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  2. 2. World Religions by Percentage and Size of World Population--2009<br />World Religions by Population<br />David Barrett, Todd M. Johnson & Peter Crossing, “Christian World Communions: Five Overviews of Global Christianity, AD 1800-2025,” Int’l Bulletin of Missionary Research, Jan. 2009, Global Table 5, p. 25.<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Essential Differences between Eastern Religion and Christianity<br />CHRISTIANS<br /><ul><li> God himself is known (In Jesus Christ)
  5. 5. Believe in humankind innate and separation from God
  6. 6. Believe in forgiveness of sins
  7. 7. Salvation comes from above</li></ul>EASTERN RELIGIONS<br /><ul><li>God is impersonal and not knowable
  8. 8. no sense of original sin or indwelt sin
  9. 9. endless REINCARNATION
  10. 10. liberating oneself from the wheel of birth, death and rebirth</li></li></ul><li>HINDUISM<br />The world’s oldest living tradition<br />By:<br />Group II<br />
  11. 11. What is Hinduism?<br /><ul><li>One of the oldest religions of </li></ul> humanity<br /><ul><li> The religion of the Indian people
  12. 12. Gave birth to Buddhism, Jainism, </li></ul>Sikhism<br /><ul><li>Tolerance and diversity: "Truth is one, </li></ul> paths are many"<br /><ul><li>Many deities but a single, impersonal </li></ul> Ultimate Reality<br /><ul><li>A philosophy and a way of life – </li></ul> focused both on this world and <br /> beyond<br />
  13. 13. What is Hinduism?<br /><ul><li> No founding father
  14. 14. No group of religious leaders.
  15. 15. Not all Hindus agree on a sacred text.
  16. 16. Hindus may worship at a shrine, </li></ul> temple, at home or outside.<br /><ul><li>The Ganges River is considered </li></ul> sacred. <br />
  17. 17. History of Hinduism<br />Hindu – from Sanskrit word INDUS<br />Indus River Valley Civilization (Pakistan) - 5000 years ago<br />Aryans enter 4000 - 3500 years ago<br />Vedic Tradition 3500 – 2500 years ago:<br />rituals and many gods (polytheism)<br />sacred texts (Vedas) – wise sayings<br />social stratification (caste system)<br />Upanishads (metaphysical philosophy)- “sitting near” one’s teacher - 2800 – 2400 years ago<br />Vedic Tradition develops into Hinduism<br />BhagavadGita“Song of the Lord” – A.D100 – Hinduism’s favorite bible<br />
  18. 18. Development of Hinduism<br /><ul><li>Modern Hinduism developed primarily from the Vedas
  19. 19. Vedas are large body texts that originated from Ancient India
  20. 20. Vedas concentrate on worship of deities
  21. 21. Ex: Indra, Varuna, Agni, and Soma ritual.</li></li></ul><li>The Three Major Movements That Influenced Hindu Thought<br /><ul><li>Upanishadic
  22. 22. Hindu scriptures that consist of the core teachings of Vedanta
  23. 23. Dated to the Early Middle Ages around the 3rd to 8th centuries AD
  24. 24. Jaina
  25. 25. Practices Non-Violence and also gave rise to Buddhism Created the concept of Puja
  26. 26. “Pu”= Flower and “ja”= Offering
  27. 27. Buddhist
  28. 28. Influenced Moksha and Karma in Hinduism
  29. 29. Followed philosophical streams of thought
  30. 30. Shramana Religion</li></li></ul><li>Practices of Hinduism<br /><ul><li>Practices involve seeking awareness of God and blessing from Devas
  31. 31. Hinduism has developed many practices meant to help one think of divinity in everyday life</li></li></ul><li>PUJA<br /><ul><li>Puja is an act of worship or veneration
  32. 32. Puja can be performed at home in a room that is dedicated to sacred religious practices or at a temple
  33. 33. Visiting temples is not required and they have no “Sabbath Day”
  34. 34. Hindus also do not claim to belong to any denomination</li></li></ul><li>13<br />VIOLENCE AND DIET<br /><ul><li>Most Hindus advocate the practice of ahi or non-violence and respect for all life</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Hindus embrace vegetarianism to respect higher forms of life.
