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Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
Chapter 25  The Church And Crusades
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Chapter 25 The Church And Crusades

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The Church and its role during the crusades

The Church and its role during the crusades

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    • 1. THE CHURCH 1000 A.D. – 1300 A.D. AND THE CRUSADES
    • 2. Section 1
      • The Catholic Influence
      • Daily Life
      • Religious Ceremonies
      • Holidays to honor Saints/events
      • No meat on Fridays
      • Mass on Sunday
      • Church ran schools, hospitals
      • Monks, Nuns helped travelers
      • Priests –births, marriages,
      • burials
    • 3. Political Life
      • Helped govern
      • Were lords and vassals
      • Advised king
      • Canon law first
      • Excommunicated
    • 4. The Inquisition
      • Problem with heresy
      • 1129 council of bishops
      • Inquisition
      • 1 month for confession
      • Whipping and jail time
      • Seizure of non-confessors
      • 2 witnesses
      • Confessors sentenced
      • Non-confessors tortured
    • 5.  
    • 6. Attempts at Reform
      • Tithing at 10%
      • Nobles donated
      • land and money
      • Monks became careless
      • Selling of “religious office”
      • Church under scrutiny
    • 7. The Monks of Cluny
      • Devout fight back
      • Benedictine Rule
      • Cluny Monastery
      • Simple, prayerful
      • Followed the Pope
      • Leadership spread
    • 8. Pope Gregory VII
      • Pope was powerful
        • Religiously/politically
      • Ruled from Rome
      • College of Cardinals
      • 2 goals as Pope
        • Rid the Church of kings/nobles
        • Increase Pope’s power over Church officials
      • Dismissed those who “sold” offices
      • No marriage
    • 9. 1075 Document lays out Pope’s powers
      • Power above the kings and nobles
      • Choose bishops/church leaders
      • Government officials removed who disobeyed
      • People followed only officials who followed the Pope
    • 10. Friars
      • 1200’s – spread the word of Christianity and reform
      • Like Monks
      • Sold all belongings
      • Depended on the people
      • Did not marry
      • Roamed from town to town
    • 11. Orders of Friars
      • Franciscans
        • Founded by Francis of Assisi
        • Cheerfulness, confidence
        • Nature should be respected
    • 12.
      • Dominicans
        • Founded by Spanish monk named Dominic
        • Life of poverty
        • Studied languages
        • Words and deeds showed loyalty
    • 13. Going to School in the Middle Ages
      • Cathedrals- headed by bishops
      • Main goal:
        • Prepare noble’s SONS for the Church
        • Government workers
        • Lawyers
        • teachers
    • 14. What did the boys study?
      • 7 subjects
      • Grammar
      • Rhetoric
      • Logic
      • Arithmetic
      • Geometry
      • Astronomy
      • Music
    • 15.
      • Fæder ure, ðu ðe eart on heofenum, si ðin nama gehalgod; to-becume ðin rice; geweorþe ðin willa on eorðan swa swa on heofenum. Urne ge dæghwamlican hlaf syle us to-deag, and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgifaþ urum gyltendum, ane ne gelæde ðu us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfle. Amen.
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Wl-OZ3breE
    • 16. No free education!
      • Paid fees for school
      • Rented hall
      • Few books
      • memorization
    • 17. Off to college…
      • University system created from desire to learn
      • Union formed between students/teachers
      • Union becomes the “university”
      • 1200’s spreads throughout Europe
    • 18. How did the University work?
      • Chancellor
        • Permission to teach
        • Set times for class
        • Listened to lectures
        • Pass tests
      • Lecturers (teachers)
        • 21 yrs old
        • 6 yrs study
    • 19. Dorm Life…
      • 1 st lived in boarding houses
      • Rich sponsors
        • Built special buildings (dorms)
      • Rules for the dorm
        • Attend daily Mass
        • Could not gamble, disturb the peace
        • Could not practice sword fighting
        • punished
    • 20. A Very Special Teacher
      • Thomas Aquinas
        • Noted scholar
        • Faith and reason were gifts from God
        • Tried to bring the two gifts together
    • 21.
        • Reason
          • Helped people know what the world was like. Helped them lead a good life
        • Faith
          • Revealed religious truths
          • Helped understand life after death
    • 22. His writings…
      • Summa Theologica
      • A Summary of Religious Thought
      • Asked questions and presented different opinions
