the Apostolic Fathers and other people that have been part of the historical event
Coming of Christianity in America
The birth and growth of Pentecostalism
Ever widening split between Protestant Liberals and conservatives.
THE APOSTOLIC ERA (30 - 476) Apostolic refers to the religious adherence to succession of the Church through the Apostles and the inerrancy of the Bible and doctrine according to the New Testament. The Apostolic Era opened with the first Pentecost, following Jesus death and resurrection and this ended in the fifth century when the Visigoths invaded and sacked Rome. This periods leads to the following events;
The formation of the church
collection of Christian writings and agreement included in the New Testament
conversion of Emperor Constantine (312)
establishment of Christianity as the religion of the Roman Empire
The Councils of Nicea (325) and Constantinople (381)
writings of Jerome and Augustine (early 400s)
Chronologically Covers the era of leadership in which the Church was led by individuals personally chosen and trained by Jesus Christ. Eusebius ( ca. 260 to ca. 340) claims that the apostle John lived to see the reign of Emperor Trajan (r. 98-117). Experientially Church experiences purest expression, most dramatic influence Direct stamp of Jesus’ personal influence upon leadership Miraculous gifts of Holy Spirit Touchstone of contemporary Church
Authority of the Apostles Jesus Christ absolute authority over Church (Matt 16:18; Eph 1:18-23; Col 1:15-18) Apostles commissioned by Jesus as his authoritative representatives (Matt 16:17-19; Acts 1:1-26; 2 Cor 10-11; Gal 1:11-2:9) Apostles granted miracle working powers to authenticate their authority (Acts 2:43 with Heb 2:3-4; Acts 3:1-16; 5:12; 14:3; Rom 15:18-19; 2 Cor 12:11-12) Apostles are foundation of the Church (Eph 2:19-22) Apostles pass on derivative leadership responsibility to elders over local churches (Acts 1:2, 26; 2:37-43; 4:33ff; 5:12; 6:1ff; 8:1, 14; 9:27; 11:1, 27-30; 14:23; 15:2-6, 22, 33; 16:4 (last ref in Acts to apostles as a group); 20:17, 28-31; Phil 1:1; 1 Tim 3:1ff; 5:17; 1 Thess 5:12; 1 Pet 5:1-5
Roman Witnesses to the Historicity of Jesus of Nazareth Tacitus (b. 56 or 57 A.D.), the renowned Roman historian and statesman, recounts the burning of Rome in A.D. 64. Tacitus implicates Nero as the primary arsonist and charges the emperor with concocting a ruse to divert public suspicions away from himself: Tacitus writes: “Nero fabricated scapegoats—and punished with every refinement the notoriously depraved Christians (as they were popularly called). Their originator, Christ, had been executed in Tiberius’ reign by the governor of Judea, Pontius Pilatus. But in spite of this temporary setback the deadly superstition had broken out afresh, not only in Judea (where the mischief had started) but even in Rome. All degraded and shameful practices collect and flourish in the capital …” ( Annals , XV, 44).
Jewish Witnesses to the Historicity of Jesus of Nazareth Although some dispute either the authenticity or the precise meaning of the passage, Josephus records another important early reference to Christ. In the context of a discussion concerning the career of Pontus Pilate, Josephus adds this aside: “ Now, there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works—a teacher … He was [the] Christ; and when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him; and the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day” ( Antiquities , 18.3.3).
Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day” ( Antiquities , 18.3.3). Birth of Church Jesus’ ascension prerequisite to the formation of the Church by means of Holy Spirit baptism (Luke 3:16; John 16:5-15; Acts 2:1-11, 33, 38; 11:1-18; Eph 3:1-12) Church born on the Lord’s Day, May 24, 33 AD (Hoehner, Chronological Aspects , 143)
The Apostolic Fathers were the Christian writers of the first and second centuries, who may be considered as the first teachers after the Apostles. Their writings presented to us the faith which these Apostolic Fathers received either through their direct contact with the Apostles or as handed to them by their disciples. The term ‘Apostolic Fathers’ was entirely unknown in the early Church. It was introduced by scholars of the seventeenth century. The French scholar Jean B Cotelier, a man from the 17th century published his two volumes under the title of “PatresaeviApostolici” in the year 1672.
