The Civil War Chapter 16
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The Civil War Chapter 16

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A civil war PP for the middle school ages

A civil war PP for the middle school ages

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The Civil War Chapter 16 The Civil War Chapter 16 Presentation Transcript

  • The Civil War Chapter 16 1861 - 1865
  • Section 1
  • The Confederacy
    • 7 States had formed the Confederacy
      • Georgia
      • Florida
      • Texas
      • Mississippi
      • South Carolina
      • Louisiana
      • Alabama
  • Border States
    • Missouri
    • Kentucky
    • Maryland
    • Delaware
    • Why was it important to have control of these border states?
  • How West Virginia came to be
    • Not everyone was in favor
    • Eastern TN and western VA supported the Union
    • Appalachian region
    • Area move to secede
    • 48 VA counties
    • West Virginia admitted in 1863
  • Who’s got more (or less) The North Good points
    • Larger population
    • More industry
    • More abundant resources
    • Better banking system-finance the war
    • Had more ships-old
    • Regular navy loyal to the Union
    • More and better RR system
  • Who’s got more (or less) The North Bad points
    • Bringing South back would be difficult
    • Public opinion about the war shaky
  • The South’s Strength’s
    • Strong support of its white population
    • Fighting in familiar territory
    • Leadership was superior to North
      • Jefferson Davis- West Point grad
  • South’s Disadvantages
    • Smaller population of free men
    • Few factories-weapons
    • Produces ½ food as North
    • ½ RR tracks than North, fewer trains
    • State’s rights hampered Confederate power
  • Gotta have a plan
    • The North
    • Main Goal- bring Southern states back into the Union
    • Ending slavery – secondary goal, changed to a primary goal later
  • North’s Strategies
    • Navy
      • Blockade of Southern ports
      • No in, no out
    • Gain control of MS river
      • Cut supply lines
      • Split confederacy
    • Capture Richmond
  • South’s Goals
    • Win recognition as an independent nation
      • Preserve their way of life
  • South’s strategies
    • Be defensive, tire out the North
    • Expected pressure from Britain/France against North
    • Tricked by going on the offensive occasionally- attacking in the north
      • psyche them out
  • Blood was not thicker than water!
    • Lincoln’s wife had family that fought on the confederate side
    • Senator John Crittenden – 2 sons
      • 1 on each side
    • Jefferson Davis, Robert E Lee, George McClellan & William Sherman – West Point
    • Actual fights against family
  • Call to duty
    • young, inexperienced
    • average 25, 40% 21 or younger
    • most were farmers, 50% in North, 60% in South
    • no African/Americans in North initially
    • 90-day service, then 3 year service in North
  • UNEVEN SIDES 1861 REBELS 112,000 END OF WAR- # WHO FOUGHT – REBELS 850,000 END OF WAR- # WHO FOUGHT – YANKEES 2.1 MILLION 1861 YANKEES 187,000
  • IN IT FOR THE LONG RUN
    • BOTH SIDES ENVISIONED A QUICK VICTORY
    • GENERAL SHERMAN
      • “I think it is to be a long war—very long—much longer than any politician thinks.”
    • He was right
  • What do you know?
    • Where was the Confederate capital?
    • What were the Union and Confederate soldiers called?
    • Where did most of the soldiers from both sides come from?
    • What was the most important “border” state?
    • What “newly formed state” entered the Union in 1861?
  • Answers
    • Richmond
    • Yankees and Rebels
    • Farms
    • Maryland
    • West Virginia
  • Section 2 Bull Run
  • Who, When, Where
    • 1 st major battle- July 1861
    • Northern VA – Manassas Junction
    • 30,000 inexperienced Union troops
      • General Irvin McDowell
    • Confederate troops-inexperienced
      • General PGT Beauregard
  •  
  • Jackson gets his name
    • Yankees rallied first
    • Rebels came back
      • Inspired by Gen.Thomas Jackson (?)