  35. 35. Note: Vegetarianism is not a requirement
  36. 36. Most avoid meat on holy days
  37. 37. Cow-slaughter is legally banned in almost all states of India</li></li></ul><li>What are the Sacred Texts?<br /><ul><li>The two classes of sacred text are shruti—that which was seen or heard by rishis(seers), and smriti—what is remembered, outside the Vedas--of lesser authority.
  38. 38. The Vedas (2000 BC- 600 BC) were earliest, being mostly instructions to priests concerning sacrifices. They are four:</li></ul>Rig-Veda (“veda of hymns”); Sama-Veda (“veda of chants”), Yajur-Veda (“veda of sacrifice”) and Atharva-Veda (“magic charms”)<br />These four vedas are in turn each divided into three parts: samhita(collections of hymns), brahmana (details of sacrifices) and upanishad (moving from ritual to philosophic treatises).<br />
  39. 39. CASTES<br /><ul><li>A hereditary system of social stratification that </li></ul>dates back to the 1500s BC when the Aryan <br />(Indo – Europeans) invaded India.<br /><ul><li>Hindus believe that this is a part of cosmic law of cause and effect, part of the “ladder of life”
  40. 40. there are four primary caste and thousands of subcaste
  41. 41. caste is hereditary and for life for no one can move from one caste to another.
  42. 42. This determines person’s social status and vocation</li></li></ul><li>
  43. 43. Caste Systems Benefits<br />Members of a caste rely on each other for support<br /><ul><li>Each caste has an occupation(s) and contributes to the good of the whole</li></li></ul><li>How Caste Shapes Society<br />Rigid, hereditary membership into birth caste<br />Marriage only among member of same caste<br />Occupation choices restricted <br />Personal contact with other castes restricted<br />Acceptance of fixed place in society<br />
  44. 44. Brahmins—thinkers/knowers<br />Ksatriya—doers<br />Vaisya—provide food for the belly<br />Sudra—do the work<br />Each caste is born out of Brahma (the creator)<br />
  45. 45. At the top of the caste system <br />were the Brahmans, or the priests and leaders. <br />These individuals we few in number. They were the only ones who were allowed to teach in schools and go to school, however the Brahman women could do neither. <br />
  46. 46. Underneath the Brahmans was the Kshatriya, or the warriors. This group was not large in number. The Kshatriya were in the army or leaders in a way different from that of the Brahmans. Women could not be warriors but they could belong to this class. <br />
  47. 47. Vaisyas – Skilled Traders, Merchants<br />Under the warriors were the vaishyas, these individuals were traders or farmers who owned their businesses or farming land. This group was made up of a great deal of people in India. <br />
  48. 48. Second to last were the shudras, who were servants and farmhands who did not own their own land or businesses and who were employed by other people in a higher class. <br />Jobs include gardeners, potters, and clothes washers<br />
  49. 49. At the very bottom of the caste system, technically not belonging to a class at all, were the untouchables. The untouchables held the worst jobs in society, usually collecting garbage and cleaning up human waste…<br />
  50. 50. The slaves in India were thought to be below the untouchables and were not classified at all. They were not even seen as human but rather as property. <br />
  51. 51. Untouchables - The Outcastes<br />Belong to no caste<br />Expected to do the “dirty” jobs<br />Come in contact with animal skins, dead bodies and human feces<br />Avoid contact with “caste” Indians for fear of “pollution”<br />
  52. 52. Living in ancient India, you were defined by your caste. <br />There was no way for an individual or their children in India to escape their caste and move up. Not even death could break the cycle. <br />
  53. 53. There were extremely strict rules surrounding the caste system in India. People from different castes could certainly not mararyeach other or even become friends and they were not even allowed to eat in the presence of another class. <br />
  54. 54. COW<br /><ul><li>Cows cannot be killed and consumes grain needed to feed India’s masses.