At the beginning of the second century, the leadership of the church passed to the apostolic fathers, so called because it was believed that at least, some, like Polycarp and Clement, had known the apostles. The Apostolic Fathers were primarily Gentiles in contrast to the apostles and sub apostles like Silas and Timothy, most of whom are Jews. Apostolic Fathers carried on with the apostolic mission, established church government and administrative procedures, wrote catechisms (instruction) to new believers, developed the church’s worship and liturgy, and polemical treatises against pagan intellectuals and Jews who were attacking the church.
Characteristics of Apostolic Fathers
Men of simple and sincere faith – high morality
Informal, practical letters and sermons
Monotheistic, belief in creation
Promoted humanity and deity of Christ
Promoted the authority of Scripture while struggling with poor hermeneutics (i.e. allegorical interpretation)
Preferred baptism by immersion, some baptismal regeneration
Held to immanency of Christ’s return – Papias and Barnabas were premillennial; no one clearly pre-trib; no one post-trib
NT canon not formally fixed nor universally appreciated
Loss of a homogeneous faith
IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH (c. 35 - 107)
IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH (c. 35 - 107) He was martyred in the Colosseum in Rome, argued for both the deity and humanity of Jesus. He was the third bishop of Antioch, after the Apostle Peter and Euodios, whom Ignatius succeeded around AD 68. Ignatius, who also called himself Theophorus ("God-bearer"), was most likely a disciple of both Apostles Peter and John. Several of his letters have survived to this day; he is one of the Apostolic Fathers (the earliest group of the Church Fathers), and a saint in the
He was arrested by the Roman authorities and transported to Rome to die in the arena. They hoped to make an example of him and thus discourage Christianity from spreading. Instead, he met with and encouraged Christians all along his route, and wrote letters to the Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallians, Philadelphians, Smyrneans, and Romans, as well as a letter to Polycarp, who was bishop of Smyrna and a disciple of John the Evangelist.
Ignatius also stresses the value of the Eucharist, calling it "a medicine to immortality." The very strong desire for bloody martyrdom in the arena, which Ignatius expresses rather graphically in places, may seem quite odd to the modern reader, but an examination of his theology of soteriology shows that he regarded salvation as being from the power and fear of death. So, for him, to try to escape his martyrdom would be to fear death and place himself back under its power.
CLEMENT OF ROME (C.100)
CLEMENT OF ROME (c. 100) He set forth the concept of “apostolic succession”, the Roman Catholic belief in an unbroken line of bishops from the apostles to the present. He was the third in succession after the Apostle Peter as bishop of Rome. Clement is known mainly for the letter he wrote to the Corinthians in about AD 96. He is counted among the apostolic fathers. His feast day is November 23 in the west, but in the east he life little is known of Clement’s life.
What is known is from writers who wrote over a hundred years after his death, often inconsistently, and with great variety. These writers include Tertullian, Jerome, Irenaeus, Epiphanius, and Eusebius. His birth date is not known. He may have met St. Peter and Paul and may have been ordained by St Peter. There are confusing propositions that associate him with the Clement in Paul’s letters (Phil. 4:3 (KJV)) and to consul T. Flavius Clemens associations that now are considered not probable. Clement is believed to have been named bishop of Rome in about 88 and held the position until about 98, when he died. These dates are also uncertain. Early sources noted that he died a natural death, perhaps in Greece. A tradition dated from the ninth century tells of his martyrdom in Crimea in 102 by drowning when thrown overboard from a boat with a ship’s anchor tied to him.
