February 21,1887- the first novel Noli Me Tangere was finished IDEA OF WRITING ON PHILIPPINES: The reading of Harriet Beecher Stowes“Uncle Tom’s Cabin”- which portrays the brutalities of American slave-owners and the pathetic conditions of the unfortunate Negro, Slaves, inspired Dr. Jose Rizal to prepare a novel on the Philippines Rizal was a student in the Central University of Madrid Rizal proposed is writing of a novel about the Philippines during the reunion of Filipinos in the house of the Paternos in Madrid on January 2,1884
His proposal was unanimously approved by:
Pedro Maximo Antonio
They were Paternos
Graciano Lopez Jaena Evaristo Aguirre Julio Llorente Valentin Ventura Eduardo De Lete
The end of 1884-Rizal began writing the novel in madrid and he finished one half of it 1885 He went to Paris for completing his studies in the Universidad Central De Madrid He continued writing the novel, finishing the one half of the second half. GERMANY 1886 During the dark days While his spirit was at its lowest ebb, he almost threw the manuscript into the fire The novel was almost finished
He was desperately desponded because he saw no hope of having it to published for he was utterly penniless FERNANDO CANON- friend of Rizal MID DECEMBER- a telegram from Barcelona arrived THE TELEGRAM Sent by Dr. Maximo Viola, informing Rizal of his coming visit to Berlin
The message revived the author’s Hope Dr. Maximo Viola A scion of a rich family of San Miguel Bulacan Would surely lend him the money for the publication of the novel The man had saved “Noli” Viola was a Godsend Viola came to Berlin to invite Rizal to join him in a tour of Europe When he learned of Rizal’s predicament, he kindly agreed to postponed the tour and instead, advanced some money so that the novel could be printed
1887 First edition of Noli Me Tangere was printed in Berlin P300.oo cost of printing (advance by Viola) for 2000 copies MARCH 29,1887 Rizal gave the Galley Proofs of the Noli A significant date for it was the date when the Noli Me Tangere came off the press NOLI ME TANGERE - a latin phrase which means “Touch me not”, from the bible
MARCH 1887 Rizal writing to Felix R. Hidalgo in french “Noli Me Tangere” words taken from the gospel of St.Luke Rizal made a mistake. It should be the gospel of St. John, on the first Easter Sunday St. John(chapter 20:13-17) ST.MARY MAGDALENE - visited the Holy Sepulchre, and to her our Lord Jesus, just arisen from the dead
The author’s dedication. Rizal dedicated the Noli Me Tangere to the Philippines “to my country” his dedication runs as follows:
Recorded in the history of human sufferings is a cancer so malignant a character that the least touch irritates it and awakens in it the sharpest pains. Thus, how many times, when in the midst of modern civilization i have wished to call thee before me, now to accompany me in memories
Now to compare thee with other countries, hath thy dear image presented itself showing a social cancer like a to that other!
Desiring thy welfare which our own, an seeking the best treatments, i will do with thee what the ancient did with their seek exposing them on the steps of the temple so that everyone who came to invoke the divinity might ofer them a remedy.
And to this end, Iwill strive to reproduce thy condition faithfully, without discrimination, Iwill raise a part of the veil that covers the evil, sacrificing to truth everything, even vanity itself. Since, as thy son i am conscious that Ialso suffer from thy defects and weaknesses.
NOLI ME TANGERE Contains 63 chapters and an epilogue It begins the reception given by Captain Tiago (Santiago De Los Santos) at his house in CalleAnloague ( Now Juan Luna Street) on the last day of October CRISOSTOMO IBARRA A young and rich Filipino who had just turn after 7 years of study in Europe
The reception or dinner was given in honor of Crisostomo Was only son of Don Rafael Ibarra DON RAFAEL IBARRA Friend of CapitanTiago and fiance of beautiful Maria Clara supposed daugther of Capitan Tiago GUEST DURING RECEPTION Padre Damaso- a Franciscan Friar who had been priest of San Diego( Calamba), Ibarra’s native town for 20 years
2. Padre Sibyla-a young dominican parish priest of Binondo 3. Senor Guevara - an elderly and kind lieutenant of the GuardiaCivil DON TIBURCIO de ESPADANA - a bogus Spanish Physician , lame, and henpeckeadhusband of Dona Victorina and several ladies. PADRE DAMASO - was in a bad mood because he got a bony neck and hard wing of the chicken Tinola. - he tried to discredit Ibarra’s remarks.
