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Futurecasting storytelling
 

Futurecasting storytelling

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    Futurecasting storytelling Futurecasting storytelling Presentation Transcript

    • The Future of Digital Storytelling – An Exercise in Futurecasting Trisha Andres and Julian Kücklich Knowledge Transfer Partnership, London College of Communication / Press Association
    • Overview
      • Rationale
      • Methodology
      • The Past
      • The Present
      • The Future, 2008-2020
      • The Future, 2021-2050
      • Conclusion
    • Rationale
      • Part of the work of the KTP associates at the Press Association focuses on new ways of storytelling for news media.
      • Currently, news stories are produced using various technologies and procedures, and delivered through multiple channels.
      • We anticipate increasing technological convergence and changing consumption patterns, to both of which PA will need to adapt.
    • Methodology
      • Literature review
      • Web research
      • Interviews with IT team at PA and other technology experts
      • Conferences and seminars
      • Futurecasting
      • Brainstorming
      • Allocation of tasks
      • Delivery format
    • Allocation of tasks
      • Past: Trisha Andres
      • Present: Julian Kücklich
      • Future, 2008 – 2020: Trisha Andres
      • Future, 2021 – 2050: Julian Kücklich
    • Overview
      • The Past
      • The Present
      • The Near Future (2008-2020)
      • The Future (2021-2050)
    • The Past: Oral Tradition
      • Mythology (ca. 500 B.C.)
      • Earliest form of interactive story and entertainment
      • Dionysian rituals (i.e. religious rituals) – coming of age
      Source: scholar John Campbell (1904-1987)
    • The Past: Dramatic Tradition
      • Drama (tragedy): Aristotle
      • The Poetics (330 B.C.)
        • Three-act structure: beginning, middle and end
        • Dramatic structure, unity of action, plot reversals, and the tragic flaw
        • Character development, dialogue, plot, and techniques to elicit emotional response from audience
    • The Past: Pictorial Tradition
      • Tapestry of Bayeaux ( constructed reasonably soon after the battle in 1066)
        • The Norman conquest of England
        • Story told by panels
        • Main character: William the Conquerer
        • Precursor of Comics
    • The Past: Musical Tradition
      • Opera (16 th /17 th century)
      • First opera: Dafne composed by Jacopo Peri
      • Story of Apollo falling in love with the nymph, Daphne
    • The Past: Musical Tradition
      • Ballads (17 th century)
      e.g.: Robin Hood - Broadsheet ballad = New ballads/Satirical or Royalist ballads - Literary ballad - Ballad opera = antecedents of the modern newspaper AKA oral news
    • The Past: Literary Tradition
      • World’s first newspaper (1605)
      • (WAN): The German Relation
      • - The first modern newspapers:
      • Germany ( Relation in 1605)
      • France ( Gazette in 1631),
      • Belgium ( Nieuwe Tijdingen in 1616)
      • England ( The London Gazette in 1665; still published as a court journal).
      • Source: World Association of Newspapers (WAN)
    • The Past: Literary Tradition
      • First novel: Don Quixote (1605)
      • Farce-punning and verbal playfulness
      • Character-naming makes figural use of contradiction, inversion, and irony
      • Influence over later writers
    • The Past: Literary Tradition
      • Short story (19 th century)
        • Popular e.g.:
          • Washington Irving ( Rip Van Winkle & The Legend of Sleepy Hollow )
          • Edgar Allan Poe ( Grotesque and the Arabesque )
          • 20 TH century: appeared in magazines: The Atlantic Monthly , Scribner's , The Saturday Evening Post, Life
    • The Past: Literary Tradition
      • Comics (19 th century)
        • Ally Sloper's Half Holiday British comic, first published on 3 May 1884. It has a legitimate claim to being the first comic magazine named after and featuring a regular character.
        • The strip in a newspaper = driving force of the form
    • The Past: Pictorial Tradition
      • Photojournalism (1853)
        • Carol Szathmari: Crimean War (1853-1856).