  55. 55. its veneration comes from the Vedic literature and form the Hindu belief that the cow is a living symbol of Mother Earth and of the divine blessings she bestows upon humankind
  56. 56. its reverence symbolizes reverence for all animals
  57. 57. the reason why Hindus are vegetarian
  58. 58. Another reason is the belief that animals contain reincarnated souls</li></li></ul><li>BELIEFS IN HINDUISM<br /><ul><li>Atman: the essential self, the human soul
  59. 59. This is eternal
  60. 60. part of the Brahman
  61. 61. Nonviolence
  62. 62. Every living thing has an atman</li></li></ul><li>BELIEFS IN HINDUISM<br /><ul><li>Brahman: the single supreme force of the universe; universal soul or spirit
  63. 63. Sustains the universe
  64. 64. Only a few people can fully understand it
  65. 65. Many gods are worshiped as part of the Brahman</li></li></ul><li>BELIEFS IN HINDUISM<br />Karma: every deed in a person’s life affects a person’s fate in a future life<br />- from Sanskrit word “actions”<br /><ul><li>Reincarnation: rebirth of the soul
  66. 66. Karma determines where you are reincarnated in the caste system
  67. 67. Good Karma = higher in caste system
  68. 68. Bad Karma = lower in caste system</li></li></ul><li>REINCARNATION<br /><ul><li>Def: rebirth of the soul in another bodily form
  69. 69. Dates back 800BC within the Uphanishads
  70. 70. The belief that a person’s soul never dies. It reappears after death in another person or in animal form.
  71. 71. Symbol: wheel of life
  72. 72. SAMSARA – the process of reincarnation</li></li></ul><li>BELIEFS IN HINDUISM<br />DHARMA<br /><ul><li>From Sanskrit word “deed”
  73. 73. Def: Religious and moral duties of an individual
  74. 74. These vary based on class (caste), gender, job and age
  75. 75. By obeying your dharma, you acquire merit for the next life
  76. 76. You need to overcome your own desires and ambitions to perform your duties. </li></li></ul><li>BELIEFS IN HINDUISM<br /><ul><li>Moksha: freeing your atman/soul from your body
  77. 77. The ultimate goal of all Hindus
  78. 78. Your atman is reunited with the Brahman and you will have true peace or state</li></ul> of supreme blessedness<br />Brahman<br />atman<br />
  79. 79. THE PATHS TO ENLIGHTENMENT OR MOKSHA ARE;<br />Knowledge – comes from studying with gurus or <br /> teachers and reading sacred scriptures<br />Contemplation – disciplines and psychological <br /> exercises that concentrate one’s attention on <br /> the atman<br />Devotion – singing hymns of praises, offering <br /> sacrifices and making pilgrimage to sacred <br /> places like Varanasi, Hinduism’s holiest city <br /> located in North central India on the banks of <br /> the sacred Ganges River (Hindus bathe to <br /> wash away bad karma)<br />Works – acting out of one’s duties to society<br />
  80. 80. What are the spiritualpractices of Hinduism?<br />The Four Yogas - seeking union with the divine:<br />Karma Yoga – the path of action through selfless service (releases built up karma without building up new karma)<br />Jnana Yoga – the path of knowledge (understanding the true nature of reality and the self)<br />Raja Yoga – the path of meditation<br />Bhakti Yoga – the path of devotion<br />Guru – a spiritual teacher, especially helpful for Jnana and Raja yoga<br />
  81. 81. How do Hindus worship?<br />Bhakti Yoga is seeking union with the divine through loving devotion to manifest deities<br />In the home (household shrines)<br />In the Temples (priests officiate)<br />Puja– making offerings to and decorating the deity images<br />Darsan– “seeing” the deity (not idol worship)<br />Prasad – taking the divine within your own being through eating of food shared with the deity<br />
  82. 82. Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon<br />Brahma, the creator god<br />
