Prepared byProfessor Mark Grabowski
Think about it:• At its heart, journalism is storytelling. So,  when you think about it, journalism has  been occurring as...
…it’s not very accurate
Then: letters and ballads   People realized it was a good idea to write down   stories to ensure their legacy and accuracy.
Speaking of Ancient Rome• The Acta Diurna ("Daily Events") was the first news  type of publication. The daily gazette date...
1450-ish A.D.: Gutenberg Press
“Mass media” born…The opportunity for wider disseminationof news came with the invention ofprinting by Gutenberg in the 14...
The Bible pamphlets, broadsides and books
But, the first newspapers (in the sense of a  recurring publication) did not appear in  Europe until almost the 17th centu...
1690: America’s first newspaper                • First American                  newspaper, Publick                  Occur...
Before the printing press  came to this continent…                              Early settlers traveled far to            ...
Characteristics of early papers                                     Offered a mix: PapersNot timely: Making papers was    ...
Speaking out was dangerous           • 16-year-old Ben Franklin             worked for brother James at             the Ne...
Press freedom was always under attack              In 1735 the New York Weekly              Journal called the governor of...
Slowly, but surely colonial media grows• 1704: Boston News-Letter, subsidized by British  government and not very good or ...
Newspapers boomingby eve of the American Revolution _________________________________ Most of the larger communities were ...
Hartford Courant• Founded in 1764, thereby  claiming the title "Americas  oldest continuously  published newspaper" and  a...
Early newspapers helped topromote the Revolutionary War              The leaders of the revolt used              the press...
Why newspapers favored        the Revolution• Most papers at the time of the American  Revolution were anti-royalist, chie...
After independence, the“mercantile” newspaper emerged               Business owners needed news               about ships ...
So did the “partisan”               newspaper•Early U.S. leaders fought bitterlyover how the new governmentshould be run•P...
And then came the steam engine…  The new technology of the steam-powered  cylinder press made it possible to print 4,000  ...
1835: The birth of the “modern newspaper”                    • Free of government or party                      control.  ...
• James Gordon Bennett’s New York Herald in1835 used “news enterprise”. He sent reportersby pony express, boat or train to...
New York Tribune (1841)• Edited by Horace Greeley, it was the first paper with a national  influence; by the eve of the Ci...
Other voices wanted to be heard                         In the early U.S., many groups did                         not hav...
The “dissident press” reported       on these communities•Freedom’s Journal, 1827, was firstto focus on African Americans ...
1848: The Associated Presscreated modern “news style”•Wire services were born     Horace Greeleyout of the ruthlesscompeti...
Change was sweeping the U.S.              By the mid-19th              century (1800s),              advances in          ...
The steam engine brought speed•This led to the development of fast steamships andthe birth of the railroads•Allowed inform...
Mass production created markets•Factories were built and mass production ofconsumer items began•Industrialization also cre...
Daily newspapers are      not just a big city thing• By late in the 1800s, even relatively small  cities like Aberdeen, Te...
Urban growth meant social change•Waves of immigrants came fromEurope and Asia•They wanted to learn English toimprove their...
Telegraph increased communication                       Invented around 1844                       Newspapers used it to  ...
As the 19th century progressed… the Civil War influenced the ways news was gathered and disseminated
“The Civil War influenced newspapers more than any otherevent of the century.” Wally Hastings, journalism historian       ...
War correspondentsFor the first time, journalistsactually went onto battlefields towrite at-the-scene reports
“Inverted Pyramid” writing style•Civil War journalists sent reports bytelegraph, so the news was lost whenwires broke or w...
Objectivity News syndicates sold information about the war to newspapers in both the North and the South Their reporters j...
Photojournalism•Photographer Mathew Bradyconvinced President Lincoln tolet him document the Civil War inphotographs•These ...
Press credentials       Then as now,       sometimes spies posed       as reporters       Members of the press       had t...
Post-War:   The Making  of the  News            WHERE IN THE WORLD IS…            Dr. David Livingstone, medical          ...
“Yellow Journalism”• By the end of 19th century, newspapers were the  nation’s main source of information• As huge newspap...
It began when one publisher . . . •Joseph Pulitzer owned the St. Louis Post Dispatch, and took over the New York World in ...
. . . challenged another. . .                          William Randolph Hearst,                          owner of the San ...
The battle raged over comic strips            Pulitzer was the first publisher            to run comic strips in his paper...
It continued over “stunt journalism”•Both publishers used publicitystunts to build readership:•Pulitzer sent “Nellie Bly” ...
. . . And may have even caused a war             Hearst offered the public             rewards for news tips             H...
Hearst, a.k.a. “Citizen Kane”•    http://youtube.com/watch?v=tzhb3U2cONs
20th Century: Newspaper empires prospered through advertising           Urban department stores           and the auto ind...
The “golden age” of journalism               • Muckraking:                 Investigative, socially                 conscio...
“The muckrakers”                             Industrialization led to slums                             and terrible condi...
…shadow or alternative press
Journalists had impact•Chicago Defender was the firstblack newspaper to have acirculation over 100,000•Robert Sengstacke A...
The public wanted professionalism • Newspapers remained the dominant medium for   information • Outcry against “yellow jou...