Letters The letter sent in about the year 96 to the Church of Corinth in the name of the Church of Rome has been attributed to Clement. The letter was sent in an attempt to restore peace and unity in the Corinthian church, where apparently a few violent people had revolted against the leadership of the church community. A second letter to the Corinthians had also been attributed to Clement based upon its inclusion in a Greek manuscript that included Clement’s first letter, with the title of “Second Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians.” But, when a missing ending to the “letter” was found, it proved to be a homily of unknown authorship. Guard us all through your intercessions!
JUSTIN MARTYR (c. 100 - 165
Justin was born around 100 (both his birth and death dates are approximate) at FlaviaNeapolis (ancient Shechem, modern Nablus) in Samaria (the middle portion of Israel, between Galilee and Judea) of pagan Greek parents. He was brought up with a good education in rhetoric, poetry, and history. He studied various schools of philosophy in Alexandria and Ephesus , joining himself first to Stoicism, then Pythagoreanism, then Platonism, looking for answers to his questions. While at Ephesus, he was impressed by the steadfastness of the Christian martyrs, and by the personality of an aged Christian man whom he met by chance while walking on the seashore. This man spoke to him about Jesus as the fulfilment of the promises made through the Jewish prophets. Justin was overwhelmed. "Straightway a flame was kindled in my soul," he writes, "and a love of the prophets and those who are friends of Christ possessed me."
Justin became a Christian, but he continued to wear the cloak that was the characteristic uniform of the professional teacher of philosophy. His position was that pagan philosophy, especially Platonism, is not simply wrong, but is a partial grasp of the truth, and serves as "a schoolmaster to bring us to Christ." He engaged in debates and disputations with non-Christians of all varieties, pagans, Jews, and heretics. He opened a school of Christian philosophy and accepted students, first at Ephesus and then later at Rome. There he engaged the Cynic philosopher Crescens in debate, and soon after was arrested on the charge of practicing an anauthorized religion. (It is suggested that Crescens lost the debate and denounced Justin to the authorities out of spite.) He was tried before the Roman prefect Rusticus, refused to renounce Christianity, and was put to death by beheading along with six of his students, one of them a woman. A record of the trial, probably authentic, is preserved, known as The Acts of Justin the Martyr.
Three works of Justin have been preserved. His First Apology (in the sense of "defense" or "vindication") was addressed (around 155) to the Emperor Antoninus Pius and his adopted sons. (It is perhaps worth noting that some of the fiercest persecutors of the Christians were precisely the emperors who had a strong sense of duty, who were fighting to maintain the traditional Roman values, including respect for the gods, which they felt had made Rome great and were her only hope of survival.) He defends Christianity as the only rational creed, and he includes an account of current Christian ceremonies of Baptism and the Eucharist (probably to counteract distorted accounts from anti-Christian sources).
The Second Apology is addressed to the Roman Senate. It is chiefly concerned to rebut specific charges of immorality and the like that had been made against the Christians. He argues that good Christians make good citizens, and that the notion that Christianity undermines the foundations of a good society is based on slander or misunderstanding.
The Dialog With Trypho the Jew is an account of a dialog between Justin and a Jewish rabbi named Trypho(n) (probably a real conversation with a real rabbi, although it may be suspected that Justin in editing it later gave himself a few good lines that he wished he had thought of at the time), whom he met while promenading at Ephesus shortly after the sack of Jerusalem in 135. Trypho had fled from Israel, and the two men talked about the Jewish people and their place in history, and then about Jesus and whether he was the promised Messiah. A principal question is whether the Christian belief in the deity of Christ can be reconciled with the uncompromising monotheism of the Scriptures. The dialogue is a valuable source of information about early Christian thought concerning Judaism and the relation between Israel and the Church as communities having a covenant relation with God.
Irenaeus (c. 130-200)
The bishop of Lyons, France wrote against those who argued that salvation comes through special or secret knowledge, thus only to a select few. Irenaeus' best-known book, AdversusHaeresess or Against Heresies (c. 180) is a detailed attack on Gnosticism, which was then a serious threat to the Church, and especially on the system of the Gnostic Valentinus.As one of the first great Christian theologians, he emphasized the traditional elements in the Church, especially the episcopate, Scripture, and tradition.Irenaeus wrote that the only way for Christians to retain unity was to humbly accept one doctrinal authority—episcopal councils in union with the bishop of Rome.
