Dentition intro

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Dentition intro

  1. 1. Introduction andIntroduction and NomenclatureNomenclature
  2. 2. The upper arch is called the MaxillaMaxilla The teeth In this arch are called UpperUpper OrOr Maxillary TeethMaxillary Teeth.. The lower arch Is called the MandibleMandible The teeth in this arch are called LowerLower OrOr Mandibular TeethMandibular Teeth.. Each dental arch has a Midline that divides it Into two equal right and left segments named As Quadrant. There are Four Quadrants in the oral cavity. The upper arch is called the MaxillaMaxilla The teeth In this arch are called UpperUpper OrOr Maxillary TeethMaxillary Teeth.. The lower arch Is called the MandibleMandible The teeth in this arch are called LowerLower OrOr Mandibular TeethMandibular Teeth.. Each dental arch has a Midline that divides it Into two equal right and left segments named As Quadrant. There are Four Quadrants in the oral cavity. TeethTeeth and dental arches:and dental arches:
  3. 3. . UPPERUPPER OR MAXILLARYOR MAXILLARY TEETHTEETH LOWERLOWER OROR MANDIBULARMANDIBULAR TEETHTEETH
  4. 4. In The Oral Cavity There Are Four Classes Of Teeth That Includes: 11--IncisorsIncisors:: -There is two incisors The central incisor and The lateral incisor. 22--CaninesCanines:: -There is one canine in each quadrant. 33--PremolarsPremolars:: -There are two in each quadrant. First and second premolars. 44--MolarsMolars:: -There are three in each quadrant. They are the first molar, the second molar and the third molar. -The incisors and canines are considered anterior teeth since they are closer to the midline. - Molars and premolars are considered posterior teeth since they are farther from the midline. In The Oral Cavity There Are Four Classes Of Teeth That Includes: 11--IncisorsIncisors:: -There is two incisors The central incisor and The lateral incisor. 22--CaninesCanines:: -There is one canine in each quadrant. 33--PremolarsPremolars:: -There are two in each quadrant. First and second premolars. 44--MolarsMolars:: -There are three in each quadrant. They are the first molar, the second molar and the third molar. -The incisors and canines are considered anterior teeth since they are closer to the midline. - Molars and premolars are considered posterior teeth since they are farther from the midline. 12 3 4
  5. 5. The DentitionsThe Dentitions 1-The primary dentition1-The primary dentition: (: (deciduousdeciduous )) This begins at 6 monthes and ends at 6 years. Why? The eruption of primary teeth begins at 6 monthes (for lower central incisor) and ends at 2 years(for the upper second deciduous molar) . 20teeth. 10 maxillary and 10 mandibular. 5teeth are present in each quadrant. 2incisors. 1canine. and 2 molars. The dental formula is: 2 1 2 I ---- C ---- M ---- = 10 2 1 2
  6. 6. Ugly duckling stage Why? 2- The mixed dentition :(Transient phase) Begins at 6 years with eruption of the 1st permanent molar and ends at 12 years with shedding of the last deciduous tooth. The oral cavity contains both deciduous and permanent teeth .
  7. 7. 3-The permanent dentition3-The permanent dentition:: ((secondary, adultsecondary, adult oror succedaneoussuccedaneous )) This begins at 12 years when all deciduous teeth are replaced by their permanent successors and persists for the whole life span of the teeth. 32 teeth, 16 maxillary and 16 mandibular. 8 teeth in each quadrant are Present. 2 incisors. 1 canine. 2 premolars. and 3 molars. The dental formula is : 2 1 2 3 I ---- C ---- PM --- M ---- = 16 2 1 2 3
  8. 8. 1- Primary dentition 6 m - 6 y 3- Permanent dentition 12 y and up 2- Mixed dentition 6 y - 12 y X – Ray Showing
  9. 9. 1) Palmer Notation System: It represents the four quadrants of the dentition as if you facing the patient. In upper right In upper left In lower right In lower left The permanent teeth are numbered from 1-8 on each side from the midline. Upper right Upper left 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Lower right Lower left The deciduous teeth are lettered from A-E on each side from the midline. Upper right Upper left E D C B A A B C D E E D C B A A B C D E Lower right Lower left Tooth Identification System
  10. 10. Palmer Notation System
  11. 11. The teeth are designed by using two-digit systems: a. The first digit of the code is located at the left side of the number and indicates the quadrant. In the permanent dentition. In the deciduous dentition. U.R. 1 2 U.L. U.R. 5 6 U.L L.R. 4 3 L. L. L.R. 8 7 L.L. Permanent teeth 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Deciduous teeth 55 54 53 52 51 61 62 63 64 65 85 84 83 82 81 71 72 73 74 75 2-The international numbering system (the two digit system) b- The second digit is located at the right side of the number and indicates the number of the tooth in the quadrant. The two digits should be pronounced separately.