        • Golden Age of Photojournalism (1930-1950)
        • Henri Cartier-Bresson: father of modern photojournalism
      THEN: HCB: George VI Coronation, 1938 NOW: Afghan girl, Steve McCurry, 1985
    • The Past: Audiovisual Media
      • Film (1888)
        • Invention of the motion picture camera (1880)
        • Reel + motion picture projector = motion pictures
        • Silent films  talkies
        • B&W  ”natural” colour
    • Overview
      • The Past
      • The Present
      • The Near Future (2008-2020)
      • The Future (2021-2050)
    • Digital text-based Storytelling
      • New forms of writing and reading emerged with the advent of the digital computer in the 1960s and 1970s
      • However, these only became mainstream when affordable home computers emerged in the 1980s
      • Arguably, the interactive fiction game was the most successful form of digital text-based storytelling
    • Early hypertext systems Hypertext Editing System (1969) HyperCard (1987)
    • Early interactive fiction (IF) Colossal Cave / Advent (1975 / 1976) Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (1984)
    • Multi-User Dungeons (MUDs) MUD1 (1978)
    • Early hyperfiction Michael Joyce: Afternoon, A Story (1987)
    • Storytelling on the web Blogs (1994?) NASA website (1996)
    • Audiovisual storytelling
      • Audiovisual storytelling has its origins in film and radio
      • Smaller and cheaper devices fostered new forms of storytelling, such as audio books and home videos
      • Similarly, television was transformed by the invention of VCRs, DVDs, and hard disk recorders
      • Web-based audiovisual technologies have further diversified the genre
    • Audio storytelling technology Compact cassette (1964) Compact disc (1982) MP3 player (1997) Podcasts (2001)
    • Audiovisual Media
      • MTV (1981)
        • MTV launched, airing "Video Killed the Radio Star” and began an era of 24/7 music on television.
        • Madonna, Adam and the Ants, Myleene Farmer, etc. constructed image via videos.
    • (Digital) image-based storytelling Webcomics Flickr photo essay
    • Video storytelling technology VHS video (1976) Videoblogging (2003)
    • New TV storytelling formats Television (1925ish) Tivo (1998) Big Brother (1999) 24 (2001) American Idol (2002) Survivor (2001) I’m a Celebrity (2002) Lost (2004)
    • Multimedia Storytelling
      • PCs with CD-ROM drives became popular in the 1990s, and this gave rise to interactive audiovisual formats
      • Games such as Myst were hailed as a new form of literature
      • The transition to user-driven web content (Web 2.0) gave rise to a host of tools for personal, networked storytelling
    • Early Hypermedia Aspen Movie Map (1978) Myst 1993
    • Interactive film Dragon’s Lair (1983) Phantasmagoria (1995)
    • Early graphical adventure games Super Mario Bros. (1985) King’s Quest (1984)
    • Early 3D narratives Doom (1993) Jeffrey Shaw: Legible City (1989)
    • Multilinear spatial narratives Grand Theft Auto 3 (2001) World of Warcraft (2004)
    • Alternate reality games (ARGs) I love bees (2004) The Beast (2001) SENTIENT MACHINE THERAPIST – JEANINE SALLA
    • Social networking as storytelling Facebook (2004) MySpace (2003) Twitter (2006)
    • Location-based storytelling Geocaching Mobile Map-based
    • Overview
      • The Past
      • The Present
      • The Near Future (2008-2020)
      • The Future (2021-2050)
    • The Near Future: Overview
      • Digital storytelling is narrative entertainment that reaches its audience via digital technology and media—microprocessors, wireless signals, the Web, DVDs and so on (Handler Miller, 2004)
      • Older media (ANALOG) vs. New Media (Digital) = difference = interactivity
      • First modern computers were introduced in the middle of the twentieth century
      • First successful work of digital entertainment is Pong – appeared in 1972
    • The Near Future: Overview
      • Lifecasting (biographical storytelling)
      • Social storytelling
      • - Ubiquitous computing
      • RFID/ubiquitous storytelling
      • Gaming Technology
      • - Virtual reality and cyberspace
      • - Convergence:
      • - Future access devices and input technology
      • - Visualisation: Infinite canvas
      • - Conclusion
    • The Future: 2008-2020
      • Lifecasting: biographical storytelling
      Justin.tv Wearable sousveillance concept (Wearcam.org) Trackstick
    • The Future: 2008-2020
      • As a consequence: Social storytelling
      • Knewsroom
      • Newsvine
      • OhMyNews
      • The term Citizen Journalist will cease to exist as today’s citizen journalists more and more get compensated and trained.
      • Stories: More human interest/features
    • The Future: 2008-2020
      • Virtual reality vs. Ubiquitous computing
      Mark Weiser, Former Chief Technologist at Xerox PARC Source: fill
    • The Future: 2008-2020
      • Ubiquitous computing + RFID (Radio Frequency Identification System)
      • EVERYWARE (Adam Greenfield):
      • RFID tags, wireless networking, portable devices hooked up to satellites, wearable computing -- will make objects in the real world act like the Internet currently does.