Against the Gnostics, who said that they possessed a secret oral tradition from Jesus himself, Irenaeus maintained that the bishops in different cities are known as far back as the Apostles — and none of them were Gnostics — and that the bishops provided the only safe guide to the interpretation of Scripture.His writings, with those of Clement and Ignatius, are taken to hint at papal primacy. Irenaeus is the earliest witness to recognition of the canonical character of all four gospels.
Tertullian of Carthage (c. 150-212)
The first North African Father, helped developed and formulate the concept of Trinity. Tertullian was born in Carthage in what is modern Tunisia and Algeria. He was the son of a highly placed pagan centurion. Some scholars think that he was the son of a commander of the proconsul's guard. This may account for his use of military metaphors such as, for example, his remarks that "the Lord, in disarming Peter, unbelted every soldier." Tertullian considered that it was almost impossible for any Christian to hold public office or accept military service. This may be because he was a military man. One was expected not only to swear an oath of allegiance to the emperor but also to the gods.
Tertullian sometimes wrote in Latin and is regarded as the first of the Latin fathers. He was a brilliant and outstanding rhetorician, full of enthusiasm and rugged eloquence. He was a born debater with a supreme command of language: "When we are condemned by you, we are acquitted by God (...) I hear that there has been an edict set forth, and a peremptory one too. The Sovereign Pontiff! - the Bishop of Bishops...“ His writings may be categorized as: 1. Apologetic2. Doctrinal and Polemical3. Moral and Practical.
Origen of Alexandria (c.185-254)
The greatest scholar at the early church, established the intellectual respectability of Christianity. Origen was a theologian, philosopher, and devoted Christian of the Alexandrian school. He famously castrated himself so he could tutor women without suspicion, and he risked his life countless times in encouraging martyrs. He himself was tortured under Decius as an old man and died a short time later. Origen's controversial views on the pre-existence of souls, the ultimate salvation of all beings and other topics eventually caused him to be labeled a heretic, yet his teachings were highly influential and today he is regarded as one of the most important early church fathers.
The bishop of Carthage, maintained that there was no salvation outside the church. He was born circa the beginning of the 3rd century in North Africa, perhaps at Carthage, where he received a classical education. After converting to Christianity, he became a bishop (249) and eventually died a martyr at Carthage.
Cyprian's works were edited in volumes 3 and 4 of the Patrologia Latina. Besides a number of epistles, which are partly collected with the answers of those to whom they were written, Cyprian wrote a number of treatises, some of which have also the character of pastoral letters. His most important work is his "De unitate ecclesiae." In it, he states: "He can no longer have God for his Father who has not the Church for his mother; . . . he who gathereth elsewhere than in the Church scatters the Church of Christ" (vi.); "nor is there any other home to believers but the one Church" (ix.).
THE APOSTLES’ CREED The Apostles’ Creed summarizes essential Christian beliefs. The word creeds – from Latin word credo meaning “I Believe”. The Apostles’ Creed derives its name from a legend that each apostles contributed a clause or an article to the creed. The original form has 12 clauses. The creed itself is believed to be the end product of several priors creeds and confessions, including a Trinitian baptismal formula dating from 200. During the reign of Charlemagne (9th Century), the Apostles’ Creed became the official creed of the Western Church.
I believe in God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth. I believe in Jesus Christ, God's only Son, our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried; he descended to the dead. On the third day he rose again; he ascended into heaven, he is seated at the right hand of the Father, and he will come again to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy catholic church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. AMEN.