=AFTER DINNER= Ibarra Left captain Tiago’s house to return to his hotel. On the way, the kind lieutenant Guevarratold him the sad story of his father’s death in San Diego.
Don Rafael – his father, was a rich and brave man.
He defended a helpless boy from the brutality of a illiterate Spanish tax collector, pushing the latter and accidentally killing him. He was thrown in prison, where he died unhappily.
He was buried in consecrated ground but his enemies, accusing him of being a heretic, had his body removed from the cemetery. On hearing his father’s sad story, Ibarra thanked the kind Spanish lieutenant and vowed to find out the truth about his father’s death.
=THE FOLLOWING MORNING= Ibarra, visited Maria Clara, his childhood sweetheart
Maria Clara teasingly said that he had forgotten her because the girls in Germany were beautiful, then Ibarra replied that he had never forgotten her.
After the romantic reunion with Maria Clara, Ibarra went to San Diego to visit his father’s grave. It was All Saint’s Day..at the cemetery, the grave –digger told Ibarra that the corpse of Don Rafael was removed by order of the parish priest to be buried in the Chinese cemetery.
But the corpse was heavy and it was a dark rainy night so that he simply threw the corpse into the lake.
Ibarra was angered by the grave-diggers story. He left the cemetery.
On the way, he met Padre Salvi Franciscan parish priest of San Diego. In a flash, Ibarra pounced on the priest , demanding redness for desecrating his father’s mortal remains. PADRE SALVI- told him that he had nothing to do with it, for he was not the parish priest at the time of Don Rafael’s death.
It was Padre Damaso, his predecessor, who was responsible for it. Convinced of Padre Salvi’sinnosence, Ibarra went away. In his town, Ibarra met several interesting people, such as the wise old man Tasio the Sage, whose ideas were too advanced for his times so that the people, who could not understand him, called him “Tasio the Lunatic”. The progressive school teacher, who complied to Ibarra that the children were losing interest in thier studies because of lack f a proper schoolhouse and discouraging attitude of the parish priest toward teaching of Spanish and the use of modern method of PEDAGOGY.
The spineless gobernadorcillo, who catered to wishes of the Spanish priest:
Don FilipoLino - the teniente mayor and leader of the liberal function in the town. Don Melchor- the captain of the cuadrilleros(town police). Former Gobernadorcillo who were prominent citizens: Don Basilio Don Valentin
Most tragic story in the novel is the tale of Sisa, who was formerly a rich girl but became poor because when she married a gambler.
SISA- became crazy because she lost her two boys. BASILIIO AND CRISPIN - only joys of her wretched life. These boys were sacristans(sextons) in the church, working for a small wage to support their poor mother. CRISPIN- the younger of the two brothers, was accused by the brutal sacristan mayor(chief tortured) in the convent and died.
BASILIO- with his brother’s dying cries ringing in his ears, escaped.
when the two boys did not return home, Sisalooked for them everywhere and in her great sorrow, she became mad.
Capitan Tiago’s cousin who took care of Maria Clara, after her mother’s death arrived in San Diego.
Ibarra and his friends gave picnic, were Maria Clara and her four girl friends.
The Merry Sinang The Grave Victoria The Beautiful Iday The Thoughtful Neneng
AUNT ISABEL - chaperon of Maria Clara CAPITANA TIKA - mother of Sinang ADENG- foster-sister of Maria Clara ALBINO- the ex-theological student who was in love with Sinang and Ibarra and his Friends. ELIAS - one of boatmen was a strong silent, pleasant youth.
An accident of the picnic was the saving of Elias life by Ibarra.
ELIAS- bravely grappled with the crocodile which was caught in the fish corral, but crocodile struggled furiously so that Elias could not subdue it.
Ibarra jumped into the water and killed the crocodile, thereby saving Elias. Another accident, which preceded the above-mentioned neat-tragic culture incident, was the rendering of a beautiful song by Maria Clara who had a sweet voice. Upon the insistent request of her friends, she played the sharp and sang. The Song of Maria Clara “Sweet are the hours in one’s native land, Where all is dear the sunbeams bless; Life-giving breezes sweep he strand.