The face of professionalism•Adolph Ochs bought the NewYork Times in 1896•He turned it from a smallbankrupt newspaper into ...
The journalist as expert       Walter Lippman became       the best-known columnist       of the century and a model      ...
On the other hand…•In the 1920s, women got thevote, cut their hair, and tookoff their corsets•Prohibition was under way•Th...
“Jazz journalism” captured the mood              The “jazz journalism” of              the 1920s sought to              re...
Tabloids began to proliferate            The New York Daily            News was an early            tabloid with short,   ...
New media forms begin to emerge              The first commercial              movies began in              1895 and becam...
Also: Birth of broadcast news• 1901: first wireless signal sent across  ocean by Gugliemo Marconi• 1912: first radio broad...
Meanwhile, in Newspaperland…• The Great Depression• Newspapers go out of business• Consolidation• Rise of Newspaper “Chain...
Decline of newspapers• Chicago had 8 papers in 1904, two today• Cleveland had 3 papers in 1950s, one  today• Philadelphia ...
1939: first TV broadcasts made               • But WW II delays                 progress.               • Powerful        ...
… the first network news “star”                      Edward R. Murrow started                      out as a radio journali...
Newspapers continue decliningRESPONSE:•   Tighter writing•   Better formatting•   Improved design•   In-depth reporting
Investigative journalism                     The Pentagon Papers                     proved that the U.S.                 ...
Print news in the broadcast age           To attract a generation that           grew up with TV:           In 1983 USA To...
The birth of the 24-hour news cycle                                   In the first Gulf War,                              ...
•   1995: Craigslist, a website for                                                  online advertisements, is            ...
2000: Google introduces AdWords. By 2008, revenuestop $21 billion.2001: Birth of Wikipedia – and “citizen journalism”.Nowa...
• In 2008 – for the first time ever – the  Internet became the primary source of  Americans.• 48 percent said they got the...
2012: The rise of mobile media• The age of mobile, in which people are  connected to the web wherever they are,  has arriv...
Meanwhile, in the old  media…
2011 was especially unkind to newspapers  “Newsroom staffing now is at the lowest level since the   ASNE inaugurated its n...
Less money, more problems• Nearly 70 percent of Americans believe  traditional journalism is out of touch and are  dissati...
…the survey also found:• While most Americans (70  percent) think journalism is  important to the quality of life in  thei...
On arelatednote…
Current problems in accuracy•Journalists have been shownto be untruthful•There are many examples ofreporters making up quo...
More credibility problemsToday’s technology lets audiences “see” thingsthat didn’t really happen…Impressive views ofHurric...
And….   Various major daily newspapers last year   published a photograph of four Iranian   missiles streaking heavenward;...
And…• an L.A. Times photojournalist manipulated  this photo – then got fired.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F0KkZafBDow&feature=fvw•   On July 19, 2010, Shirley Sherrod was forced to resign from her ...
Current problems in objectivity                          Like the old partisan                          newspapers of colo...
Current problems in relevance• Celebrity news crowds outcoverage of important issues• With 24-hour coverage ofunimportant ...
Young audiences are elusive                   18- to 34-year-olds are not                   reading newspapers as often   ...
Revenues are way                 down for most media• In 2011, newspapers’ advertising revenue declined for a  sixth conse...
Is this sustainable?• Consider that newspapers, for example,  get 90 percent of their revenues from  advertising.• Declini...
No luck with online ads• There’s growing evidence that  conventional advertising online will never  sustain the news indus...
Traditional media havebecome followers, not leaders• In 2011, five technology companies  accounted for 68% of all online a...
New York Times publisherArthur Sulzberger Jr.admitted that "we will stopprinting the New YorkTimes sometime in thefuture,"...
• Uncertain economy. As Wall Street goes,so goes ad revenues for media. Have we hitrock bottom yet?• “Paywalls”: WSJ, NY T...
“Old media”   •The news cycle is now 24              hours for all media becomes“new media”   •Most daily newspapers and  ...
Some $uccess• The New York Times and L.A. Times  make enough online to support their  news operations
Business Insider on the NYT“We estimate that the NYT currentlyspends about $200 million a year on itsnewsroom and generate...

Tech giants partner w/ old media • As a part of YouTube’s plans to become a   producer of original television content it i...
New media & old media partner• AOL, after seeing less than stellar success  with its attempts to produce its own  original...
New & old media team up• In March 2012 Facebook co-founder Chris  Hughes purchased the 98-year-old New  Republic magazine.
The concept of members of the  Citizen    public "playing an active role in the             process of collecting, reporti...
Citizen journalism• Example: Wikipedia• Benefits: Anyone can do it, it’s free, more  voices heard – press is no longer a d...
Citizen journalism teams with traditional journalism…In summer 2006, at The News-Press in FortMyers, Florida, readers from...
Citizen journalism teams with traditional journalism…The result was that readers spontaneouslyorganized their own investig...
Setting the news agenda“No longer is the media world one of apublishers-top editor-section editor-subeditor-journalist hie...
Also of note: local news• Media outlets that focus on hyperlocal  news seem to be fairing well.• Many community publicatio...
