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Futurecasting storytelling






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Futurecasting storytelling Futurecasting storytelling Presentation Transcript

  • The Future of Digital Storytelling – An Exercise in Futurecasting Trisha Andres and Julian Kücklich Knowledge Transfer Partnership, London College of Communication / Press Association
  • Overview
    • Rationale
    • Methodology
    • The Past
    • The Present
    • The Future, 2008-2020
    • The Future, 2021-2050
    • Conclusion
  • Rationale
    • Part of the work of the KTP associates at the Press Association focuses on new ways of storytelling for news media.
    • Currently, news stories are produced using various technologies and procedures, and delivered through multiple channels.
    • We anticipate increasing technological convergence and changing consumption patterns, to both of which PA will need to adapt.
  • Methodology
    • Literature review
    • Web research
    • Interviews with IT team at PA and other technology experts
    • Conferences and seminars
    • Futurecasting
    • Brainstorming
    • Allocation of tasks
    • Delivery format
  • Allocation of tasks
    • Past: Trisha Andres
    • Present: Julian Kücklich
    • Future, 2008 – 2020: Trisha Andres
    • Future, 2021 – 2050: Julian Kücklich
  • Overview
    • The Past
    • The Present
    • The Near Future (2008-2020)
    • The Future (2021-2050)
  • The Past: Oral Tradition
    • Mythology (ca. 500 B.C.)
    • Earliest form of interactive story and entertainment
    • Dionysian rituals (i.e. religious rituals) – coming of age
    Source: scholar John Campbell (1904-1987)
  • The Past: Dramatic Tradition
    • Drama (tragedy): Aristotle
    • The Poetics (330 B.C.)
      • Three-act structure: beginning, middle and end
      • Dramatic structure, unity of action, plot reversals, and the tragic flaw
      • Character development, dialogue, plot, and techniques to elicit emotional response from audience
  • The Past: Pictorial Tradition
    • Tapestry of Bayeaux ( constructed reasonably soon after the battle in 1066)
      • The Norman conquest of England
      • Story told by panels
      • Main character: William the Conquerer
      • Precursor of Comics
  • The Past: Musical Tradition
    • Opera (16 th /17 th century)
    • First opera: Dafne composed by Jacopo Peri
    • Story of Apollo falling in love with the nymph, Daphne
  • The Past: Musical Tradition
    • Ballads (17 th century)
    e.g.: Robin Hood - Broadsheet ballad = New ballads/Satirical or Royalist ballads - Literary ballad - Ballad opera = antecedents of the modern newspaper AKA oral news
  • The Past: Literary Tradition
    • World’s first newspaper (1605)
    • (WAN): The German Relation
    • - The first modern newspapers:
    • Germany ( Relation in 1605)
    • France ( Gazette in 1631),
    • Belgium ( Nieuwe Tijdingen in 1616)
    • England ( The London Gazette in 1665; still published as a court journal).
    • Source: World Association of Newspapers (WAN)
  • The Past: Literary Tradition
    • First novel: Don Quixote (1605)
    • Farce-punning and verbal playfulness
    • Character-naming makes figural use of contradiction, inversion, and irony
    • Influence over later writers
  • The Past: Literary Tradition
    • Short story (19 th century)
      • Popular e.g.:
        • Washington Irving ( Rip Van Winkle & The Legend of Sleepy Hollow )
        • Edgar Allan Poe ( Grotesque and the Arabesque )
        • 20 TH century: appeared in magazines: The Atlantic Monthly , Scribner's , The Saturday Evening Post, Life
  • The Past: Literary Tradition
    • Comics (19 th century)
      • Ally Sloper's Half Holiday British comic, first published on 3 May 1884. It has a legitimate claim to being the first comic magazine named after and featuring a regular character.
      • The strip in a newspaper = driving force of the form
  • The Past: Pictorial Tradition
    • Photojournalism (1853)
      • Carol Szathmari: Crimean War (1853-1856).
