Indiana Juvenile Justice Task Force, Inc. Family Support Services Program 1800 North Meridian Street, Suite 402 Indianapolis, IN 46202 Cultural Diversity Training/ Racial and Ethnic Inequality Attempting to Improve communal interactions, by understanding Personal and Professional Paradigms over “ Race”, Culture, Ethnicity, and issues of Discrimination Presenter: M. Sulliván-Tibbs, M.S.W., M.A., ACSW, LCSW, LCAC
“ Race” is a socially constructed category of people who share a set of biologically transmitted traits, beliefs, thoughts, experiences as it relates to a particular group. (Macionis, 2004) That is, the idea of “race” is not a truly biological fact.
There is only one race-the Human race, or more specifically, ( Homo Sapiens Sapiens: Wise Man )
The difference that is seen in various peoples of the world, as it relates to complexion and physical features, can be explained by both environmental and genetic factors, which are both influenced by one another.
(Smedly, 1999) as cited in Lindsey & Beach (2003) further explains this notion; “…scientist, for years, have studied “inherent” characteristics of different races and found that what we now know that what most people call races are nothing more than the result of the historic geographic isolation of human populations in very different environments.”
When was race invented?
By the late 1500s, Europeans began using the term race .
By about 1800, European scientists came up with three broad classification for humanity.
Caucasian or Caucasoid
Racial and Ethnic Inequality Conceptual Construction of “Race”: Meanings, values, & social equity
There was never any set number of races; nor was there ever such a thing as a “pure” race. (Montagu, 1964; Cavalli-Sforza et al., 1994 as cited in Lindsay & Beach, 2003)
Are Races real? Sociologist point out that racial categories are misleading and harmful for they divide humanity. (Macionis, 2008)
Over the millennia, adaptations to environmental factors produced localized groupings of people with different colors, facial features, [individualized diseases, i.e., cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia], and so forth (Lindsay & Beach, 2003)
Race Profile for Cystic Fibrosis: Mostly Caucasian
A genetic disease that primary occurs in people of African descent. Website (www.riainvision.com/invision/patientinfo/resources/patinfo_res_gloss.asp) (Retrieved 10/09/2007)
A disease common in races of individuals from areas in which malaria is endemic. Website(1stpropeciaprescription.com/Order/Order_Form/Medical_Definitions/medical_definitions.html) (Retrieved 10/09/2007)
If racial categories are not real, why do they exist? Many sociologists argue that dividing humanity into categories is simply a strategy to allow some people to dominate others. (Macionis, 2008)
the term "culture" [refers] to the universal human capacity to classify, codify and communicate their experiences symbolically. This capacity has long been taken as a defining feature of the humans. Website: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture) (Retrieved 0n 10/10/2007)
Is a shared cultural heritage, such as, language both formal and colloquial, religion/spirituality, common ancestors, language, and religion. (Macionis, 2004, 2008)
Is any category of people, distinguished by physical or cultural differences, that society sets apart and subordinates (Macionis, 2004)
Note: Many scholars are beginning to change their lexicon of language to use the word underrepresented to denote this particular ideal.
Racial and Ethnic Inequality Historical “Race” Categories
According to Macionis (2004), “Historically, biologists tried to organize the world’s physical diversity by constructing three racial types:
Caucasoid - characterized by light skin and fine hair
Negroid -characterized by dark skin and coarse hair
Mongoloid - characterized by yellow or brown skin and distinctive folds on the eyelids
Sociologists and other social theorists consider such terms, as seen above, misleading at best and harmful at worst.
“ Why, then, do people make so much of race? The reason is that such categories allow societies to rank people in a hierarchy, claiming that one category is inherently better than another, although no sound scientific evidence supports such beliefs.” (Macionis, 2004)
Some have suggested that “Race” was created solely for
Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Cycle
Stage 1 : Prejudice and discrimination begin, often as an expression of ethnocentrism or an attempt to justify economic exploitation.
Stage 2 : As a result of prejudice and discrimination, a minority is socially disadvantaged, occupying a low position in the system of social stratification.
Stage 3 : This social disadvantage in then interpreted not as the result of earlier prejudice and discrimination but as evidence that the minority is innately inferior, unleashing renewed prejudice and discrimination by which the cycle repeats itself. (Macionis, 2004)
Stage 2 Social disadvantage Stage 3 Belief in minority’s innate inferiority Stage 1 Prejudice and discrimination
Realistic threats refer to perceptions that members of an out-group pose a material or physical danger to one’s well-being or continued existence.
Symbolic threats consist of perceived group differences in attitudes, values, morals, or standards. [Such threats would challenge the dominate paradigm of moral correctness of the in-group, thus resulting in the rejection of the out-group].
