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Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
Diversity Training2010
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Diversity Training2010


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  • 1. Indiana Juvenile Justice Task Force, Inc. Family Support Services Program 1800 North Meridian Street, Suite 402 Indianapolis, IN 46202 Cultural Diversity Training/ Racial and Ethnic Inequality Attempting to Improve communal interactions, by understanding Personal and Professional Paradigms over “ Race”, Culture, Ethnicity, and issues of Discrimination Presenter: M. Sulliván-Tibbs, M.S.W., M.A., ACSW, LCSW, LCAC
  • 2. Faces of a People
    • ( Retrieved 3/18/2006)
  • 3. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • Is race simply about biological traits such as skin color?
      • Race is a socially constructed category by which some people gain advantages over others
    • Are minorities just categories of people with small numbers?
      • Being a minority is mainly about power. Within about fifty years, white people will be a numerical minority in this country.
    • Is prejudice all about what people think?
      • Prejudice and discrimination are also built into the operation of society. (Macionis, 2008)
  • 4. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • How Many Races are there?
      • The answer is: One
        • “ Race” is a socially constructed category of people who share a set of biologically transmitted traits, beliefs, thoughts, experiences as it relates to a particular group. (Macionis, 2004) That is, the idea of “race” is not a truly biological fact.
        • There is only one race-the Human race, or more specifically, ( Homo Sapiens Sapiens: Wise Man )
    • The difference that is seen in various peoples of the world, as it relates to complexion and physical features, can be explained by both environmental and genetic factors, which are both influenced by one another.
  • 5. How Many Races are there? Continued
    • (Smedly, 1999) as cited in Lindsey & Beach (2003) further explains this notion; “…scientist, for years, have studied “inherent” characteristics of different races and found that what we now know that what most people call races are nothing more than the result of the historic geographic isolation of human populations in very different environments.”
    • When was race invented?
      • By the late 1500s, Europeans began using the term race .
      • By about 1800, European scientists came up with three broad classification for humanity.
        • Caucasian or Caucasoid
        • Negroid
        • Mongoloid
  • 6. Racial and Ethnic Inequality Conceptual Construction of “Race”: Meanings, values, & social equity
    • There was never any set number of races; nor was there ever such a thing as a “pure” race. (Montagu, 1964; Cavalli-Sforza et al., 1994 as cited in Lindsay & Beach, 2003)
    • Are Races real? Sociologist point out that racial categories are misleading and harmful for they divide humanity. (Macionis, 2008)
    • Over the millennia, adaptations to environmental factors produced localized groupings of people with different colors, facial features, [individualized diseases, i.e., cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia], and so forth (Lindsay & Beach, 2003)
      • Race Profile for Cystic Fibrosis: Mostly Caucasian
      • Website ( (Retrieved 10/09/2007)
      • A genetic disease that primary occurs in people of African descent. Website ( (Retrieved 10/09/2007)
        • A disease common in races of individuals from areas in which malaria is endemic. Website( (Retrieved 10/09/2007)
    • See books on race on following slide
  • 7. Books on Race
    • Joseph L. Graves, Jr (1 st book Race Myth Why We Pretend Race Exists in America)
    • Michael k. Brown, Martin Cornoy, & Elliott Currie(2 nd book)
    • Ruth Frankenburg (3 rd book White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness)
    • Jill Olumide (4 th book Raiding the Gene Pool:The Social Construction of Mixed Race)
    • Margaret L Andersen, Howard F Taylor (5 th book Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society (Casebound with Infotrac)
    • Other books on the social construction of race:
      • 2001 Richard Iton , University of Toronto Solidarity Blues: Race, Culture, and the American Left ( University of North Carolina Press, 2000)
      • 2000 Robert G. Lee , Marians Baptist Academy Orientals: Asian Americans in Popular Culture (Temple University Press, 1999)
      • 1998 Matthew Frye Jacobson , Yale University Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race (Harvard University Press, 1998)
  • 8. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • Should races exits as all?
      • If racial categories are not real, why do they exist? Many sociologists argue that dividing humanity into categories is simply a strategy to allow some people to dominate others. (Macionis, 2008)
    • Culture:
      • the term "culture" [refers] to the universal human capacity to classify, codify and communicate their experiences symbolically. This capacity has long been taken as a defining feature of the humans. Website: ( (Retrieved 0n 10/10/2007)
    • Ethnicity:
      • Is a shared cultural heritage, such as, language both formal and colloquial, religion/spirituality, common ancestors, language, and religion. (Macionis, 2004, 2008)
    • Minorities:
      • Is any category of people, distinguished by physical or cultural differences, that society sets apart and subordinates (Macionis, 2004)
      • Note: Many scholars are beginning to change their lexicon of language to use the word underrepresented to denote this particular ideal.