      • Golden Age of Photojournalism (1930-1950)
      • Henri Cartier-Bresson: father of modern photojournalism
    THEN: HCB: George VI Coronation, 1938 NOW: Afghan girl, Steve McCurry, 1985
  • The Past: Audiovisual Media
    • Film (1888)
      • Invention of the motion picture camera (1880)
      • Reel + motion picture projector = motion pictures
      • Silent films  talkies
      • B&W  ”natural” colour
  • Overview
    • The Past
    • The Present
    • The Near Future (2008-2020)
    • The Future (2021-2050)
  • Digital text-based Storytelling
    • New forms of writing and reading emerged with the advent of the digital computer in the 1960s and 1970s
    • However, these only became mainstream when affordable home computers emerged in the 1980s
    • Arguably, the interactive fiction game was the most successful form of digital text-based storytelling
  • Early hypertext systems Hypertext Editing System (1969) HyperCard (1987)
  • Early interactive fiction (IF) Colossal Cave / Advent (1975 / 1976) Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (1984)
  • Multi-User Dungeons (MUDs) MUD1 (1978)
  • Early hyperfiction Michael Joyce: Afternoon, A Story (1987)
  • Storytelling on the web Blogs (1994?) NASA website (1996)
  • Audiovisual storytelling
    • Audiovisual storytelling has its origins in film and radio
    • Smaller and cheaper devices fostered new forms of storytelling, such as audio books and home videos
    • Similarly, television was transformed by the invention of VCRs, DVDs, and hard disk recorders
    • Web-based audiovisual technologies have further diversified the genre
  • Audio storytelling technology Compact cassette (1964) Compact disc (1982) MP3 player (1997) Podcasts (2001)
  • Audiovisual Media
    • MTV (1981)
      • MTV launched, airing "Video Killed the Radio Star” and began an era of 24/7 music on television.
      • Madonna, Adam and the Ants, Myleene Farmer, etc. constructed image via videos.
  • (Digital) image-based storytelling Webcomics Flickr photo essay
  • Video storytelling technology VHS video (1976) Videoblogging (2003)
  • New TV storytelling formats Television (1925ish) Tivo (1998) Big Brother (1999) 24 (2001) American Idol (2002) Survivor (2001) I’m a Celebrity (2002) Lost (2004)
  • Multimedia Storytelling
    • PCs with CD-ROM drives became popular in the 1990s, and this gave rise to interactive audiovisual formats
    • Games such as Myst were hailed as a new form of literature
    • The transition to user-driven web content (Web 2.0) gave rise to a host of tools for personal, networked storytelling
  • Early Hypermedia Aspen Movie Map (1978) Myst 1993
  • Interactive film Dragon’s Lair (1983) Phantasmagoria (1995)
  • Early graphical adventure games Super Mario Bros. (1985) King’s Quest (1984)
  • Early 3D narratives Doom (1993) Jeffrey Shaw: Legible City (1989)
  • Multilinear spatial narratives Grand Theft Auto 3 (2001) World of Warcraft (2004)
  • Alternate reality games (ARGs) I love bees (2004) The Beast (2001) SENTIENT MACHINE THERAPIST – JEANINE SALLA
  • Social networking as storytelling Facebook (2004) MySpace (2003) Twitter (2006)
  • Location-based storytelling Geocaching Mobile Map-based
  • Overview
    • The Past
    • The Present
    • The Near Future (2008-2020)
    • The Future (2021-2050)
  • The Near Future: Overview
    • Digital storytelling is narrative entertainment that reaches its audience via digital technology and media—microprocessors, wireless signals, the Web, DVDs and so on (Handler Miller, 2004)
    • Older media (ANALOG) vs. New Media (Digital) = difference = interactivity
    • First modern computers were introduced in the middle of the twentieth century
    • First successful work of digital entertainment is Pong – appeared in 1972
  • The Near Future: Overview
    • Lifecasting (biographical storytelling)
    • Social storytelling
    • - Ubiquitous computing
    • RFID/ubiquitous storytelling
    • Gaming Technology
    • - Virtual reality and cyberspace
    • - Convergence:
    • - Future access devices and input technology
    • - Visualisation: Infinite canvas
    • - Conclusion
  • The Future: 2008-2020
    • Lifecasting: biographical storytelling
    Justin.tv Wearable sousveillance concept (Wearcam.org) Trackstick
  • The Future: 2008-2020
    • As a consequence: Social storytelling
    • Knewsroom
    • Newsvine
    • OhMyNews
    • The term Citizen Journalist will cease to exist as today’s citizen journalists more and more get compensated and trained.
    • Stories: More human interest/features
  • The Future: 2008-2020
    • Virtual reality vs. Ubiquitous computing
    Mark Weiser, Former Chief Technologist at Xerox PARC Source: fill
  • The Future: 2008-2020
    • Ubiquitous computing + RFID (Radio Frequency Identification System)
    • EVERYWARE (Adam Greenfield):
    • RFID tags, wireless networking, portable devices hooked up to satellites, wearable computing -- will make objects in the real world act like the Internet currently does.