CONSTANTINE the GREAT (280 – 337)
Important details from A Handbook of Christian Faith, page 150 Roman ‘Emperor Cult” was a means of unifying the Roman Empire. Those who would not acknowledge the Emperor as divine were considered disloyal, the Jews are exempted because of special status. Rome refused to grant Christianity the same rights and privileges, and Christians were often persecuted and martyred. October 312 – before entering a battle against Maxentius at Milvian Bridge outside Rome, it is said that Constantine had a vision of Greek letters chi and rho, the first two letters name for Christ. Constantine won the battle and thrown Maxentius into Tiber River. Constantine issued the EDICT OF MILAN which gave Christianity as legal status in the empire
End of 380 – Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire A Deeper View On Life Of Constantine The Great - Roman Emperor from 306 – 337 - he was born in Naissus in upper Moesia
son of ConstantiusChlorus and Helena
he took the possession of Britain, Gaul and Spain after his fathers death and series of victorious battle over Maxentius.
became the sole lord of the Roman world
he converted to Christianity
died upon 337 at Nicodemia because of illness.
FOUNDING OF NEW ROME Lecinius defeat represented the passing of New Rome. Constantine rebuilt the city Byzantium and renamed it “Nova Roma” New Rome or Constantinople, The City of Constantine. 325 – He convened a Council of Bishops at Nicea to resolve the Arian dispute. Trinitian Nicene Creed – agreement of the council, this is the confession par excellence of Christian Orthodoxy 381 – Council of Constantinople was formed
Constantine provided the following for Christianity:
the exempting of the Christian elegy from certain obligations
Sunday was declared as a public holiday because it is the day of the week when Jesus resurrected.
the city is provided with a senate and civic offices
alleged true cross
rod of Moses
the city is protected with cameo
old Gods was replaced by Christian symbolism
temple of Aphrodite was built as the New Basilica of the Apostles
he generously endowed Christian shrines both in Rome (Saint Peter’s Basilica and Saint Paul’s Churches) and in the Holy Land (the Church of Nativity and the Church of Holy Sepulchre)
326 – after Constantine success in his works for Christianity he had killed his son Crispus because he believed the accusation that his son had an affair with Fausta, Constantine second wife. He also killed Fausta, several of his relatives and some of his most intimate friends in some passionable resentment of some fancied infringement of his right. Constantine onChristianity He still kept pagans in highest position and forbade everything which might look like an encroachment of Christianity upon paganism.
He respected cultivation of Christianity but his court was composed mostly of non – Christian people. Eusebius reports that Constantine was baptized before his death in 337.
AUGUSTINE (354 - 430)
Important details from A Handbook of Christian Faith, page 151 Augustinus Aurelius or better known as Augustine – a hinge figure between the end of the early church and the beginning of Middle Ages. He was born in a small city not far from Carthage in North Africa. He had a common-law wife for several years who bore him a son, Adeodatus. He was convicted by a passage in Paul’s letter to the Romans at the age of 32. He was baptized as a Christian together with his son at the Easter Sunday in 387.
396 – he became a bishop of Hippo(Annaba, Algeria) at the age of 42 A DEEPER VIEW OF ST. AUGUSTINES’ LIFE
a Bishop of Hippo Regins (Annaba, Algeria)
a Latin speaking philosopher and theologian
his writings were very influential in the development of Western Christianity.
In his early years he was heavily influenced by MANICHAEISM afterward by NEO-PLATONISM of Plotinus.