  • 9. Racial and Ethnic Inequality Historical “Race” Categories
    • According to Macionis (2004), “Historically, biologists tried to organize the world’s physical diversity by constructing three racial types:
      • Caucasoid - characterized by light skin and fine hair
      • Negroid -characterized by dark skin and coarse hair
      • Mongoloid - characterized by yellow or brown skin and distinctive folds on the eyelids
    • Sociologists and other social theorists consider such terms, as seen above, misleading at best and harmful at worst.
  • 10. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • Question to ask yourself is:
    • “ Why, then, do people make so much of race? The reason is that such categories allow societies to rank people in a hierarchy, claiming that one category is inherently better than another, although no sound scientific evidence supports such beliefs.” (Macionis, 2004)
    • Some have suggested that “Race” was created solely for
    • economic distribution and quota system....
  • 11. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • Immigration
      • Nativists
        • Nativist are those who oppose high levels of immigration and fear that this immigration would endanger this countries mostly English culture. (Macionis, 2008)
      • Quota system
        • In the 1920s Congress passed immigration laws like the Immigration Act of 1924 which limited the amount of various nationalities allowed into the US.
        • In 1965, Congress ended the quota system, leading to another wave of mass immigration. (Macionis, 2008)
        • The current immigration controversy
  • 12. Racial and Ethnic Inequality Racism Definition
    • Racism is a belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another (Macionis, 2004)
    • See website: http:// /profiling/
    • This site displays an article titled Arrest the Racism: Racial Profiling in America
    • See website: http://
    • This site refers to the six Black youth charged with the beating of a White youth in Jena, LA. This incident has caused several deep rooted racial tensions to surface.
  • 13. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • Minorities
      • Any category of people, identified by physical or cultural traits, that a society subjects to disadvantages
        • Visibility
          • Minorities share a distinctive identity…
          • Power: disadvantage of power
          • Numbers
        • Genocide
          • Is the systematic killing of one category of people by another
            • Many times it’s tolerated or even encouraged by governments and their people.
            • During the 1500s, the Spanish, Portuguese, English, French, and Dutch forcefully colonized North and South America, killing many of the native people. (Macionis, 2008)
  • 14. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • Segregation
      • Is the physical and social separation of categories of people.
        • Crispus Attucks-Indianapolis
          • See website (Retrieved 1/25/2010 ( http:// )
    • Assimilation
      • Is the process by which minorities gradually adopt cultural patterns from the dominate majority population.
    • Pluralism
      • Represents a situation in which no minority category is subject to disadvantage. Laws are in place to maintain this concept. (Macionis, 2008)
  • 15. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • The Social Standing of U.S. Minorities
      • Native Americans
      • African Americans
      • Asian Americans
      • Hispanic/Latinos Americans
      • Arab Americans
  • 16. Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Cycle
    • Stage 1 : Prejudice and discrimination begin, often as an expression of ethnocentrism or an attempt to justify economic exploitation.
    • Stage 2 : As a result of prejudice and discrimination, a minority is socially disadvantaged, occupying a low position in the system of social stratification.
    • Stage 3 : This social disadvantage in then interpreted not as the result of earlier prejudice and discrimination but as evidence that the minority is innately inferior, unleashing renewed prejudice and discrimination by which the cycle repeats itself. (Macionis, 2004)
    Stage 2 Social disadvantage Stage 3 Belief in minority’s innate inferiority Stage 1 Prejudice and discrimination
  • 17. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • Theoretical Analysis: Understanding Racial and Ethnic Inequality
      • Structural-Functional Analysis:
        • The importance of culture
      • Symbolic-Interaction Analysis:
        • The personal meaning of Race
      • Social-Conflict Analysis:
        • The structure of inequality
  • 18. Racial and Ethnic Inequality Theories of prejudice
    • Scapegoat theory
      • Propagated by those without power and who blame other for their plight ( Macionis, 2004)
    • Authoritarian personality theory
      • (Adorno, 1950 as cited in Macionies, 2004) states that extreme prejudice is a personality trait in certain individuals (p. 277)
    • Culture Theory
      • This theory posits that some prejudice is found in everyone because it is embedded in culture (Macionis, 2004)
    • Conflict Theory
      • States that powerful people use prejudice to justify oppression others (Macionis, 2004)
  • 19. Theories of Prejudice Continued
    • Stephan & Stephan’s (2000) Integrated Threat Model
    Ingroup identification Relevance Contact Knowledge Intergroup conflict Group status Symbolic threats Intergroup anxiety Negative stereotyping Realistic threats Intergroup attitudes (e.g. prejudice [and stereotypes])
  • 20. Integrated Threat Theory Continued
    • Realistic threats refer to perceptions that members of an out-group pose a material or physical danger to one’s well-being or continued existence.
    • Symbolic threats consist of perceived group differences in attitudes, values, morals, or standards. [Such threats would challenge the dominate paradigm of moral correctness of the in-group, thus resulting in the rejection of the out-group].