And death is softened by Love’s cares “Warm kisses play on mother Lip’s, On her fond, tender breast awakening; When round her neck the soft arm slips. And bright eyes smile, all love partaking “Sweet is death for one’s native land, Where all is dear the sunbeans bless:
AFTER MARIA CLARA’S SONG AND THE CROCODILE INCIDENT, THEY WENT A SHORE THEY MADE MERRY IN THE COOL,WOODED MEADOWS. Padre Salvi Capitan Basilio(former gobernadorcillo and Sinang’s father) Alferez(lieutenant of guardia civil) Town officials were present THE MEAL OVER Ibarra and Capitan Basilio played chess. Maria Clara and friends played the “Wheel of Chance”(game based on a fortune telling book).
AFTER A SEARGENT AND FOUR SOLDIERS OF THE GUARDIA CIVIL SUDDENLY ARRIVED, LOOKING FOR ELIAS, WHO HAS HUNTED FOR
Assaulting Padre Damaso Throwing the Alferez into the mud hole. Fortunately, Elias has disappeared and the Guardia civil went away empty handed. During the picnic also, Ibarra received a telegram from the Spanish authorities notifying him of the approval of his donation of a schoolhouse for the children of San Diego.
The next day Ibarra visited old Tasio to consult him on his pet project about the schoolhouse. He sar the old man’s writings were written in heiroglyphics. Tasio explained to him that he wrote hieroglyphics because he was writing for the future generations who would understand them and say: NOT ALL WERE ASLEEP IN THE NIGHT OF OUR ANCESTORS. NOR JUAN - an architect continued the construction of school house.
San Diego was preparing for its annual fiesta, in Honor of its patron saint San Diego de Alcala who’s feast day is the 11the of November. On the eve of the fiesta, hundreds of visitors arrived from nearby towns, and there were laughter, music, exploding bombs, feasting and moro-moro. The music was furnished by: 5 brass bands(including the famous Pagsanjan Band owned by escribano Miguel Guevarra.) 3 orchestras
In the morning of the fiesta there was a high mass in the church; officiated by Padre Salvi. Padre Damaso gave the long sermon, in which he expatiated on the evils of the times that were caused by certain men who having tested same education. After Padre Damaso’s sermon, the mass was continued by Padre Salvi. Elias quietly moved Ibarra, who was kneeling and praying my Maria Clara’s side, and warned him to be careful during the ceremony of the lying of the cornerstone of the school house because there is a plot to kill him.
Elias- suspected that the yellowish man built the derrick, was a paid stooge Ibarra’s enemies. True to his suspicion , later in the day when Ibarra in the presence of a big crowd, went down into trench to cement the cornerstone, the derrick collapse. Elias quick as a flash pushed him aside, saving his life. the yellowish man was the one crushed to death by the shattered derrick.
At the dinner that night. The arrogant Padre Damaso, speaking in the presence of many guest, insulted the memory of Ibarra’s father. Ibarra jumped from his seat, knocked down the fat friar with his first and then seized with sharp knife. He would killed the friar, were it not far the timely intervention of Maria Clara. Ibarra’s attack on Padre Damaso produced 2 results: His engagement to Maria Clara was broken. He was excommunicated.
=THE FIESTA OVER= MARIA CLARA - became ill - treated by the quack physician “Tiborcio de Espadana”. DOCTORA DONA VICTORINA de LAS REYES De ESPADANA
Wife of Tiburcio de Espadana
A vain, frustrated native woman
A frequent visitor on Capitan Tiago’s house
Had halucinations of being superior Castilica.
She looked down on her own people as inferior being.
She added another “de” to her husband to become more spanish.
DON ALFONSO LINARES DE ESPADANA cousin of Don Tiburcio de Espadana Godson of Padre Damaso’s brother in law. A touch of comedy in the novel was the fight bet. Dona Consolacion - the vulgar mistress of the Spanish alferez
2. Dona Victorina- flam-boyantly dresses wife of a henpecked Spanish quack doctor. STORY OF ELIAS Tale of pathos and tragedy He related it to Ibarra
Some 60 years ago his grandfather
His grandfather who was a young bookkeeper in a Spanish commercial firm in Manila.
Was wrongly accused of burning the firm’s warehouse.