387 - he converted to Christianity and developed his own approach in Philosophy and Theology. He believed that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom and he framed the concepts of original sin and just war. When the Roman Empire was starting to disintegrate, Augustine developed the concept of the Church as a spiritual city of God. HIS EARLY LIFE 354 – he was born to a pagan father Patricius and a Christian mother Monica
At 11 years old – he was sent at Madaorus where he became familiar with Latin Literature as well as pagan beliefs and practices. 369 to 370 – he read the Cicero’s dialogue Hortensius which give him the interest in philosophy At 17 years old - he went to Carthage to continue his education in rhetoric - he still follows Manichean religion - he lived in hedonistic lifestyle - Adeodatus, his son from his uncommon wife 373 to 374 – he teached grammar at Thagaste - he moved to Carthage to teach rhetoric for 9 years 383 – he moved to established a school in Rome 384 – he teaches rhetoric at Imperial Court of Milan at the age of 30
In Milan he turned away from Manichaeism and embraced Skepticism. At Milan his mother pressured him to become a Christian, but he embraced Neo-Platonism CHRISTIAN CONVERSION 386 – he read the account of the Life of Saint Anthony of the Dessert which inspired him to convert to as Christian - he had give up everything and devote himself entirely to serve God and practiced priesthood. - upon his return to North Africa he sold his patrimony and gave money to the poor - his house turns into a monastic foundation for him and to others. 391 – he was ordained as Bishop of Hippo, he worked tirelessly to convinced people of Hippo to accept Christianity
430 – after his death Roman Africa was invaded by the Vandals, A Germanic tribe that had converted to Arianism. Works, Trials and Influences He faced three trials and won battles when he was a bishop of Hippo. - against MANICHAEANS, followers of MANI, an eclectic Persian prophet, who believed that there were two deities, one good and one evil. Augustine said that there was one God, who was good and all – powerful, and that evil did not come from God but from the misuse of free – will. - against the DONATISTS, named from DONATUS, the bishop of Carthage who believed the validity of sacraments depended on the personal purity and holiness of the priest who administered them.
- against the PELAGIANS, named after PELAGIUS, a British Monk who lived in Rome, who believed that men and women were not born sinful and that they could, through the exercise of their wills. - Augustine’s battles and extensive writings shaped the thinking and the theology of the church with regard to the doctrine of the original sin based on Paul’s statement. - he influenced St. Thomas Aquinas - he influenced Protestant reformers - contributed his ideas on abortion and ensoulment, He condemned the practice of induced abortion - contributed in the field of Anthropology and Astrology - stresses the importance of Baptism to infants.
THE NEW TESTAMENT CANON The writings were gathered together toward the end of first century. There seems to have bee agreement on most of the books before the end of the second century, except for Hebrews, five for the General Letters and the Book of Revelations. The forming of the canon “was not much a confirmation of authority by the church upon the books as it was recognition of the authority of the books inherently possessed” said by I. Howard Marshall. The canon in the present form was mentioned by Athanasius of Alexandria in the year 367, though final agreement on the canon must have occurred much earlier.
- The Canon of the New Testament defines it as a set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian Bible. - there are 27 books in the New Testament - the canon of the New Testament was the result of debate, disputes and research not reaching the final term until the dogmatic definition of the Council of Trent. - writings attributed to the Apostles were circulated
The NT is normally divided into four main parts (Gospels, Acts, Letters, Apocalypse), although the twenty-one "Letters" are best subdivided into three different sub-categories: Four "Gospels": "Good News" about Jesus Christ; authorship attributed to the four "Evangelists"; narrative portraits of Jesus written for various early Christian communities; similar to ancient biographies in form (but rather different from modern biographies!): The Synoptic Gospels: Matthew (28 / 1071 / 18345) Mark (16 / 678 / 11304) Luke (24 / 1151 / 19482)
The Fourth Gospel: John (21 / 879 / 15635) II) One "Acts": a partial narrative account of the growth of the Early Church; a continuation of Luke's Gospel; contains historical materials, but is not a complete "history" of apostolic Christianity (at least not by modern historical standards): The Acts of the Apostles (28 / 1005 / 18451) III) Twenty-One "Letters" or "Epistles": written by (or attributed to) various early Christian leaders, known as “apostles” IIIa) Thirteen Letters attributed to Paul: real letters written by Paul (or his associates) to particular communities or individuals, concerning various local problems and issues:
Letters addressed to individual Christian leaders: 1 Timothy (6 / 113 / 1591) 2 Timothy (4 / 83 / 1238) Titus (3 / 46 / 659) Philemon (1 / 25 / 335) Notes on the Pauline Letters: * 1 Tim, 2 Tim, Titus are usually called the "Pastoral Letters" since they are addressed to leaders or "shepherds" of Christian communities. * Eph, Phil, Col, Phlmare sometimes called "Prison Letters" since Paul apparently wrote them while in prison (Eph 3:1; 4:1; Phil 1:7, 13-14; Col 4:3, 10; Phlm9-10).