  12. 12. 3)The universal numbering system (American numbering system):. The number is always preceded by the sign # to designate that the system is used for universal system. Permanent teeth (1 – 32) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 Deciduous teeth (1 – 20) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 Deciduous teeth (A - T) A B C D E F G H I J T S R Q P O N M L K
  13. 13. Each tooth has three anatomical parts: I.Crown II.The Neck: cervical line or cemento-enamel junction (CEJ(. II.Root (s) Tooth AnatomyTooth Anatomy 1- Macro-anatomy of the tooth Enamel Cementum
  14. 14. Anatomical And Clinical Crown And Root Gingival Recession Gingival Recession Anatomical crown Part of the Anatomical root Clinical Crown
  15. 15. Tooth AnatomyTooth Anatomy 2- Micro-anatomy of the tooth -Three calcified tissues: Enamel Dentin Cementum + One soft specialized connective tissue: Pulp.Pulp. -Three calcified tissues: Enamel Dentin Cementum + One soft specialized connective tissue: Pulp.Pulp.
  16. 16. Enamel: Coveres, Most Mineralized, Yellowish White. Cementum: Covers, Medium For The Attachment, Dull Yellow, Thickness. Dentin: Surrounds The Pulp Cavities, Underlying The Enamel And The Cementum, Yellow. Pulp: Housed In The Pulp Cavity, Soft Tissue, Supply. SUMMARY
  17. 17. Anatomy Of The Pulp CavityAnatomy Of The Pulp Cavity 1 - Pulp chamber + pulp horns 2 - Root canal + apical foramen + accessory canals Consists Of Two Parts Pulp Horn
  18. 18. Functions Of Teeth 1- Mastication: It is the most important function of the teeth. The teeth are designed to perform this function. IncisorsIncisors CanineCanine PremolarsPremolars MolarsMolars Chisel like Cutting or incising Wedge like Cutting and tearing At least two projections (cusps). Tearing and grinding Multiple projections (cusps) Grinding
  19. 19. 4-Growth of jaws: The teeth play a role in the growth of the jaws in some periods of life. 2- Appearance: - Well arranged clean teeth with proper alignment give nice appearance to the face. – Teeth give support to the facial expressions. 3- Speech: Teeth are important for clear pronunciation and for production of sound.
  20. 20. Tooth Surfaces
  21. 21. LABIALLABIAL TOWARDSTOWARDS THE LIPTHE LIP FOR ANTERIOR TEETH BUCCALBUCCAL TOWARDSTOWARDS THE CHEEKTHE CHEEK FOR POSTERIOR TEETH OR Facial surfaces
  22. 22. PALATALPALATAL TOWARDSTOWARDS THE PALATTHE PALAT LINGUALLINGUAL TOWARDSTOWARDS THE TONGUETHE TONGUE FOR MAXILLARY TEETH FOR MANDIBULAR TEETH OR Lingual surfaces
  23. 23. TOWARDS THE MIDLINETOWARDS THE MIDLINE AWAY FROM THE MIDLINEAWAY FROM THE MIDLINE & FOR ALL THE TEETH Proximal surfaces
  24. 24. FOR ANTERIOR TEETH FOR POSTERIOR TEETH INCISALINCISAL OCCLUSALOCCLUSALOR Occluding surfaces
  25. 25. For descriptive purposes ( to locate theFor descriptive purposes ( to locate the anatomical landmarksanatomical landmarks(:(: -Crown surfacesCrown surfaces could be divided horizontally or vertically into three portions or thirds, - The rootThe root could be divided into thirds horizontally, while vertically into halves by the root axis line { labial (buccal( & lingual and/or mesial & distal }. Division Into Thirds
  26. 26. Division Into Thirds
  27. 27. Line And Point Angles Line angle Point angle
  28. 28. Line And Point Angles Line angle: It is formed by the junction of two surfaces and its name is derived from both surfaces Point angle: It is formed by the junction of three surfaces and its name is derived from these surfaces.
  29. 29. Note: The anterior teeth have fewer line angles because the meeting of the mesial and distal line surfaces with incisal ridge are rounded , so the mesio-incisal and disto-incisal line angles are practically not exist..
  30. 30. Anatomical Landmarks Of The Crown A - Crown Elevations )1(Lobe. It is one of the primary centers of calcification and growth formed during the crown development. Each tooth begins to develop from four lobes or more. The pulp chamber has pulp horns corresponding to these lobes. Only some maxillary third molars have as few as 3 lobes. Peg- shaped maxillary lateral incisors and some supernumerary teeth have less than three lobes THE MATURE FORMS OF LOBES ARE: 11..MamelonesMamelones 22..CingulumCingulum 3.3.CuspsCusps PULP HORN
  31. 31. 2. Mamelones: They are three small round projections of enamel present in the incisal third of newly erupted incisors. After normal use, eventually the mamelones wear down into a flat edge.
