Skeletal System - Anatomy


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Skeletal System - Anatomy

  1. 1. SKLETAL SYSTEM •It is divided into two parts: •Axial. •Appendicular.
  2. 2. AXIAL SKELETON •It forms the longtudinal axis of the body. •It is divided into three parts: •Skull. •Vertebral Column. •Bony thorax.
  3. 3. SKULL •It is formed of two sets of bones: •Cranium. •Facial bones. •Most of Its bones are flat.
  4. 4. CRANIUM •it encloses and protects the brain. •It is formed of eight large flat bones. •Two of them are paired and the others are single.
  5. 5. CRANIUM •The bones are: •Frontal. •Parietal. •Temporal. •Occipital. •The bones are joined together by sutures.
  6. 6. FACIAL BONES •They hold the eyes in an anterior position. •They are (14) bones. •Twelve are paired and only the mandible and vomer are single. •They are : maxillae, palatine,zygomatic, lacrimal, nasal, vomer and mandible.
  7. 7. VERTEBRAL COLUMN •It is the axial support of the body. •It extends from the skull which it supports to the pelvis, where it transmits the weight of the body to the lower limbs.
  8. 8. VERTEBRAL COLUMN •It is formed of (24) single bones (Vertebrae) : •Cervical vertebrae (7). •Thoracic vertebrae(12). •Lumbar vertebrae (5). •Sacrum (fused 5 vertebrae). •Coccyx (fused 4 vertebrae).
  9. 9. VERTEBRAL COLUMN •The single vertebrae are separated by pads of flexible fibrocartilage (inter vertebral discs). •The intervertebral discs absorb shocks and allow the spine flexibility.
  10. 10. TYPICAL VERTEBRA •It is formed of: •Body. •Vertebral arch: laminae and pedicle. •Vertebral foramen. •Transverse process. •Spinous process. •Superior and inferior articular processes. •THEY ARE IRREGULAR BONES.
  11. 11. DIFFERENT VERTEBRAE •Cervical :smallest , the spine is divided into two branches. Transverse process contain foramen. •Thoracic : body is heart shaped and has two costal facets. •Lumbar : massive block like bodies.
  12. 12. BONY THORAX •It is formed of the sternum,ribs and thoracic vertebrae. •It protects the organs of the thoracic cavity. •Sternum •Manubrium. •Body. •Xiphoid process.
  13. 13. RIBS •They are (12) pairs which are divided as follows: •True (7) : attach directly to the sternum. •False (5) : either attach indirectly to the sternum or not at all. •Floating : last two pairs.
  14. 14. APPENDICULAR SKELETON •It is formed of: •Pectoral girdle. •Pelvic girdle. •Bones of the upper and lower limbs.
  15. 15. PECTORAL GIRDLE •It is formed of: •CLAVICLE : it holds the arm away from the thorax. •SCAPULA (WING(.
  16. 16. UPPER LIMB •ARM :Humerus. •FORE ARM: Radius & Ulna. •Long bones: •They are formed of: •Epiphysis : on each end. •Diaphysis : a tubular shaft. It is covered externally by the periosteum.
  17. 17. HAND •WRIST : Carpal bones. •PALM : Metacarpal bones. •FINGERS : Phalanges. •They are examples of short bones.
  18. 18. PELVIC GIRDLE •Formed of the two HIP bones. •Each hip bone is formed of three parts: •ILium. •Ischium. •Pubis. •The hip bones and the sacrum form the bony pelvis.
  19. 19. LOWER LIMB •THIGH : Femur. •LEG : Tibia & Fibula.
  20. 20. FOOT •TARSUS : Tarsal bones. •Metatarsals. •Phalanges.