Hyperlocal news• Consider, for example, that Garden City,  N.Y., a town of only about 22,000 people,  has three of its own...
The fact about “old media” remains…           •100 million Americans still read a           newspaper on an average weekda...
Problem is…• Online sources steal news from traditional  media and audiences don’t want to pay for  it. Only about a third...
• An April 2009 poll  asked members of  the national news  media about the  effect the Internet  has had on  journalism. N...
• One journalist surveyed said: "The Internet has  some plusses: It has widened the circle of those  participating in the ...
• http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=4901034n
http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=50138326n
What changesto journalismwill this decadebring?
Is the worst over?• Clay Shirky of New York University has  suggested that the loss of news people is  a predictable and p...
Is this the start of a new era?• Michael Schudson, the sociologist of  journalism at Columbia University, sees  the promis...
Change for the better?• As Schudson notes, the news industry  became more professional, skeptical and  ethical beginning i...
…it’s anyone’sguess.
• Journalism history shows us that some  things change: the way we deliver news.• But some things never change: gossip is ...
•   Attitude is everything.•   Get experience now.•   Learn multimedia skills.•   Weight costs of J-school.•   Be flexible...
Sources• History of Journalism lecture notes by Dr. Wally Hastings,  Northern State University, South Dakota• Several powe...
Journalism History
Journalism History
Journalism History
Journalism History
Journalism History
Journalism History
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History of American Journalism

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Transcript of "Journalism History"

  1. 1. Prepared byProfessor Mark Grabowski
  2. 2. Think about it:• At its heart, journalism is storytelling. So, when you think about it, journalism has been occurring as long as humans have been communicating and sharing stories.• But, anyone who’s ever played the “telephone game” or “gossip game” knows about the problems with oral story telling…
  3. 3. …it’s not very accurate
  4. 4. Then: letters and ballads People realized it was a good idea to write down stories to ensure their legacy and accuracy.
  5. 5. Speaking of Ancient Rome• The Acta Diurna ("Daily Events") was the first news type of publication. The daily gazette dated from 59 BC and was attributed in origin to Julius Caesar. Handwritten copies were posted in prominent places in Rome and in the provinces with the clear intention of feeding the populace official information. Additionally, the typical Acta Diurna contained news of gladiatorial contests, astrological omens, notable marriages, births and deaths, public appointments, and trials and executions. Such reading matter presaged the future popularity of such newspaper fillers as horoscopes, the obituary column and the sports pages.
  6. 6. 1450-ish A.D.: Gutenberg Press
  7. 7. “Mass media” born…The opportunity for wider disseminationof news came with the invention ofprinting by Gutenberg in the 1450s.Soon after the development of printing,sheets carrying news (broadsides andpamphlets) made their appearance,along with books, in particular theBible…
  8. 8. The Bible pamphlets, broadsides and books
  9. 9. But, the first newspapers (in the sense of a recurring publication) did not appear in Europe until almost the 17th century:• Mercurius Gallobelgicus (Cologne, 1592) was the worlds first periodical, issued (in Latin) semiannually and distributed at book fairs.• The Oxford Gazette (1665) was the first regularly published newspaper, begun while the English court was at Oxford to avoid the plague in London. When the court returned to London, the Gazette came with it.
  10. 10. 1690: America’s first newspaper • First American newspaper, Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestick, is published in Boston. • Reported on sex scandal involving King of France. • Shut down after just one issue – no license.
  11. 11. Before the printing press came to this continent… Early settlers traveled far to come to the British colonies Mail was the only way that settlers heard about about current events back home Sailing ships sometimes brought letters from home,The “town crier” would tell but a voyage might take 6people of local happenings months to a year!
  12. 12. Characteristics of early papers Offered a mix: PapersNot timely: Making papers was contained businessslow and laborious process. By the announcements, news fromtime printers printed news, it was Europe, gossip, stories copiedmonths old from other newspapersShort: Paper was costly -- No distinction was madenewspapers had only 3 pages and between facts, opinions,a blank back page for the owner to criticism, hearsaywrite in fresh news or gossip Censored: Printers were only allowed to publish newspapers if they were licensed by the British government
  13. 13. Speaking out was dangerous • 16-year-old Ben Franklin worked for brother James at the New England Courant in Boston • In 1722, James was jailed for mocking local officials in his paper, and young Ben had to take over • James criticized religious leaders in later years and was banned from publishing
  14. 14. Press freedom was always under attack In 1735 the New York Weekly Journal called the governor of New York a monkey John Peter Zenger was charged with “seditious libel” and stood trial - he was found innocent This set the precedent that newspapers should be able to criticize the government without fear of punishment
  15. 15. Slowly, but surely colonial media grows• 1704: Boston News-Letter, subsidized by British government and not very good or timely. First continuously published newspaper• 1719: Papers appear outside of New England.• 1721: New England Courant seen as first “real newspaper” because it’s first independent American paper and has quality writing. Ben Franklin’s brother is publisher, and partisan (anti- royalist).• 1750: 14 weekly papers in 6 largest colonies.
  16. 16. Newspapers boomingby eve of the American Revolution _________________________________ Most of the larger communities were served by at least one newspaper; a total of 89 papers in 35 different communities were published during the 1770s.