        • Held out like a “stonewall”
        • Forward surge-strange yell
          • Rebel yell
        • Scared Yankees, turned and ran in panic
  • New General for the North
    • Bull Run opened North’s eyes
    • No easy defeat
    • Lincoln requests 1 million soldiers/3 years
    • Gen. George B. McClellan, new head of Union army – Army of the Potomac
  • By land and By Sea
    • Naval Blockades
    • North wants to shut down supply lines/exports
    • 3500 miles of coastline- daunting task
    • South had “blockade runners”
      • Ships sailing in/out of ports
    • Forces North to build more ships
    • Blockade reduces trade by 2/3rds
      • Guns, ammo, coffee, shoes, nails, salt
  • Monitor VS Merrimack
    • South fights the blockade
    • Redesigns the Merrimack
      • Abandoned wooden, Yankee ship from a confederate seize
      • Covers it- ironclad
      • Renamed the Virginia
      • Yankee ships can’t penetrate it
    • North pits its ironclad Monitor against it
    • Even match- no longer a theat
    • 1 st battle between 2 metal covered ships
  •  
  • War in the West
    • Gaining control of MS River
      • Split the confederacy
  • Ulysses S. Grant Captures Forts Henry and Donelson Opens path for Union To march into TN, MS, AL
  • Battle of Shiloh General Grant 40,000 Union Troops Corinth, MS-important RR junction 1 st Strike- South, before Yankee Reinforcements arrival Shiloh- Church near Union encampment South led by Generals *Johnston, Beauregard 2 – day “bloodiest” *20,000 casualties Union victory Control of Memphis follows
  • Capture of New Orleans
    • April 26, 1862
    • Union Naval forces
      • David Farragut
    • Plan worked
    • New Orleans cut off
    • no longer carry crops to sea via river
    • Grant’s Northern victories
    • control of the river- splitting the confederacy
  • Back in the East
    • General McClellan took time to train inexperienced troops
    • March, 1862- Army of the Potomac ready
    • 1 st stop – Richmond, VA
    • Peninsula Campaign
      • McClellan to Army by ship
      • Between York & James Rivers
      • Spent time “evaluating” Rebel forces
      • Agitated President Lincoln- “You Must Act”
  • Seven Days Battles
    • McClellan slowly reached Richmond-Capitol
    • Confederates led by Robert E. Lee
    • Calvary leader J.E.B. Stuart
      • Led 1200 troops around Yankees- gather info
      • Allowed Lee to counter Yankee advances
    • Drove Yankee troops back to James River
  • Southern Strategy Working
    • President Lincoln calls for 300,000 new volunteers
    • Slow response compared to first call
    • Strategy of “weariness” working
  • 2 nd Battle of Bull Run
    • Lincoln orders McClellan North to join force with Major General John Pope
    • General Lee sends Stonewall Jackson to Manassas/Pope
      • Attack supply base
      • Walk 50 miles – 2 days- meet Lee’s troops
    • Pope begins attack
    • Confederate victory
    • Confederates 20 miles from Washington DC
  • Battle of Antietam President Davis orders Rebels To Maryland McClellan-80000 Follow them Lee gathers army near Sharpsburg, MA Antietam Creek September 17 Single Bloodiest Battle Lee withdraws Lee’s orders found 6000 dead, 17000 wounded McClellan Does not pursue Replaced by General Ambrose Burnside
  • A Call for Freedom
    • Recap
      • main goal-Preserve the Union
    • secondary goal- stop expansion of slavery
      • end slavery
  • Reading between the lines
    • Slavery = helping war effort in South
    • 3.5 million Slaves = backbone of Southern economy
    • Slaves raised crops = fed Confederates
    • did heavy work= fortified Confederate
    • in trenches camps
    • Put a hole in slavery = Putting a hole in South
  • Emancipation Proclamation
    • Lincoln felt slavery allowed the South to fight
    • 1862 – after Northern win at Antietam
    • signed Emancipation Proclamation
    • “…all persons held as slaves within any state…in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”
  • Its Effects
    • Applied only to areas controlled by the Confederates
    • didn’t really free anyone
    • hoped it would cause slaves to runaway
    • Northern African/Americans cheered
    • 1864-65 13 th Amendment – abolished slavery- passed
  • African/Americans and the War
    • 3.5 million slaves in South
    • Southerners afraid of uprising
      • wouldn’t use them in military/weapons
    • North
      • Army would not take volunteers
      • Navy did
      • used as guides, spies
      • underground railroad-Harriet Tubman
    • Law passed-Army must accept them
    • 10% of army, 20% of navy
    • separated from white troops
    • received lower pay at first
    • 54 th Massachusetts-huge battle – ½ lost lives or wounded – new respect
  • Section 4
    • Life During The Civil War
    • Beginning- rush of volunteers
    • lived in camps
      • songs, stories, baseball, letters
      • drills, marches, bad food
    • Reality of War
      • suffered great losses
      • new guns-better accuracy
      • trench warfare
      • overwhelmed hospitals-soldiers lay dying
  • Women & the War
    • lots of new jobs
    • teachers, office workers, sales clerks, factory workers, government workers,
    • losses-husbands, sons, brothers, fathers
    • wove blankets, rolled bandages, made ammo
    • collected food, clothing, meds, $
    • spies- Rose O’Neal Greenhow, Belle Boyd, Loretta Velazquez
    • Served as nurses
      • improper
      • too delicate
      • Dorothea Dix, Clara Barton organized nurses, latter former American Red Cross
  • Not Everyone on Board
    • some in favor in North
    • some opposed – Copperheads- “like poisonous snakes”
      • suspected of aiding Confederacy
    • President suspends habeas corpus – right to a hearing before being jailed
      • keep people from aiding the enemy
  • Wanted: men willing to die
    • volunteers almost gone
    • draft initiated in South
      • 3 year term, 18yr – 35 yr
        • could hire a sub
        • slave holders with 20 or more did not have to serve “rich mans war, poor mans fight”
    • bounties in North
      • $100 to volunteers – didn’t work
      • went to draft, 25-45 yr olds
        • hire a sub or pay government $400
  • War and the Economy
    • Strained both sides
    • North better equipped than South
    • Both raised money by:
      • borrowing money-$2 billion in war bonds-North, $700 million in South
      • raising taxes
      • printing paper money
        • Greenbacks – North
        • South printed 2X as much
  • Up, Up, Up . . .