Intergroup anxiety reflects the fear that one might experience discomfort, embarrassment, ridicule, or rejection in the presence of the out-group. [And] negative stereotypes refer to the overgeneralized, negative characteristics used to describe out-group members.
By Yueh-Ting Lee (Editor), Lee J. Jussim (Editor), Clark R. McCauley (Editor) (1 st book Stereotype Accuracy: Toward Appreciating Group Differences)
Edited by C Neil MacRae, Charles Stangor, Miles Hewstone (2 nd book Stereotypes and Stereotyping )
Edited by Craig McGarty, Vincent Y Yzerbyt, Russell Spears (3 rd book not present in a picture Stereotypes As Explanations: The Formation of Meaningful Beliefs about Social Groups )
Theoretical Explanations of Prejudice and Discrimination Specific Theories Basic Logic Policy Implications Social, Psychological Approaches Scapegoat theory, authoritarian personality theory Prejudice satisfies distinctive personality-level needs Improve child-rearing practices and help people find more appropriate ways of dealing with everyday frustrations Symbolic Interactionism [Integrated Threat Theory], Learning Theory People learn prejudice and discrimination from those around them Increase contacts with members of different groups; work to reduce biases inherent in culture Functionalism Functionalism Prejudice and discrimination provide positive functions for some people Find less harmful functional alternatives to prejudice and discrimination Conflict Theory Spilt labor market theory, exploitation theory Prejudice and discrimination help powerful groups maintain their advantages Reduce power inequalities in society (Lindsay & Beach, 2003)
THE RATIONALE AND NEED FOR A MULTICULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
The changing “complexion of our society” and the diversification of America (US.)” as reflected in the 1990 U.S. Census makes it imperative for the counseling profession to take a proactive stance on cultural diversity.
A body of literature exists that documents the widespread ineffectiveness of traditional counseling approaches and techniques when applied to racial and ethnic minority populations (Bernal & Padilla, 1982; Casas, 1982; Casas, Ponterotto, & Gutierrez, 1986; Ibrahim & Arredondo, 1986; President’s Commission on Mental Health, 1978; Smith, 1982; Sue, 1990; Sue & Sue, 1990; Sue et al., 1982).
It is apparent that the major reason for therapeutic ineffectiveness lies in the training of mental health professionals (Sue,Akutsu, &Higashi, 1985).
Counseling professionals need to recognize that race, culture, and ethnicity are functions of each and everyone of us and not limited to “just minorities” (Sue & Sue, 1990).
THE RATIONALE AND NEED FOR A MULTICULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
Another important factor that we need to recognize is that the profession of counseling, oftentimes, reflects the values of the larger society (Katz, 1985; Sue & Sue, 1990).
There are two political realities that counseling professionals
must acknowledge and address.
First, the worldview of both the counselor and client is ultimately linked to the historical and current experiences of racism and oppression in the United States (Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, 1989; Helms, 1990; Parham, 1989; Sabnani, Ponterotto, & Borodovsky, 1991).
Second, counseling professionals need to recognize that counseling does not occur in isolation from larger events in our society.
Racial and Ethnic Inequality Other Types of Prejudice and Discrimination
Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination
Refers to bias inherent in the operation of society's institutions
1 st Example: turned down for mortgages based on color, sexual orientation, national origin, or age refusal admission to schools based on color, sexual orientation, national origin, or age and the like; refusal the same issues presented earlier.
2 nd Example: Given less than quality healthcare when internal personal biases effect the quality of healthcare delivered.
is when police or others in power consider race or ethnicity to be, by itself, a sign of probable guilt.
Situations in which there are different pollution burdens or access to resources based on race, ethnicity, age, or gender. Website: (www.wiley.com/college/geog/cutter018104/resources/Chapter03/gloss03.htm; (Retrieved 3/20/2006)
The amount of value placed into any particular cultural group, ethnic group, sex, or “race”
Example: “White Privilege”
Is “an invisible package of unearned assets that I can count on cashing in each day, but about which I was “meant” to remain oblivious” (McIntosh, 1998)
Social distance-describes the distance between different groups of society and is opposed to locational distance. The notion includes all differences such as social class, race/ethnicity or sexuality, but also the fact that the different groups do not mix.
Race and Ethnicity in the United States Note: The following aren’t specific different “races” but for this presentation illuminating the different cultures will be focused on.
Native Americans/ American Indians
Indigenous peoples of America
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASP’s)
African or African Americans
Note Black American’s or the American Black are a new lexicon of descriptor being used to denote a more authentic description with out much contradiction. Charlize Theron for example: She’s South African and if she became an American citizen, she would be African American. Note a recent change: According to Judy Rosen (2008-03-12). “ [Charlize]Theron became a naturalized citizen of the United States in May 2007” "Charlize Theron: Glad To Be A U.S. Citizen". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/03/12/entertainment/main3932852.shtml. Retrieved 2008-08-17
Asian or Asian Americans
Which would include but would not be limited to East Indian, Pakistani, Chinese, Vietnamese, Japanese, Iran, Afghanistan, Indonesia, and the like would be considered Asian American if either, nationalized, or born in America
Hispanic or Hispanic Americans/Latinos
Which would include but would not be limited to Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and others.
