistributed state lands in Italy
    • Founded new colonies
    • Gave land to ex-soldiers
    • Began public works programs-roads etc.
    • Free gladiator games to public
    • Doubled the senate – gave business people a chance to gain entry
    • Cut back activities of publicans
    • Gave citizenship to Greeks, Spaniards, Gauls
    • Adopted a new calendar-based on Egyptian
      • Called the Julian- still used today
  • Beware the Ides of March!
    • Fears he would make himself King
    • 60 men-senators plotted his death
    • Entered the Senate on the “Ides of March” March 15- stabbed to death
  • End of the Republic
    • People turned away from the Senate
    • Power passed to another triumvirate
      • Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony)
        • Caesar’s closest follower- took eastern territory
      • Octavian
        • Caesar’s grand-nephew(adopted son) – took charge of West
        • Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
          • Caesar’s top officer- took over rule in Africa
    • Worked for a little while
    • Fights broke out between them
    • 31 BC Octavian won
    • Within 4 years- sole ruler of Roman Empire
  • Mind Bender
    • What is a triumvirate?
    • What is a triumvirate?
    • 3 person rule
    • What is a dictator?
    • What is a dictator?
    • Someone who rules with absolute power
    • Why was Julius Caesar murdered?
    • Why was Julius Caesar murdered?
    • They feared he would become King