  83. 83. Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon<br />Vishnu, the preserver god<br />Incarnates as ten avatars (descents) including:<br />Rama (featured in the Ramayana)<br />Krishna (featured in the Mahabharata)<br />(Each shown with his consort, Sita and Radha, respectively)<br />
  84. 84. Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon<br />Shiva, god of constructive destruction(the transformer)<br />Appears as Shiva Nataraj,lord of the dance of creation…<br />and with his wife, Parvati, and son Ganesha(the elephant headed remover of obstacles)<br />
  85. 85. What about the goddesses?Devi – the feminine divine<br />Saraswati, goddess of wisdom, consort ofBrahma<br />
  86. 86. What about the goddesses?Devi – the feminine divine<br />Lakshmi, goddess of good fortune, consortof Vishnu<br />
  87. 87. What about the goddesses?Devi – the feminine divine<br />Parvati, divine mother, wife ofShiva<br />
  88. 88. What about the goddesses?Devi – the feminine divine<br />Durga, protectress<br />Kali, destroyer of demons<br />Plus about 330 million other deities<br />
  89. 89. All these deities are but<br />Manifest forms (attributes<br />and functions) of the<br />impersonal Brahman<br />
  90. 90. HARE KRISHNA MOVEMENT<br />Hare Krishna – from HARE meaning “Lord’ and KRISHNA being the avatar of Vishnu – a form of Hinduism found in United states Europe and Latin America.<br />INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR KRISHNA CONSCIOUSNESS (ISKCON)<br /><ul><li>founded in United States in 1956 by “His divine Grace” Swami Prabhupada (died in 1977), who claimed to be a “representative” of Krishna
  91. 91. BhagavadGita, its primary scriptures
  92. 92. believes in both karma and reincarnation
  93. 93. does not believe in a plurality or pantheon on Gods or in the caste system
  94. 94. has temples and communes in the cities
  95. 95. followers distribute evangelistic literature
  96. 96. structured communities with rules regarding food, drink, dress, devotions and celibacy.
  97. 97. One attains Krishna “consciousness” by chanting the Hare Krishna mantra and medidating on “Lord” Krishna
  98. 98. the followers hope that one day enable them to escape the wheel of death and rebirth</li></li></ul><li>HINDUISM VS. CHRISTIANITY<br />HINDUISM<br /><ul><li>Believes in a universal soul and in thousands “Gods”
  99. 99. salvation (from samsara) comes through knowledge
  100. 100. believes in reincarnation</li></ul>CHRISTIANITY<br /><ul><li>Single, sovereign, personal God
  101. 101. Salvation comes by grace through faith
  102. 102. Christ saving death is offers to everyone</li></li></ul><li>BUDDHISM<br />
  103. 103. BUDDHISM: The Middle Way<br /><ul><li>began as a reform movement within Hinduism
  104. 104. became successful in various parts of India for hundreds of years, and then died out
  105. 105. begin to grow outside Asia as immigrants from Vietnam, Cambodia and Southeast Asia and increase in number in the West</li></li></ul><li>BUDDHISM<br />Siddhartha Gautama, founder<br /> born in Nepal, in 556BC<br />He was a reformer who tried to limit the power of the brahman, or priest, caste in India<br />
  106. 106. Siddhartha lived a life of luxury in northern India<br />
  107. 107. His father, a ruler of a small kingdom; did not allow him out of the palace because they did not want him to see or experience the suffering of life in India<br />
  108. 108. One day, he snuck out of the palace.<br />Outside of the palace walls he saw people with no homes, no food. He saw sick people and suffering.<br />
  109. 109. the only happy man he saw was a serene and peaceful hermit<br />Realizing the reality of human suffering, Siddhartha left his wife and child (The Great Renunciation) and embarked on a quest for peace and serenity.<br />
  110. 110. This came to him six years later while sitting under the famous tree BODHI tree ( the tree of knowledge or enlightenment) , probably a fig tree in North Central India<br />the cause of suffering is desiring or craving things that are worldly and temporal.<br />The way to peace and serenity is the Middle way<br />Middle Way – the way of moderation between pleasure and denial, between self-indulgence and asceticism<br />