  32. 32. 3.Cingulum: It is the enlargement or bulge on the cervical third of lingual surface of the crown in anterior teeth (incisors and canines(. It is also called the lingo- cervical ridge
  33. 33. 4.Cusps: They are pyramidal projections on the incisal portion of the canine and on the occlusal surfaces of the premolars and molars teeth.
  34. 34. 5-Tubercle: • It is a small elevation due to excessive formation of enamel. • Tubercle is noticed at the palatal surface of E & 6 • It differs from cusp as it is formed of enamel only while cusp is formed of pulp horn covered by dentin and enamel. PULP HORN Cusp ENAMEL DENTI N Tubercle M B D P
  35. 35. )6( Ridge: It is a linear elevation on the different surfaces of the crown. a-Labial Ridge: b-Buccal Ridge: c-Cervical Ridge: Found on the labial surfaces of canines. Usually found on the buccal surfaces of the premolars. It is found on the cervical one third of the facial surfaces of all the teeth.
  36. 36. d-Incisal Ridge: f-Lingual Ridge: g-Marginal Ridge: e-Cusp Ridge: Cusp Slopes Or Cusp Arms IR NOTE: Usually distal cusp slope is longer than mesial cusp slope in all teeth except C and 4 where the mesial cusp slope is longer than the distal
  37. 37. g-Marginal Ridges h-Triangular Ridges: All posterior tooth cusps have a triangular ridge, except the mesiolingual cusp on maxillary molars which has two triangular ridges 1 2 1 2
  38. 38. i-Transverse Ridge: Found in lower premolars j-Oblique Ridge: )E67 may be D, 8( Remember that all teeth either anterior or posterior have cervical ridge and two marginal ridges (mesial and distal one(.
  39. 39. B- Crown Depression: 1-DEVELOPMENTAL GROOVE It is narrow, shallow and sharply defined short or long, denoting union of primary lobes.
  40. 40. They are smallsmall, irregularly placed auxiliary grooves. Branches fromBranches from developmental grooves. FoundFound usually on occlusal surfaces. They do not denoteThey do not denote union of primary lobes. The third molarsthird molars followed by secondsecond permanent molars are characterized by high number of supplemental grooves. 2-SUPPLEMENTAL GROOVES: 88
  41. 41. It is foundfound in the bottom of developmental groove. ResultsResults from incomplete union of the primary lobes. It is a faultfault in enamel. 3-FISSURE: It is a broad depression or valleydepression or valley on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth. Its inclinesIts inclines meet in a developmental groove and extend to the cusp tips. SULCUS: Cusp tip Cusp tip Denti n Ename l Fissur e Developmen tal groove
  42. 42. It is a smallsmall depression or concavity. FoundFound in both anterior and posterior teeth. Its nameIts name is derived from its place: 4- FOSSA:
  43. 43. a- LINGUAL FOSSA: FoundFound on the lingual surfaces of anterior teeth. a- LINGUAL FOSSA: FoundFound on the lingual surfaces of anterior teeth. LF
  44. 44. b- MESIAL AND DISTAL TRIANGULAR FOSSA: FoundFound on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth mesial and distal to the marginal ridges. b- MESIAL AND DISTAL TRIANGULAR FOSSA: FoundFound on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth mesial and distal to the marginal ridges. DM R MM R MTFDTF
  45. 45. c- CENTRAL FOSSA: FoundFound on occlusal surfaces of molars. They are formed by the converging of ridges terminating at a central point where there is the junction of grooves. CF CP
  46. 46. a- TRUE PITS: These are small pinpointpinpoint depressiondepression. Present at the junction / or at the ends of the developmental grooves. They may be foundfound at the bottomat the bottom of the central fossa (central pit) or at the bottom of the mesial and distal triangular fossae (mesial and distal pits). a- TRUE PITS: These are small pinpointpinpoint depressiondepression. Present at the junction / or at the ends of the developmental grooves. They may be foundfound at the bottomat the bottom of the central fossa (central pit) or at the bottom of the mesial and distal triangular fossae (mesial and distal pits). 2- PITS: b- FAULTY PIT incomplete formation of enamel.incomplete formation of enamel. It is located atlocated at the end of the buccal developmental grooves of the lower molars or palatal developmental grooves of the upper molars. c. p. d. p. m. p. p.p . b.p .
  47. 47. It is the bony spacebony space in the alveolar bone containing the developing unerupted tooth. It is the bony spacebony space in the alveolar bone containing the roots of erupted tooth. CRYPT: SOCKET:

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