  17. 17. Hartford Courant• Founded in 1764, thereby claiming the title "Americas oldest continuously published newspaper" and adopting as its slogan, "Older than the nation.”• Today, it’s the largest daily newspaper in Connecticut with a circulation of about 160,000 daily and 230,000 on Sundays.
  18. 18. Early newspapers helped topromote the Revolutionary War The leaders of the revolt used the press to drum up public support for their cause In 1776 Tom Paine wrote Common Sense to explain the idea of revolution in words that uneducated people could understand It sold 120,000 copies and was reprinted in newspapers
  19. 19. Why newspapers favored the Revolution• Most papers at the time of the American Revolution were anti-royalist, chiefly because of opposition to the Stamp Act taxing newsprint. Although the act technically was on a commodity, it was widely (and correctly) seen as an indirect way of regulating the press, since newspapers were required to use only paper that had received a stamp indicating the tax had been paid; newspapers could be suppressed by denying the stamp or refusing to sell approved paper to the offending publisher.
  20. 20. After independence, the“mercantile” newspaper emerged Business owners needed news about ships sailing to and from Europe Printers hired little boats to sail out into the harbor to meet the big ships coming in This way, they learned the news of cargoes and prices first, and beat the competition
  21. 21. So did the “partisan” newspaper•Early U.S. leaders fought bitterlyover how the new governmentshould be run•Partisan newspapers backeddifferent opposing views andattacked each other fiercely•They mixed news and opinionsindiscriminately
  22. 22. And then came the steam engine… The new technology of the steam-powered cylinder press made it possible to print 4,000 copies of a newspaper in an hour• It reduced the price of a newspaper to 1 cent• The “Penny Press” was born - the first truly mass media
  23. 23. 1835: The birth of the “modern newspaper” • Free of government or party control. • Simple wording • First organized in a modern pattern, with city staff covering regular beats and spot news. • First D.C. and foreign correspondents. • “Penny paper” but profitable. • Topped 40,000 circulation within 15 months. • Spin-off: International Herald Tribune – still published now.
  24. 24. • James Gordon Bennett’s New York Herald in1835 used “news enterprise”. He sent reportersby pony express, boat or train to go out and findnews and “scoop” the competition
  25. 25. New York Tribune (1841)• Edited by Horace Greeley, it was the first paper with a national influence; by the eve of the Civil War, the Tribune was shipping thousands of copies daily to other large cities - 6,000 to Chicago alone. Other Eastern newspapers published weekly editions for shipment to other cities, thereby developing an editorial influence beyond the local market. Greeley was a liberal reformer who organized a top news staff (Karl Marx was briefly his London correspondent) and mounted frequent crusades for his pet ideas (unionism, abstinence, abolition of capital punishment and polygamy, westward expansion). To wit, Greeley created the first editorial page to interpret events of the day and influence public opinion. In 1886, the Tribune took the lead in technology development by becoming the first newspaper to use Ottmar Mergenthalers linotype machine, rapidly increasing the speed and accuracy with which type could be set.
  26. 26. Other voices wanted to be heard In the early U.S., many groups did not have full citizens’ rights Native Americans were driven out African Americans were enslaved and forbidden to read or write Women of all races were not educated and could not voteFrederick Douglass’sNorth Star informed Asian Americans were exploitedreaders of the horrors and abusedof slavery in 1847
  27. 27. The “dissident press” reported on these communities•Freedom’s Journal, 1827, was firstto focus on African Americans (JohnRusswurm and Samuel Cornish)•The Revolution, 1868, promotedwomen’s right to vote (ElizabethCady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony)•Ethnic newspapers were written inimmigrants’ native languages
  28. 28. 1848: The Associated Presscreated modern “news style”•Wire services were born Horace Greeleyout of the ruthlesscompetition of PennyPress newspapers in NewYork City•Instead of competing, sixnewspapers began tocooperate with each otherand formed a “newssyndicate” to cover Europe James Gordon Bennett
  29. 29. Change was sweeping the U.S. By the mid-19th century (1800s), advances in technology led to intense national growth These forces also led to the expansion of the modern news industry
  30. 30. The steam engine brought speed•This led to the development of fast steamships andthe birth of the railroads•Allowed information and goods to be carried fasterand cheaper across long distances
  31. 31. Mass production created markets•Factories were built and mass production ofconsumer items began•Industrialization also created huge audiencesfor news and advertising
  32. 32. Daily newspapers are not just a big city thing• By late in the 1800s, even relatively small cities like Aberdeen, Texas, had a daily newspaper (the Aberdeen Daily News, forerunner to todays American News) and several weeklies, including the Saturday Pioneer, remembered today because of its publisher, L. Frank Baum, who was later to write The Wizard of Oz.