      • FUTURE:
      • Dubbed: The Omni(prescient) Environment
      • Environments will tell their own stories
        • E.g.: Scan a building
        • Scan artwork in a museum or gallery
      NOW: Ginza
    • The Future: 2008-2020
      • Gaming Technology
      Two scenarios: (a) One virtual world OR (b) Trans-national world (where avators or in a blood-cell computer world, the augmented version of you) can cross borders and traverse worlds Interoperability, virtual travel (ranging between worlds), interaction and rich communication Scenario 1 Scenario 2
    • The Future: 2008-2020
      • Cyberspace + Virtual Reality
      • Virtual Reality will be Real Reality
      • Fully emergent games
      • Exponential growth in processing power and shrinking of technology (microscopic computers)
      • 1000,000-fold shrinking of computer technology
      • Nanotechnology can create blood-cell devices: produce fully immersive realities within the nervous system
      • Pea-size device  blood cell device
      • Learning and storytelling through parallel interactions
      BUSINESS
    • The Future: 2008-2020
      • Input Technology
      Digital Pens Gesture devices Motion sensors Game pads
    • The Future: 2008-2020
      • Future Devices
      BUSINESS
      • Flexible active matrix e-paper SVGA display by PlasticLogic.
      • This could be the future of newspapers, magazines, and other paper media.
    • The Future: 2008-2020
      • Future Platforms: Convergence: Evolution
      From: (multiplicity of platforms) BUSINESS SKYPE on PSP
      • TO: Global devices
        • Trans-platform devices with reconfigured uses (all-around devices)
        • E.g.: With PSP, you can check your email and listen to your playlist.
        • Completely platform/device- independent stories?
    • The Future: 2008-2020
      • Visualisation: The Infinite ‘Canvas’
      BUSINESS + Touch screen scrolling (ad infinitum) feature e-paper - Inspired by Steve McCloud’s concept “Infinite Canvas” in comics
    • The Future: 2008-2012
      • Will there be completely platform/device-independent stories?
      • Experiential usership: No longer will you have to say “I heard it on the radio.” You may have heard it on your PSP, mobile phone, PC, etc.
    • Overview
      • The Past
      • The Present
      • The Near Future (2008-2020)
      • The Future (2021-2050)
    • From multimedia to unimedia
      • Technology will make it possible to access a story from wherever you want, on any device, in a variety of media forms
      • Genre distinctions will disappear – there will be no difference between watching a film, reading a book, listening to an audio source, or playing a game, etc.
    • From multimedia to unimedia Movie Game So undtrack B ook eReader Games Console Screen Phone Augmented Reality
    • Delivery technologies
      • Currently, media use takes place primarily on PCs and portable devices (e.g. mp3 players), however, this is likely to change
      • Advances in augmented reality, reactive environments, neural interfaces, and biotechnology will make media consumption truly ubiquitous
    • Augmented reality Wearable computing technology HUDs Half-Life Terminator vision
    • Reactive Environments Ambient Intelligence Holodeck Virtual Reality
    • Neural interfaces / cyborgs Cyborgs
    • Drugs and dreams Programmable dreams Lucid dream device Hallucinations Psychoactive drugs
    • New consumption patterns
      • If the current trend towards user-generated content and interactivity continues, linear storytelling will increasingly give way to multilinear, open-ended narration
      • This will by necessity be a pull rather than a push feature – if users just want to lose themselves in a story, they don’t have to do anything
    • Procedural story generation Façade (2005)
    • A story generating database V. Propp: Morphology of the Folk Tale (1928) All possible stories All existing stories
    • Rich media formats
      • Rich media formats will make it possible to encode stories in such a way that they can be delivered in any desired format, including audio, (interactive) film, text, location-based narrative and images (e.g. comics or slide shows)
      • Semantic technology will make it possible to ‘transcode’ rich media into any non-rich media format
    • Artificial intelligence
      • Advances in artificial intelligence will enable computers to
        • react to natural language input,
        • adapt to user preferences,
        • think creatively and produce stories.
    • The Sheherazade device
      • The Sheherazade device
        • is an autonomous virtual agent with semantic parsing capabilities and access to a story generation database
        • can be accessed through any device
        • allows users to choose a story from the library or make up a new one
        • can deliver stories in any desired format – text, image, video, audio, … and a combination thereof
        • adapts to users’ preferences and acts as a recommendation engine
      Would you like me to tell you a story?
    • Storytelling as a social activity
      • Media consumption will not be a solitary experience
      • Several users can experience the same story, either individually or collectively
      • Users’ decisions can influence the development of the story for other users
    • Conclusion
      • Predicting the future of digital story-telling made us more aware of the fact that we are currently in a transitional phase
      • The variety of media formats existing today is historically contingent and likely to change
      • In order to be ready for the future, PA needs to be aware of possible future developments and take steps accordingly
      • While fictional stories differ from news stories significantly, both genres will continue to be transformed by new technologies and consumption patterns