    • Prices rose higher than wages = inflation
    • more prosperous in North
    • South suffered more
      • more fighting occurred in South
      • land ruined
      • thousands homeless
      • cities burned
      • blockades – shortage of supplies
  • Do the math used for example only to show the marked difference Now Cost $9.10 Now Cost .18 Cost of Bread .10 9000% Inflation South Cost of Bread .10 80% Inflation North
  • The Way to Victory
    • 1862-1863 – looked in favor of South
      • Battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville
      • North and General Burnside-larger army
      • South was entrenched-set up in strong positions
      • Burnside resigns post- Joseph Hooker
      • Confederate troops fire upon Stonewall Jackson by mistake-amputate arm-dies 1 wk
  • Battle of Gettysburg
    • Lee moves North – 75000 troops
    • Lincoln replaces Hooker with George Meade for not going after Confederates aggressively
    • North/South met by accident in Gettysburg
      • 3 day battle
      • Confederates were there raiding town for shoes
  • The Battle
    • North is outnumbered
    • finally have to retreat to Cemetery Ridge (South of Gettysburg)
    • Pickett’s Charge
      • 3 rd day
      • Lee’s boldness-brings him down
      • Lee’s plan-create a panic and destroy the Union army
      • led 13000 troops across an open field
      • picked off by Union soldiers
      • Lee took full blame-retreated to VA
      • Meade did not chase him, Lincoln disappointed
  • Gettysburg Address
    • November 19, 1863
    • Dedicating a cemetery at Gettysburg
    • 2-minute speech
    • “It is for us the living…to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us…that these dead shall not have died in vain-that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom-and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.”
    • helped re-focus ideals
  • General Sherman General Grant
    • Ulysses S. Grant
      • early career had a drinking problem
      • fierce fighter – impressed Lincoln
      • named commander of the Union armies
      • his plan – attack all fronts at once
        • Army of Potomac – crush Lee in VA
        • Sherman & western army – take Atlanta
  • The Virginia Battles
    • 3 battles near Richmond
    • 115,000 Northern troops
    • 65,000 Lee’s Southern troops
    • Battles of the Wilderness
    • Spotsylvania Courthouse
    • Cold Harbor
    • many casualties – 60000 (N)
  • Re-Election Time
    • 1864- people growing tired of war
    • Democrats want to make peace with South
    • Lincoln was determined to restore Union
    • needed morale booster
    • David Farragut took Mobile Bay
    • Sherman took Atlanta
    • Lincoln won re-election
  • General Sherman
    • Marches to Savannah
    • Total War
      • cut off from Northern supply lines
      • lives off land, devastating land
      • takes Savannah
  • Richmond Falls
    • After long siege, Petersburg and Richmond fall to Union.
      • South set fire to it to keep it from falling into their hands
  • War nears and end
    • Lee tries to meet up with Sherman
    • blocked by Union advances
    • realizes it is hopeless
    • surrender at Appomattox Courthouse
    • Grant generous in his terms
      • keep horses- get home, put in a crop
      • 3 days rations
      • few days later Sherman, Davis captured
    • May 10, 1865
    • Civil War Is Over
  • credits
    • web.syr.edu/~rlriefle/Civil%20War%20Battle.jpg
    • http://americancivilwar.com/statepic/va61.html
    • http://www.cmhg.gc.ca/cmh/book_images/high/v2_c7_s02_ss01_02.jpg
    • http://www.americancivilwar.com/statepic/tennessee.html
    • http://americancivilwar.com/statepic/mississippi.html
  •