  33. 33. Urban growth meant social change•Waves of immigrants came fromEurope and Asia•They wanted to learn English toimprove their earning power•Newspapers enabled people tolearn to read and informed themabout their new surroundings
  34. 34. Telegraph increased communication Invented around 1844 Newspapers used it to send news long distances No government regulation Users had to pay by the word, so they wrote very briefly Shady telegraph operators would take news gathered by one newspaper and sell it to others on the sly
  35. 35. As the 19th century progressed… the Civil War influenced the ways news was gathered and disseminated
  36. 36. “The Civil War influenced newspapers more than any otherevent of the century.” Wally Hastings, journalism historian Journalistic changes brought by the Civil War: • Inverted pyramid • Objectivity • Photojournalism • Press credentials
  37. 37. War correspondentsFor the first time, journalistsactually went onto battlefields towrite at-the-scene reports
  38. 38. “Inverted Pyramid” writing style•Civil War journalists sent reports bytelegraph, so the news was lost whenwires broke or were cut•They began sending the mostimportant information first, followedby lesser details•Writers wrote concisely, with veryshort sentences and paragraphs
  39. 39. Objectivity News syndicates sold information about the war to newspapers in both the North and the South Their reporters just collected facts - who, what, where, when, why and how - and presented them without taking a position
  40. 40. Photojournalism•Photographer Mathew Bradyconvinced President Lincoln tolet him document the Civil War inphotographs•These photos ran in popularmagazines because photoscouldn’t be reproduced in Brady was one of thenewspapers yet first to capture the Civil War on film
  41. 41. Press credentials Then as now, sometimes spies posed as reporters Members of the press had to be certified by the government and had to have a press pass to be on the scene
  42. 42. Post-War: The Making of the News WHERE IN THE WORLD IS… Dr. David Livingstone, medical missionary and explorer.
  43. 43. “Yellow Journalism”• By the end of 19th century, newspapers were the nation’s main source of information• As huge newspaper empires grew, so did competition and circulation wars• “Yellow journalism” used sensationalism as a way to increase readership: loud headlines on sin, sex, rumors, even fake stories.
  44. 44. It began when one publisher . . . •Joseph Pulitzer owned the St. Louis Post Dispatch, and took over the New York World in 1883 •He was a crusader for hard news, but liked to present it with sensationalism Joseph Pulitzer •At first, he demanded Founder of Pulitzer Prizes and Columbia University accuracy from his reporters School of Journalism
  45. 45. . . . challenged another. . . William Randolph Hearst, owner of the San Francisco Examiner, bought New York Journal in 1895 He loved politics and hoped to run for presidentWilliam Randolph Hearst Taking on Pulitzer as a rival, his paper emphasized crime, sex, scandals, and violence
  46. 46. The battle raged over comic strips Pulitzer was the first publisher to run comic strips in his paper He and Hearst fought over the “Hogan’s Alley” comic strip, printed in yellow ink, by James Outcalt The term “yellow journalism” came to mean any sensational, inaccurate reporting
  47. 47. It continued over “stunt journalism”•Both publishers used publicitystunts to build readership:•Pulitzer sent “Nellie Bly” up ina hot-air balloon•She also pretended to be outof her mind in order to Elizabeth Jane Cochrane,investigate conditions in a k a “Nellie Bly”insane asylums
  48. 48. . . . And may have even caused a war Hearst offered the public rewards for news tips He waged campaigns to solve crimes the police couldn’t By exaggerating news about events in Cuba, Hearst and Pulitzer may have caused the Spanish-American War in 1898
  49. 49. Hearst, a.k.a. “Citizen Kane”• http://youtube.com/watch?v=tzhb3U2cONs
  50. 50. 20th Century: Newspaper empires prospered through advertising Urban department stores and the auto industry began to spend millions of dollars on advertising Newspaper publishing made owners wealthy New papers sprang up around the country
  51. 51. The “golden age” of journalism • Muckraking: Investigative, socially conscious reporting takes off • Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle leads to new, much more stringent food and drug laws
  52. 52. “The muckrakers” Industrialization led to slums and terrible conditions for the poor Journalists exposed these problems and helped start sweeping reforms:Photojournalist JacobRiis captured slum life in • better working conditionshis photographs • sanitation • laws to protect people • honest government • regulation of big business
  53. 53. …shadow or alternative press
  54. 54. Journalists had impact•Chicago Defender was the firstblack newspaper to have acirculation over 100,000•Robert Sengstacke Abbottsupported the rights of AfricanAmericans in the South and urgedthem to move to Chicago R.S. Abbott, publisher of the Chicago•His paper caused the “Great DefenderMigration” northward
  55. 55. The public wanted professionalism • Newspapers remained the dominant medium for information • Outcry against “yellow journalism” led to demand for greater truthfulness and accountability • Some journalists saw their work as a profession with a responsibility to the public • Some newspapers adopted codes of ethics and standards of fairness and accuracy
  56. 56. The face of professionalism•Adolph Ochs bought the NewYork Times in 1896•He turned it from a smallbankrupt newspaper into anational giant and establishedthe principle of balancedreportage with high-level writing•He printed full texts of important He adopted the motto: “Allspeeches and called the Times the news that’s fit to print”the “paper of record”
  57. 57. The journalist as expert Walter Lippman became the best-known columnist of the century and a model of the professional, well- educated, expert journalist He advised presidents and was a very influential figure of his time
  58. 58. On the other hand…•In the 1920s, women got thevote, cut their hair, and tookoff their corsets•Prohibition was under way•The “Jazz Age” began, a timeof social upheaval, withspeak-easys, bathtub gin,flappers, bootleggers
  59. 59. “Jazz journalism” captured the mood The “jazz journalism” of the 1920s sought to reach the lowest classes of citizens It featured news of gangsters, bootleggers, grisly murders and other crimes, sex, and celebrity scandals
  60. 60. Tabloids began to proliferate The New York Daily News was an early tabloid with short, sensational stories and huge photos Just like in the tabloids of today, many so-called “news” stories were fake or grossly exaggerated
  61. 61. New media forms begin to emerge The first commercial movies began in 1895 and became popular in early 1900s
  62. 62. Also: Birth of broadcast news• 1901: first wireless signal sent across ocean by Gugliemo Marconi• 1912: first radio broadcast• 1920: first radio station – KDKA in Pittsburgh• 1926-27: national radio networks – NBC and CBS• 1930: FDR’s fireside chats
  63. 63. Meanwhile, in Newspaperland…• The Great Depression• Newspapers go out of business• Consolidation• Rise of Newspaper “Chains”• Emergence of one-newspaper towns
  64. 64. Decline of newspapers• Chicago had 8 papers in 1904, two today• Cleveland had 3 papers in 1950s, one today• Philadelphia had 13 dailies in 1895, 8 in 1913, 2 now (and both recently filed for bankruptcy)
  65. 65. 1939: first TV broadcasts made • But WW II delays progress. • Powerful networks don’t emerge until 1950s.