    • FUTURE:
    • Dubbed: The Omni(prescient) Environment
    • Environments will tell their own stories
      • E.g.: Scan a building
      • Scan artwork in a museum or gallery
    NOW: Ginza
  • The Future: 2008-2020
    • Gaming Technology
    Two scenarios: (a) One virtual world OR (b) Trans-national world (where avators or in a blood-cell computer world, the augmented version of you) can cross borders and traverse worlds Interoperability, virtual travel (ranging between worlds), interaction and rich communication Scenario 1 Scenario 2
  • The Future: 2008-2020
    • Cyberspace + Virtual Reality
    • Virtual Reality will be Real Reality
    • Fully emergent games
    • Exponential growth in processing power and shrinking of technology (microscopic computers)
    • 1000,000-fold shrinking of computer technology
    • Nanotechnology can create blood-cell devices: produce fully immersive realities within the nervous system
    • Pea-size device  blood cell device
    • Learning and storytelling through parallel interactions
  • The Future: 2008-2020
    • Input Technology
    Digital Pens Gesture devices Motion sensors Game pads
  • The Future: 2008-2020
    • Future Devices
    • Flexible active matrix e-paper SVGA display by PlasticLogic.
    • This could be the future of newspapers, magazines, and other paper media.
  • The Future: 2008-2020
    • Future Platforms: Convergence: Evolution
    From: (multiplicity of platforms) BUSINESS SKYPE on PSP
    • TO: Global devices
      • Trans-platform devices with reconfigured uses (all-around devices)
      • E.g.: With PSP, you can check your email and listen to your playlist.
      • Completely platform/device- independent stories?
  • The Future: 2008-2020
    • Visualisation: The Infinite ‘Canvas’
    BUSINESS + Touch screen scrolling (ad infinitum) feature e-paper - Inspired by Steve McCloud’s concept “Infinite Canvas” in comics
  • The Future: 2008-2012
    • Will there be completely platform/device-independent stories?
    • Experiential usership: No longer will you have to say “I heard it on the radio.” You may have heard it on your PSP, mobile phone, PC, etc.
  • Overview
    • The Past
    • The Present
    • The Near Future (2008-2020)
    • The Future (2021-2050)
  • From multimedia to unimedia
    • Technology will make it possible to access a story from wherever you want, on any device, in a variety of media forms
    • Genre distinctions will disappear – there will be no difference between watching a film, reading a book, listening to an audio source, or playing a game, etc.
  • From multimedia to unimedia Movie Game So undtrack B ook eReader Games Console Screen Phone Augmented Reality
  • Delivery technologies
    • Currently, media use takes place primarily on PCs and portable devices (e.g. mp3 players), however, this is likely to change
    • Advances in augmented reality, reactive environments, neural interfaces, and biotechnology will make media consumption truly ubiquitous
  • Augmented reality Wearable computing technology HUDs Half-Life Terminator vision
  • Reactive Environments Ambient Intelligence Holodeck Virtual Reality
  • Neural interfaces / cyborgs Cyborgs
  • Drugs and dreams Programmable dreams Lucid dream device Hallucinations Psychoactive drugs
  • New consumption patterns
    • If the current trend towards user-generated content and interactivity continues, linear storytelling will increasingly give way to multilinear, open-ended narration
    • This will by necessity be a pull rather than a push feature – if users just want to lose themselves in a story, they don’t have to do anything
  • Procedural story generation Façade (2005)
  • A story generating database V. Propp: Morphology of the Folk Tale (1928) All possible stories All existing stories
  • Rich media formats
    • Rich media formats will make it possible to encode stories in such a way that they can be delivered in any desired format, including audio, (interactive) film, text, location-based narrative and images (e.g. comics or slide shows)
    • Semantic technology will make it possible to ‘transcode’ rich media into any non-rich media format
  • Artificial intelligence
    • Advances in artificial intelligence will enable computers to
      • react to natural language input,
      • adapt to user preferences,
      • think creatively and produce stories.
  • The Sheherazade device
    • The Sheherazade device
      • is an autonomous virtual agent with semantic parsing capabilities and access to a story generation database
      • can be accessed through any device
      • allows users to choose a story from the library or make up a new one
      • can deliver stories in any desired format – text, image, video, audio, … and a combination thereof
      • adapts to users’ preferences and acts as a recommendation engine
    Would you like me to tell you a story?
  • Storytelling as a social activity
    • Media consumption will not be a solitary experience
    • Several users can experience the same story, either individually or collectively
    • Users’ decisions can influence the development of the story for other users
  • Conclusion
    • Predicting the future of digital story-telling made us more aware of the fact that we are currently in a transitional phase
    • The variety of media formats existing today is historically contingent and likely to change
    • In order to be ready for the future, PA needs to be aware of possible future developments and take steps accordingly
    • While fictional stories differ from news stories significantly, both genres will continue to be transformed by new technologies and consumption patterns