Was a plogged in public and was left in the street, crippled and almost dead.
Who was pregnant
Begged for alms
Become a prostitute in order to support his sick husband and son.
After giving birth to her second and the death of her husband, she fled with her two sons to the mountain.
Became a dreaded tulisan named Balat.
He terrorized the provinces.
His head was cut off and was hung from the tree branch in the forest.
Who was by nature kind-hearted. Fled and became a trusted laborer in the house of a rich man in Tayabas. He fell in love with the Master daughter.
Unfortunate lover(Elias Father)
Was sent to jail while the girl gave birth to twins a boy(Elias) and a girl.
Educated in the Jesuit College in Manila
studied in La Concordia College
They lived happily until one day, over money matters; distant relatives exposed their shame full birth. They were disgraced. An old male servant whom they used to abuse, was forced to testify in court and the truth came out that he was their real father.
Elias and his sister left Tayabas to hide their shame in another place. One day his sister disappeared. Elias roamed from place to place looking for her. He heard later that a girl answering to his sister’s description, was found on the beach of San Diego.
Elias, learning of Ibarra’s arrest, burned all papers that might incriminate his friends and set Ibarra’s house on fire. Then he went to prison and helped Ibarra escape. He and Ibarra jumped into a BANCA loaded with ZACATE (grass). Ibarra stopped to Capitan Tiago to say goodbye to Maria Clara. After bidding Maria Clara farewell, Ibarra returned to the Banca . He and Elias paddled up the Pasig river toward Laguna de Bay. A police boat with the Guardia civil on board. Elias told Ibarra to hide under zacate.
Elias jumped into the water and swam swiftly toward the shore. He diverted the attention of the soldiers on his person giving Ibarra a chance to escape. Elias seriously wounded, reached he shore and went into the forest. He met a boy Basilio, weeping over his mother’s body. He told Basilio to make a pyre on which their bodies were to burned to ashes.
It was Christmas eve and the moon gleamed softly in the sky. Basilio prepared the funeral pyre. Elias looked toward the east and murmured “I die with out seeing the dawn brighten over my native land. You who have it to see, welcome it and forget not those who have fallen during the night.”
The novel was an epilogue which recounts what happened to the other characters.
Maria Clara -entered the Santa Clara nunnery
Padre Salvi- left parish San Diego and became a chaplain of the nunnery.
Padre Damaso - transferred to remote province but he was found dead in his bedroom.
Capitan Tiago - became an opium addict and a human wreck.
Dona Victorina - still henpecking poor Don Tiburcio.
- wearing eye glass because weakening eyesight.
Linares - died of dysentery.
-buried in Paco cemetery.
Alferez -was promoted Major.
-he returned to Spain -leaving his shabby mistress Dona Consolacion
=THE NOVEL ENDS WITH MARIA CLARA, UNHAPPY IN STA CLARA NUNNERY. FOREVER LOST IN THE WORLD.= (Noli based on truth) Noli ME TANGERE
True story of Philippine conditions during the last decades of Spanish rule.
Places, character and situation really exist.
=THE CHARACTERS= MARIA CLARA- was Leonor Rivera IBARRA and ELIAS- represented Rizal himself TASIO the SAGE- was his elder brother (Paciano). PADRE SALVI- identified by Rizalist as Padre Antonio Piernavieja. CAPITANTIAGO- was Capitan HilarioSunico of San Nicholas. DONA VICTORINA- was Dona AgustinaMedel BASILIO and CRISPIN- were Crisostomo brother of Hogonoy.
PADRE DAMASO- was typical of a domineering friar during the days of Rizal, who was arrogant, supercilious and Anti-Filipino. RIZAL FRIENDS PRAISE THE NOLI Friends of Rizal hailed the novel, praising it in glowing colors. Rizal anticipated the vitriolic attacks of his enemies, who were sore to be told the truth of the evil ways. In Rizal own words. The government and the friars will probably attacking on the work, refusing the statement, but the trust in the God of Truth and in the persons who have actually seen our sufferings.
=COPIES OF NOLI WERE SENT BY RIZAL TO...= Blumentritt Regidor Hidalgo Mariano Ponce Graciano Lopez Jaena Aguirre
=MORE COPIES WERE CRATED AND SENT TO...= BARCELONA MADRID HONGKONG