  66. 66. … the first network news “star” Edward R. Murrow started out as a radio journalist On TV, he challenged Senator Joe McCarthy’s red-baiting witch hunts Murrow reported He set the standard for the “Battle of Britain” live from later news anchors like the scene Walter Cronkite
  67. 67. Newspapers continue decliningRESPONSE:• Tighter writing• Better formatting• Improved design• In-depth reporting
  68. 68. Investigative journalism The Pentagon Papers proved that the U.S. government had lied to the public about the Vietnam War In 1972, two young Washington Post reporters broke the Watergate storyCarl Bernstein and that led to the resignation ofBob Woodward President Richard Nixon
  69. 69. Print news in the broadcast age To attract a generation that grew up with TV: In 1983 USA Today began publication, using very short news stories and lots of color Soon, daily newspapers were all using color, photos, and graphics to grab the audience
  70. 70. The birth of the 24-hour news cycle In the first Gulf War, CNN realized that audiences would be eager to watch certain kinds of news reports any time, day or night Paper newspapersThe O.J. Simpson trial created a couldn’t competemarket for news 24 hours a day (though online newspapers did later)
  71. 71. • 1995: Craigslist, a website for online advertisements, is founded. • 1996: Birth of nytimes.com. • 1997: Dallas Morning News breaks story on its Web site that suspect Timothy McVeigh had confessed to the Oklahoma City bombing. • 1998: Drudge Report is first news source to break theThe Internet was opened to commercial users Monica Lewinsky scandal toin 1988, but remained a novelty for the 90s the public.
  72. 72. 2000: Google introduces AdWords. By 2008, revenuestop $21 billion.2001: Birth of Wikipedia – and “citizen journalism”.Nowadays, bloggers sometimes break news beforemainstream media. And Twitter is used to spread news.2004: Popular social media websites, including Digg andFacebook, born.2008: Presidential election reported interactively in realtime. Poll finds that most people get news from Internet.2009: Christian Science Monitor becomes first nationalpublication to cease paper edition (after 100 years) andpublish only online.
  73. 73. • In 2008 – for the first time ever – the Internet became the primary source of Americans.• 48 percent said they got their news from the Internet – more than the traditional media (newspapers, TV and radio), according to a poll by Zogby.• By 2009, 56 percent were getting news online.
  74. 74. 2012: The rise of mobile media• The age of mobile, in which people are connected to the web wherever they are, has arrived in earnest. More than four in ten American adults now own a smartphone. One in five owns a tablet. New cars are manufactured with internet built in. With more mobility comes deeper immersion into social networking.
  75. 75. Meanwhile, in the old media…
  76. 76. 2011 was especially unkind to newspapers “Newsroom staffing now is at the lowest level since the ASNE inaugurated its newsroom census in 1978.” – Alan Mutter, UC-Berkeley journalism professor Some notable staff cuts in 2011:• June: 700 laid off from • November: 543 to be laid off Gannett’s newspaper division in Michigan as Booth Newspapers shifts to digital; Bay Area News Group cuts 34• September: Report: Dallas newsroom positions Morning News laid off 38 employees on Tuesday • December: Media General lays off 16 percent at Tampa• October: New York Times Tribune and community offers buyouts for third time in newspapers four years
  77. 77. Less money, more problems• Nearly 70 percent of Americans believe traditional journalism is out of touch and are dissatisfied with the quality of coverage in their communities, a 2008 poll found.
  78. 78. …the survey also found:• While most Americans (70 percent) think journalism is important to the quality of life in their communities, two thirds (64 percent) are dissatisfied with the quality of journalism in their communities.