* Rom, 1 Cor, 2 Cor, Gal, Phil, 1Thess, Phlmare often called the "Undisputed Letters," since most scholars agree they were written by Paul himself. * Eph, Col, 2 Thess, and 1 Tim, 2 Tim, Titus are often called the "Disputed" or "Deuteropauline Letters," since many scholars believe they were written by Paul's followers after his death, rather than by Paul himself; but scholarly opinion is divided, with some scholars arguing for their authenticity. IIIb) One Biblical Sermon: interprets Jesus in light of the OT; in the past sometimes attributed to Paul, but neither the author nor the audience is explicitly mentioned: Hebrews (13 / 303 / 4953)
IIIc) Seven Catholic Epistles or General Letters: authorship attributed to other apostles (for whom they are named!); most not written to individual communities, but to broader audiences ("catholic" = "general, universal"): James (5 / 108 / 1742)1 Peter (5 / 105 / 1684)2 Peter (3 / 61 / 1099)1 John (5 / 105 / 2141)2 John (1 / 13 / 245)3 John (1 / 15 / 219)Jude (1 / 25 / 461) IV) One "Apocalypse": a highly symbolic narrative that interprets a historical crisis and provides hope for a better future: The Book of Revelation (22 / 404 / 9825)
Eight Tips about the Canonical Arrangement of the NT
The 27 books of the New Testament are NOT listed in chronological order (the order in which they were written historically); several other principles were operative.
The overall order begins with the life of Jesus (four Gospels), then deals with the beginnings and expansion of the Church (Acts), then addresses particular issues and problems in early Christianity (Letters, Epistles), and finally focuses on the Eschaton or "End Times" (as described symbolically in the Book of Revelation).
The four Gospels are listed in what was traditionally regarded as their chronological order (i.e., Matthew was thought to be the oldest Gospel); most scholars today, however, believe that Markwas the first written Gospel (or at least the oldest of the four canonical Gospels in their full versions, as we know them today).
The four Gospels are listed in what was traditionally regarded as their chronological order (i.e., Matthew was thought to be the oldest Gospel); most scholars today, however, believe that Markwas the first written Gospel (or at least the oldest of the four canonical Gospels in their full versions, as we know them today).
The Acts of the Apostles was originally the second volume of Luke's two-volume work; but when the four Gospels were grouped together, Acts was placed after John.
The Pauline Letters (written by, or at least attributed to Paul) are divided into two sub-groups: those written to communities and those addressed to individuals; within each sub-group, the letters are arranged not in chronological order, but rather in decreasing order of length (more or less, although Galatians is slightly shorter than Ephesians).
The anonymous "Letter to the Hebrews" comes immediately after the Pauline letters because people used to think it too was written by Paul; it may have been written by one of his followers, but was almost certainly not written by Paul himself.
The Catholic or General Epistles are also listed in decreasing order of length, although letters attributed to the same apostle are grouped together.
The Book of Revelation (singular! not "Revelations"!) closes out the NT canon, since it concludes with a description of the end of time (New Heavens, New Earth, New Jerusalem, etc.).
Ten Stages of NT Formation and Transmission The Historical Jesus - words are spoken and deeds are performed by Jesus himself during his lifetime on earth. Oral Tradition - traditions and beliefs about Jesus are developed and passed on by early Christian communities. Written Sources - some of the miracles and/or sayings of Jesus are compiled and recorded in early written documents. Written Texts - individual letters, full Gospels, etc., are written with particular messages for particular situations. Distribution - some writings are copied and shared with other Christian communities throughout the Mediterranean.
Collection - certain Christians begin collecting the letters of Paul and gathering together several different Gospels. Canonization - four Gospels, several collections of letters, and a few other texts are accepted as authoritative scriptures. Translation - biblical texts are translated into ever more ancient and modern languages: Latin, Syriac, Coptic, Armenian, etc. Interpretation - the meaning of the scriptures is investigated on various levels: literal, spiritual, historical, social, etc. Application - communities and individuals use the NT for practical purposes: liturgical, moral, sacramental, theological, etc.