  111. 111. Siddhartha became known as “Buddha”, a Sanskrit wordmeaning “Enlightened One” or has found or attained enlightenment.<br />The Buddha decided that he would leave his life of meditation to teach others the way to end suffering.<br />He gathered disciples, founded monasteries and teach others until his death in 486 B.C at the age of 80.<br />he came to be highly venerated (as deity by some) and statues and temples were built in his honor<br />
  112. 112. 59<br />BUDDHISM’s TRADITION<br />THERAVADA – the Doctrine of the Elders, is very conservative<br />- it teaches that to find enlightenment one must devote his r <br /> her life to the way of Buddha the highest form of which is <br /> monasticism.<br />MAHAYANA – the Great Vehicle, believes that enlightenment is <br /> possible with the help of bodhisattvas, saintly personages <br /> who postpone final enlightenment in order to help others<br />MAHAYANA BUDDHIST – practice love and compassion and <br /> devote themselves to the teachings of Buddha. <br /><ul><li>more liberal and popular and the larger of the two traditions.</li></li></ul><li>60<br />- There are an estimated 360 million Buddhist, principally in countries like Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam. China and Japan making Buddhism the fourth largest religion in the world<br />
  113. 113. The Four Noble Truths<br />Suffering is universal<br />The cause of suffering is want/desire<br />The only way to end suffering is to end desire<br /><ul><li>Nirvana: condition of wanting nothing
  114. 114. Sanskrit word meaning “to blow out” the flame of desire</li></ul>The way to achieve nirvana is to follow the Eightfold Path<br /><ul><li>Compassion for all creatures, kindness, truthfulness, meditation</li></ul>Buddhism<br />
  115. 115. 62<br />
  116. 116. 63<br />
  117. 117. Ultimate goal of Buddhism:<br />End suffering by achieving nirvana. Once you are in the condition of wanting nothing, you will be Enlightened, or understand the universe and cause of human suffering<br />Buddhism– Beliefs<br />
  118. 118. Buddhism– Beliefs<br />Similarities with Hinduism<br /> 1. Belief in reincarnation<br /> 2. Belief in nonviolence<br />Differences with Hinduism<br /> 1. Does not believe in universal being or spirit or that men and women have souls<br /> 2. Have no caste system<br /> 3. there is something one can do to escape the misery and suffering of his life rather than waiting for a future<br />
  119. 119. 66<br />ZEN BUDDHISM<br /><ul><li> the word Zen comes from Sanskrit word meaning “meditation”
  120. 120. developed in China in the 500s A.D and later expanded to Japan
  121. 121. in Japan it is highly esteemed as a path to self - discipline
  122. 122. A popular form of Buddhism in the West
  123. 123. came to the fore after World War II
  124. 124. in United States, there are some one hundred Zen Temples and centers nearly one million adherents
  125. 125. followers practice meditation according to strict rules in order to achieve enlightenment called SATORI more quickly than through traditional Buddhism, thus escaping the wheel of Reincarnation</li></ul>- Expresses itself I variety of ways: judo, calligraphy, poetry, the ikebana and the seemingly formless and rock garden each of which has religious significance<br />
  126. 126. BUDDHISM VS. CHRISTIANITY<br />BUDDHISM<br /><ul><li>does not believe in God or higher being
  127. 127. practice the eightfold path
  128. 128. looking forward to escaping the bondage of samsara (rebirths) and to absorption of the finite (self) into the infinite. </li></ul>CHRISTIANITY<br /><ul><li>believes in God who created the world & who revealed himself in Jesus of Nazareth
  129. 129. practice of the “two love commandments” (God and Neighbor)
  130. 130. looking forward to resurrected life</li>