Some opt to use the term Latin or Latin American, however, being “Latin or Latino” could include those from Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, or Romania (each members of what is called the Romance/Latin language cultures).
See website (Retrieved 1/25/2010 http://www.gordon.army.mil/eoo/arab.htm0
From the journal First Things: The term “social justice” was first used in 1840 by a Sicilian priest: The belief in an equitable, compassionate world where difference is understood and valued, and where human dignity, the Earth, our ancestors and future generations are respected. Website (www.aworldconnected.org/subcategory.php/80.html) (Retrieved 3/18/2006)
Equitable access to resources and the benefits derived from them; a system that recognizes inalienable rights and adheres to what is fair, honest, and moral. Website (highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0070294267/student_view0/glossary_s-z.html)
Racial and Ethnic Inequality Race and Ethnicity: Looking Ahead
The United States has been, and will probably remain, a land of immigrants. Immigration has brought striking cultural diversity and tales of success, hope, and struggle told in hundreds of tongues.
Unfortunately, many new arrivals face much the same prejudice and discrimination as those who came before them.
Xenophobia is still present in today’s societies
Xenophobia is the “fear or dislike of strangers or the unknown, often used to describe nationalistic political beliefs and movements” Website: (www.blifaloo.com/info/phobias.php) (Retrieved 3/20/2006)
Hefner (1998) posits, “Few questions more clearly preoccupy our era than that of how to facilitate civil, free, and democratic interactions among the citizen of multicultural societies. In recent years, the importance of this challenge, the challenge of democratic civility, has become globally apparent.”
Tinder (1975) uses tolerance to represent civility as, “it is the disposition to tolerate beliefs, practices, or habits differing from one’s own.”
A culturally skilled counselor is one who is actively in the process of becoming aware of his or her own assumptions about human behavior, values, biases, preconceived notions, personal limitations, and so forth. They understand their own worldviews, how they are the product of their cultural conditioning, and how it may be reflected in their counseling and work with racial and ethnic minorities. (Journal of Counseling & Development. March/April 1992. VOL 70. pp. 477-486)
A culturally skilled counselor is one who actively attempts to understand the worldview of his or her culturally different client without negative judgments. It is crucial that counselors understand and share the worldviews of their culturally different clients with respect and appreciation. (Journal of Counseling & Development. March/April 1992. VOL 70. pp. 477-486)
A culturally skilled counselor is one who is in the process of actively developing and practicing appropriate, relevant, and sensitive intervention strategies and skills in working with his or her culturally different clients. Studies consistently reveal that counseling effectiveness is improved when counselors use modalities and define goals consistent with the life experiences and cultural values of clients. It is recognized that extrapsychic as well as intrapsychic approaches may be more appropriate and that differential helping strategies may be needed. (Journal of Counseling & Development. March/April 1992. VOL 70. pp. 477-486)
In summarizing these three characteristics, Sue and Sue (1990) [state]: These three goals stress the fact that becoming culturally skilled is an active process, that it is ongoing, and that it is a process that never reaches an end point. Implicit is recognition of the complexity and diversity of the client and client populations, and acknowledgement of our own personal limitations and the need to always improve. (p. 146) (Journal of Counseling & Development. March/April 1992. VOL 70. pp. 477-486)
COUNSELOR AWARENESS OF OWN ASSUMPTIONS, VALUES, AND BIASES
Beliefs and Attitudes
Culturally skilled counselors have moved from being culturally unaware to being aware and sensitive to their own cultural heritage and to valuing and respecting differences.
2. Culturally skilled counselors are aware of how their own cultural background and experiences, attitudes, and values and biases influence psychological processes.
3. Culturally skilled counselors are able to recognize the limits of their competencies and expertise.
Culturally skilled counselors are comfortable with differences that exist between themselves and clients in terms of race, ethnicity, culture, and beliefs.
(Journal of Counseling & Development. March/April 1992. VOL 70. pp. 477-486)
Finally, let’s end with a few poignant quotes:
“ When we embrace the riches of diverse cultures [thoughts and ideas], we enrich and develop a community of harmony, peace and compassion” M.Sullivan-Tibbs
“ You are the people shaping a better world, one of the secrets of inner peace is the practice of compassion” Dalai Lama
“ It is compassion that has the POWER to mend all inequalities and feelings of less worth-WE are the wielders of this power, and have a responsibility to direct it accordingly...” M.Sullivan-Tibbs
Faces of a People: Beautiful, Different, Changing, Challenging, Fascinating, and Enriching