Four Criteria for Canonicity (why certain books were eventually accepted into the NT Canon, while others were rejected): Apostolic Origin- attributed to and/or based on the preaching/teaching of the first-generation apostles (or their closest companions). Universal Acceptance- acknowledged by all major Christian communities in the Mediterranean world (by the end of the fourth century). Liturgical Use- read publicly along with the OT when early Christians gathered for the Lord's Supper (their weekly worship services). Consistent Message- containing theological ideas compatible with other accepted Christian writings (incl. the divinity and humanity Jesus).
Four-Fold Role of the Evangelists as Authors (what they contributed, even if "God is the Author" of all scripture) Selectors- from among the many things Jesus said and did, they chose which stories they wanted to include and which to omit. Arrangers- they organized the materials in a particular sequence, not necessarily chronologically but often in thematic blocks. Shapers- they adapted and edited the individual stories from their sources so as to emphasize the themes they wanted to stress. Proclaimers- they were not objective historians, but preached the "good news" about Jesus in ways appropriate to their audiences.
THE COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON, Canon 28 Dual Nature of Christ Twenty years after Ephesus, Saint Pulcheria played a key role in the fourth General Council; this time influencing her husband Marcian, then the Roman Emperor of the East, to coordinate with Pope Saint Leo the Great in convening it at Chalcedon in Thessalonica just northwest of Constantinople. Once again a false teaching was at the heart of the meeting. This time Monophysitism (the false teaching that Christ had only one nature) was at the forefront of controversy. It was taught by the Abbot Eutyches who also sought discord, causing confusion so that the Council asserted that Constantinople should be on an equal basis with Rome ecclesiastically. Vigorously opposing this and Eutyches.
Pope Leo determined in his Dogmatic Epistle of October 10, 451 that the See of Peter in Rome is and always shall be the Seat of Primacy with no equal and that Eutyches was a heretic. Leo was proclaimed the 'Soul of Chalcedon' and the Council agreed unanimously that through Leo, Peter had spoken and Eutyches was condemned. - The Council of Chalcedon is the fourth ecumenical council of the Christian Church, it was called the Council of Chalcedon because the event was held in the city of Chalcedon (Kadikoy, Turkey) happened on October 8, 451. - The Council of Chalcedon was convocted under Pope Leo the Great and the Emperor Marcian and it was attended by 520 bishops or their representatives. - This Council was the largest and best – documented of the early council.
The primary subject under consideration by the Council of Chalcedon was the matter of Christ's dual nature. The council decreed that Christ was both divine and human, and that any philosophy that held that he was solely human or solely divine was therefore considered a heresy. This concept was specifically expressed in the ChalcedonianCreed. The Council of Chalcedon also reinforced canons of earlier church councils and declared Jerusalem and Constantinople to be patriarchates. In addition, the council approved the Nicene Creed.
CHALCEDONIAN CREED "We, then, following the holy Fathers, all with one consent, teach men to confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in manhood; truly God and truly man, of a reasonable [rational] soul and body; consubstantial [co-essential] with the Father according to the Godhead, and consubstantial with us according to the Manhood; in all things like unto us, without sin; begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead, and in these latter days, for us and for our salvation, born of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, according to the Manhood; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, only begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures, in confusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably; the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person and one Subsistence, not parted or divided into two persons, but one and the same Son, and only begotten, God the Word, the Lord Jesus Christ; as the prophets from the beginning [have declared] concerning Him, and the Lord Jesus Christ Himself has taught us, and the Creed of the holy Fathers has handed down to us."
Than you for listening☺ Submitted by: Submitted to: GROUP 1 Mr. Nomer de Guia BsECE 3 Professor Sources : jesuscentral.com wikipedia.com microsoftencarta