  79. 79. On arelatednote…
  80. 80. Current problems in accuracy•Journalists have been shownto be untruthful•There are many examples ofreporters making up quotesand stretching the truth:•Jayson Blair of the New YorkTimes (top); TV anchor DanRather (middle); magazinejournalist Stephen Glass,(bottom)
  81. 81. More credibility problemsToday’s technology lets audiences “see” thingsthat didn’t really happen…Impressive views ofHurricane Sandy that wereshared by millions online,but they’re fake
  82. 82. And…. Various major daily newspapers last year published a photograph of four Iranian missiles streaking heavenward; then Little Green Footballs (significantly, a blog and not a daily newspaper) provided evidence that the photograph had been faked.
  83. 83. And…• an L.A. Times photojournalist manipulated this photo – then got fired.
  84. 84. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F0KkZafBDow&feature=fvw• On July 19, 2010, Shirley Sherrod was forced to resign from her U.S. Dept. of Agriculture job after blogger Andrew Breitbart posted deceptively edited video excerpts of Sherrods address at an event to his website -- which was amplified by Fox News and other right-wing media. However, upon review of the full unedited video in context, White House officials and others realized the comments were taken out of context and apologized. Sherrod was also offered a new position.
  85. 85. Current problems in objectivity Like the old partisan newspapers of colonial days, some journalists are known for taking hard-line positions on issues Many audiences can’tFox News, a cable newsnetwork, gets almost as tell the differencemany viewers as major between fact andnetwork newscasts – andthrice as many as CNN opinion
  86. 86. Current problems in relevance• Celebrity news crowds outcoverage of important issues• With 24-hour coverage ofunimportant trivia (what willKanye & Kim name theirbaby?)• . . . total consumption ofserious news is down (print,broadcast, and online)
  87. 87. Young audiences are elusive 18- to 34-year-olds are not reading newspapers as often older generations did They are also not watching TV news as often Some say they get their news from non-news TV showsIs America’s“most trustedjournalist” even They will read news online, buta journalist? don’t want to pay for it
  88. 88. Revenues are way down for most media• In 2011, newspapers’ advertising revenue declined for a sixth consecutive year. In 2011, losses in print advertising dollars outpaced gains in digital revenue by a factor of roughly 10 to 1, a ratio even worse than in 2010. When circulation and advertising revenue are combined, the newspaper industry has shrunk 43% since 2000.• Network TV ad revenue decreased about 5 percent in 2011 from the year before. Local television ad revenue fell about 7 percent. Meanwhile, magazine ad revenues were flat while radio increased by about 1 percent.
  89. 89. Is this sustainable?• Consider that newspapers, for example, get 90 percent of their revenues from advertising.• Declining revenues means more staff cuts, eliminating costly coverage, less pages in the paper, less editions, etc.
  90. 90. No luck with online ads• There’s growing evidence that conventional advertising online will never sustain the news industry.• A 2009 survey on online economics finds that 79% of online news consumers say they rarely if ever have clicked on an online ad.
  91. 91. Traditional media havebecome followers, not leaders• In 2011, five technology companies accounted for 68% of all online ad revenue, and that list does not include Amazon and Apple, which get most of their dollars from transactions, downloads and devices. By 2015, Facebook is expected to account for one out of every five digital display ads sold.
  92. 92. New York Times publisherArthur Sulzberger Jr.admitted that "we will stopprinting the New YorkTimes sometime in thefuture," but, he said, that date is "TBD."
  93. 93. • Uncertain economy. As Wall Street goes,so goes ad revenues for media. Have we hitrock bottom yet?• “Paywalls”: WSJ, NY Times and 1/10 ofU.S. daily newspapers now charge to viewonline content.• Shift from business to non-profit model?• Tech giants acquiring major legacy news Some predictbrands? newspapers will cease to exist – at least in their• More convergence… print form.
  94. 94. “Old media” •The news cycle is now 24 hours for all media becomes“new media” •Most daily newspapers and TV networks now have online sites that combine text, graphics, video and audio, user interactivity •Online information is posted and updated continuously •Journalists write stories, shoot video, blog and “tweet”
  95. 95. Some $uccess• The New York Times and L.A. Times make enough online to support their news operations
  96. 96. Business Insider on the NYT“We estimate that the NYT currentlyspends about $200 million a year on itsnewsroom and generates about $150million of online revenue. If the paywall ishighly successful–attracting, say, 1million subscribers who pay $100 a year–this will add another $100 million of onlinesubscription revenue … So the New YorkTimes isnt going anywhere.” (Sept. 8,2010)
  97. 97.
  98. 98. Tech giants partner w/ old media • As a part of YouTube’s plans to become a producer of original television content it is funding Reuters to produce original news shows. • Yahoo recently signed a content partnership with ABC News for the network to be its near sole provider of news video.
  99. 99. New media & old media partner• AOL, after seeing less than stellar success with its attempts to produce its own original content, purchased The Huffington Post.• With the launch of its Social Reader, Facebook has created partnerships with The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, The Guardian and others.
  100. 100. New & old media team up• In March 2012 Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes purchased the 98-year-old New Republic magazine.
  101. 101. The concept of members of the Citizen public "playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting,journalism analyzing and disseminating news and information.”
