Ch. 11, Immunology Basics - Microbiology

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  • 1. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 1
  • 2. Tumor s Di Basic Immunology se ea Prof. Medhat M. Ali 2
  • 3. Definition: Is the science dealing with the study of processes by which the body defends and maintains the constancy of self structures against invasion by foreign agents or development of unwanted cells or cell products within itself. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 3
  • 4. Definition: The state of rapid and higher responsiveness in a trial for : Elimination of an antigen previously detected by the immune system and formation of memory lymphocyte cells. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 4
  • 5. Cosists of organs, cells and molecules responsible for recognition and elimination of unwanted agents. Organs: as thymus gland and lymph nods. Cells: as macrophages and lymphocytes. Molecules: as immunoglobulins. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 5
  • 6. Factors played by the microbe. Factors played by the host. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 6
  • 7. Is the biological processes which takes place in the host as a result of penetration, colonization and multiplication of pathogenic microorganism into it, independant whether the penetration will lead to development of an obvious disease or latent disease, or the host will only become a carrier of the pathogenic microorganism. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 7
  • 8. I. Natural Resistance (Non-specific immune mechanism or Natural or Innate Immunity). II. Acquired Immunity ( Specific immune mechanism). Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 8
  • 9. Difference between specific and non-specific Immunity .Non-specific Imm .Its response is Ag independent Specific Immunity .Its response is Ag dependent .Immediate maximal response .Lag time before response .Not Ag. Specific .It is Ag. Specific .No immunological memory .Immunological memory Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 9
  • 10. Organs Cells Molecules Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 10
  • 11. Major Lymphoid Organs & Tissues Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 11
  • 12. ORGANS I. Central Lymphoid Organs (Primary): * Bone marrow. * Thymus gland. II. Peripheral Lymphoid Organs (Secondary): * Lymph nodes. * Spleen. * Tonsils. * Mucosa associated lymphoid tissues. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 12
  • 13. Thymus Section Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 13
  • 14. Spleen Section Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 14
  • 15. Lymph node Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 15
  • 16. Defintion: Summation of all natural defence mechanisms. Determining Factors: 1- Genetic factor. 2- Age. 3- Nutritional and metabolic factors. 4- Hormonal Factor. Mechanisms: 1- Mechanical defence. 2- Bacterial Flora. 3- Inflammatory response 4- Fever. 5- Biochemical tissue constituents (Humoral). 6- Phagocytosis. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 16
  • 17. Factors that control innate immunity Genetic Factor:  Species and strain: The rat is unsusceptible to diphtheria while the guinea pig and man are susceptible.  Races: Negroes are more susceptible to T.B. than white races.  Individual: Some individuals in the same family are more susceptible to infections. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 17
  • 18. Age Factor: .Extremes are more susceptible to infection :Nutritional and Metabolic Factors Inadequate diet increasing Susceptibility to infection :Hormonal Factors Diabetes mellitus, hypothyoidism and Adrenal dysfunction, increases the susceptibility to .infection Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 18
  • 19. 1-Mechanical Barriers Skin Mucous membrane Hair & Cilia Washing Peristalsis Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 19
  • 20. 2-Normal Bacterial Flora Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 20
  • 21. Inflammation-3 It is necessary to direct elements of immune system to site of infection by three things: 1) Increase blood supply to infected area--> Redness. 2) Increase capillary permeability---> Oedema. 3) Neutophils & Macrophages migrate out of capillaries into the surrounding tissues, and by the effect of chemotactic factors ( C5a) migrate towards the site of infection ( Chemotaxis). Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 21
  • 22. Inflammation Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 22
  • 23. Inflammation Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 23
  • 24. 4-Fever The most common symptome of infection (Except few cases as syphilis). Imporance in host defence: - Human lymphocytes in vivo at 39 C show higher uptake of thymidine than at 37 C. - Human leucocytes show maximum phagocytic activity between 38-40 C. - Circulating iron decrease during fever & reduce microbial iron. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 24
  • 25. Mechanism: Affection of thermoregulatory center in hypothalamus by different substances as: endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria (Exogenous pyrogen) and extract from macrophages called interleukin-1 (Endogenous pyrogen). Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 25
  • 26. 5-Biochemical Tissue Constituents * Stomach acidity. * Lysozyme. * Serum betalysin. * Acute phase protein. * Properdin. * Lactoperoxidase. * Lactoferrin. * Interferon. * Complement. * Interferone. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 26
  • 27. Natural Defence Barriers Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 27
  • 28. Definition Capture and digestion of particulate foreign materials by phagocytic cells. Types of Phagocytic Cells 1- Polymorphnuclear leucocytes (Neutrophils or Microphages): * First line of defense. * 60 % of cells. * Contains two types of granules: lyzosome & phagocytin. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 28
  • 29. 2- Mononuclear phagocytes (Macrophages) (R.E.S.): * Second line of defense. * Found as: - Wandering (in circulation). - Fixed in ( tissues). * Functions: - Secretory: lysozyme, IL1, Monokines, T.N.F. Interferon (α), complement components. - Antigen-presenting cell (recognition, processing and presentation in suitable dose for other lymphocytes). - Phagocytosis. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 29
  • 30. 3- Eosinophils: phagocytic & cytotoxic for larger parasites as worms. Also regulate the inflammatory response. 4- Basophils: contains heparin and vasoactive amines imprtant for inflammatory response. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 30
  • 31. Mechanism of Phagocytosis Chemotaxis Adherence Non-Specific Binding Specific Opsonization) Ingestion Digestion Oxygen-dependent system (Respiratory burst) Oxygen-independent agents Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 31
  • 32. Phagocytosis Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 32
  • 33. Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 33
  • 34. Opsonization Basic Immunology Prof. Medhat M. Ali 34