      • Gave answers to the questions
      • (sound like anything else we have studied)
      • Accepted and promoted by the Church
    • 23. The Crusades
      • 1071 Turks conquered Jerusalem
      • Controlled shrines
      • Trouble for Christians
      • Shock in Europe
      • 200 years of “holy wars”
    • 24. Beginnings…
      • Turks continue to expand
      • Threaten Byzantine empire
      • Pope Urban II for help
      • Unite Eastern Orthodox Church
    • 25.
      • Stop “civil war,” focus on Turks
      • Underfed
      • Rich, fertile land
      • Free debts, taxes
      • God would forgive sins
      • Red Cross on tunics
    • 26.
      • http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/maps/1090map.htm
    • 27.  
    • 28. The Peasants’ Crusade
      • Deus Vult
        • It Is The Will of God
      • 9 months campaigning
      • Christians and duty
      • Nobles wanted land/fame
      • Peasants wanted change
    • 29.
      • 1096, 12000 untrained army from France
      • God’s help
      • German armies
      • Attacked, looted, burned
      • Massacred Jews
        • Non-Christians, enemies
      • Villagers fought back
        • Poison
        • Attacked camps
    • 30.
      • Constantinople
        • 1/3 gone, broke, rags, stealing
      • Sent to Asia Minor
        • Supplies/ships
        • Wiped out
    • 31. The Nobles’ Crusade
      • 1097, Lords led
        • Vassals, wives, kids, clerks, cooks, blacksmiths
        • Supplied themselves
      • 30000 to Asia Minor
        • Defeat Turks
    • 32.
        • Syria
        • Starvation, dehydration
        • Capture Syrian cities
        • 12000 Arrive in Jerusalem
          • Capture Holy City
          • Kill Turks, Jews, & Christians
          • Loot, gold, silver, goods, livestock
    • 33. The Kingdom Beyond the Sea
      • Crusades lose steam
      • Return home
      • 4 feudal kingdoms
      • Outremer
        • The kingdom beyond the sea
    • 34.
      • Takeover of estates
        • Turkish
        • Arab
      • How the system worked
        • Arab peasants worked the land, orchards, vineyards
        • Served as advisers, managers
        • Friendships developed with Muslims
          • Knew much about medicine, science, math
        • Times of peace
          • Crusaders hunted, ran estates, attended court
    • 35.
      • How did they live?
        • Built a castle, bigger and better
        • Changed clothing styles
        • Changed hygiene habits
        • Changed eating habits
    • 36. Saladin and the Crusade of Kings
      • 1174- Saladin, ruler of Egypt
      • United Muslims
      • Christian occupation
      • The Military
    • 37.
        • Emirs
          • Honesty, consideration
        • Shocked by Christians
        • Rode on ponies
        • Short bows
        • Crusaders had long bows and heavy armor
          • Learned to use the crossbow
    • 38.  
    • 39.
        • Saladin took Jerusalem
          • Refusal to massacre
          • Much respect
    • 40. 2nd Crusade of Kings
      • Urged by the Church
      • Led by 3 most powerful rulers in Europe
        • King Richard I, England
        • Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany
        • King Philip II Augustus of France
    • 41. King Phillip II King Richard Emperor Barbarossa
    • 42.
      • A failure of a crusade
        • Frederick dies in Asia Minor
      • Philip & Richard always fighting
        • Took a few towns together
        • Philip returns to France
        • Richard left to fight alone
      • Richard the Lionheart
        • Brave warrior
        • 3 years signed truce
        • Jerusalem still under Muslim control
    • 43. The Loss of an Ideal
      • 1202 Pope Innocent III calls for another crusade
      • Knights answered the call
    • 44.
      • Came by sea
      • Used Venice as a port
        • Made deal with Venetians
        • Zara
        • Constantinople
          • Divided city
          • Shocked western Europeans
    • 45. Other Crusades
      • Several fought—none won
      • Children’s crusade- 1212 (2 groups)
        • French children
        • Led by peasant, Stephen of Cloyes
    • 46.
        • Set sail from France
        • Children sold into slavery by captains
        • 2 nd group from Germany left on foot- died of starvation or disease
    • 47.
      • 1291- Acre
        • Last Christian stronghold
        • Managed to regain all the land in Palestine
    • 48. Effects of the Crusades
      • Effected by Near East and western Europe
      • Permanent split between Byzantines Church (eastern) and western church
      • Broke down feudalism in Europe
        • Kings increased power/authority
        • Power overcame religion
    • 49.
      • Interest in learning
      • Luxuries items
      • New trade – new towns

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