  102. 102. Citizen journalism• Example: Wikipedia• Benefits: Anyone can do it, it’s free, more voices heard – press is no longer a device of the elite and wealthy• Criticisms: Because the journalists are untrained amateurs, they often make mistakes, aren’t objective and may overlook important info
  103. 103. Citizen journalism teams with traditional journalism…In summer 2006, at The News-Press in FortMyers, Florida, readers from the nearbycommunity of Cape Coral began calling thepaper, complaining about the high prices --as much as $28,000 in some cases -- beingcharged to connect newly constructed homesto water and sewer lines. So, the newspaperasked public to look into it, rather than assigninvestigative reporters to look into it…
  104. 104. Citizen journalism teams with traditional journalism…The result was that readers spontaneouslyorganized their own investigations: Retiredengineers analyzed blueprints, accountantspored over balance sheets, and an insidewhistle-blower leaked documents showingevidence of bid-rigging. In the end, the city cutthe utility fees by more than 30 percent, oneofficial resigned, and the fees became the drivingissue in the upcoming city council election. It wasa win-win for citizen and traditional journalists.
  105. 105. Setting the news agenda“No longer is the media world one of apublishers-top editor-section editor-subeditor-journalist hierarchy. Today,audiences are in charge and they wantdirect access to, and interaction with,journalists.” -- Dave Morgan, founder and chairman of SimulMedia
  106. 106. Also of note: local news• Media outlets that focus on hyperlocal news seem to be fairing well.• Many community publications (i.e. small, weekly newspapers) are growing, in fact.• A recent National Newspaper Association poll shows that in 2008, 86 percent of adults read a local community newspaper each week, compared with 83 percent in 2007 and 81 percent in 2005.
  107. 107. Hyperlocal news• Consider, for example, that Garden City, N.Y., a town of only about 22,000 people, has three of its own media outlets: Garden City News, Garden City Life and Garden City Patch.• AOL believes local news has so much potential growth that it is investing $50 million in 2010 to develop 500 local news websites. Visit patch.com.
  108. 108. The fact about “old media” remains… •100 million Americans still read a newspaper on an average weekday, and 150 million do on Sundays. Although print distribution has dropped, online readership is way up, so many newspapers are reaching larger audiences than ever before. • With 41,500 journalists still on the job, newspapers remain the single largest source of news reporting in the country. • Most news and original reporting originates from traditional media: newspapers (61%), TV and radio, according to a 2010 study from Pew Research Center.
  109. 109. Problem is…• Online sources steal news from traditional media and audiences don’t want to pay for it. Only about a third of Americans (35%) have a news destination online they would call a “favorite,” and even among these users only 19% said they would continue to visit if that site put up a pay wall.
  110. 110. • An April 2009 poll asked members of the national news media about the effect the Internet has had on journalism. Nearly two-thirds say the Internet is hurting journalism more than it is helping.
  111. 111. • One journalist surveyed said: "The Internet has some plusses: It has widened the circle of those participating in the national debate. But it has mortally wounded the financial structure of the news business so that the cost of doing challenging, independent reporting has become all but prohibitive all over the world. It has blurred the line between opinion and fact and created a dynamic in which extreme thought flourishes while balanced judgment is imperiled."
  112. 112. • http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=4901034n
  113. 113. http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=50138326n
  114. 114. What changesto journalismwill this decadebring?
  115. 115. Is the worst over?• Clay Shirky of New York University has suggested that the loss of news people is a predictable and perhaps temporary gap in the process of creative destruction. “The old stuff gets broken faster than the new stuff is put in its place,” he has written.
  116. 116. Is this the start of a new era?• Michael Schudson, the sociologist of journalism at Columbia University, sees the promise of “a better array of public informational resources emerging. ” This new ecosystem will include different “styles” of journalism, a mix of professional and amateur approaches and different economic models — commercial, nonprofit, public and “university-fueled.”
  117. 117. Change for the better?• As Schudson notes, the news industry became more professional, skeptical and ethical beginning in the 1960s. Many journalists think that sense of public good has been overtaken by a focus on efficiency and profit since the 1990s. In the collapse of those ownership structures, there is some rebirth of community connection and public motive in news.
  118. 118. …it’s anyone’sguess.
  119. 119. • Journalism history shows us that some things change: the way we deliver news.• But some things never change: gossip is news, press questions authority, battle between press and government.• And, most importantly, journalism is alive and well. Newspapers may die, but journalism will survive in other forms.
  120. 120. • Attitude is everything.• Get experience now.• Learn multimedia skills.• Weight costs of J-school.• Be flexible.• Don’t fear the future.• Visit CubReporters.org
  121. 121. Sources• History of Journalism lecture notes by Dr. Wally Hastings, Northern State University, South Dakota• Several powerpoint slides from Dr. Eleanor Novek, Monmouth University, New Jersey• “State of the Media 2009 and 2010,” Pew Center• Inside Reporting, Tim Harrower (McGraw-Hill, 2007)• “Stopping the Presses for Good” video from CBS, April 2, 2009• Shirley Sherrod news video from CBS• Citizen Kane movie clip• “Newspapers,” Encyclopedia Britannica• Poynter.org• Scripps Howard News Service’s “Future of News” project

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