    • Intergroup anxiety reflects the fear that one might experience discomfort, embarrassment, ridicule, or rejection in the presence of the out-group. [And] negative stereotypes refer to the overgeneralized, negative characteristics used to describe out-group members.
  • 21. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • Prejudice
      • Is a conceptual ideal, usually negative attitudes towards an entire category of people (Allport, 1958 as cited in Lindsay & Beach, 2003)
      • Any rigid and unfounded generalization about an entire category of people (Macionis, 2008)
    • Racism
      • The assertion that people of one race are less worthy than or even biologically inferior to others (Macionis, 2008)
    • Stereotypes
      • Are overgeneralizations about a category of people that are applied to all members of that category (Lindsay & Beach, 2003)
    • Discrimination
      • Is the unequal and unjust treatment of individuals on the basis of their group membership or group category (Feagin & Feagin, 1996 as cited in Lindsay & Beach, 2003)
  • 22. Other resource on Stereotypes
    • By Yueh-Ting Lee (Editor), Lee J. Jussim (Editor), Clark R. McCauley (Editor) (1 st book Stereotype Accuracy: Toward Appreciating Group Differences)
    • Edited by C Neil MacRae, Charles Stangor, Miles Hewstone (2 nd book Stereotypes and Stereotyping )
    • Edited by Craig McGarty, Vincent Y Yzerbyt, Russell Spears (3 rd book not present in a picture Stereotypes As Explanations: The Formation of Meaningful Beliefs about Social Groups )
  • 23. Theoretical Explanations of Prejudice and Discrimination Specific Theories Basic Logic Policy Implications Social, Psychological Approaches Scapegoat theory, authoritarian personality theory Prejudice satisfies distinctive personality-level needs Improve child-rearing practices and help people find more appropriate ways of dealing with everyday frustrations Symbolic Interactionism [Integrated Threat Theory], Learning Theory People learn prejudice and discrimination from those around them Increase contacts with members of different groups; work to reduce biases inherent in culture Functionalism Functionalism Prejudice and discrimination provide positive functions for some people Find less harmful functional alternatives to prejudice and discrimination Conflict Theory Spilt labor market theory, exploitation theory Prejudice and discrimination help powerful groups maintain their advantages Reduce power inequalities in society (Lindsay & Beach, 2003)
    • The changing “complexion of our society” and the diversification of America (US.)” as reflected in the 1990 U.S. Census makes it imperative for the counseling profession to take a proactive stance on cultural diversity.
    • A body of literature exists that documents the widespread ineffectiveness of traditional counseling approaches and techniques when applied to racial and ethnic minority populations (Bernal & Padilla, 1982; Casas, 1982; Casas, Ponterotto, & Gutierrez, 1986; Ibrahim & Arredondo, 1986; President’s Commission on Mental Health, 1978; Smith, 1982; Sue, 1990; Sue & Sue, 1990; Sue et al., 1982).
    • It is apparent that the major reason for therapeutic ineffectiveness lies in the training of mental health professionals (Sue,Akutsu, &Higashi, 1985).
    • Counseling professionals need to recognize that race, culture, and ethnicity are functions of each and everyone of us and not limited to “just minorities” (Sue & Sue, 1990).
    • Sociopolitical Reality
      • Another important factor that we need to recognize is that the profession of counseling, oftentimes, reflects the values of the larger society (Katz, 1985; Sue & Sue, 1990).
        • There are two political realities that counseling professionals
        • must acknowledge and address.
          • First, the worldview of both the counselor and client is ultimately linked to the historical and current experiences of racism and oppression in the United States (Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, 1989; Helms, 1990; Parham, 1989; Sabnani, Ponterotto, & Borodovsky, 1991).
          • Second, counseling professionals need to recognize that counseling does not occur in isolation from larger events in our society.
  • 26. Racial and Ethnic Inequality Other Types of Prejudice and Discrimination
    • Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination
      • Refers to bias inherent in the operation of society's institutions
        • 1 st Example: turned down for mortgages based on color, sexual orientation, national origin, or age refusal admission to schools based on color, sexual orientation, national origin, or age and the like; refusal the same issues presented earlier.
        • 2 nd Example: Given less than quality healthcare when internal personal biases effect the quality of healthcare delivered.
      • Racial Profiling
        • is when police or others in power consider race or ethnicity to be, by itself, a sign of probable guilt.
  • 27. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • Definition of Social Equity:
      • Situations in which there are different pollution burdens or access to resources based on race, ethnicity, age, or gender. Website: (; (Retrieved 3/20/2006)
      • The amount of value placed into any particular cultural group, ethnic group, sex, or “race”
        • Example: “White Privilege”
          • Is “an invisible package of unearned assets that I can count on cashing in each day, but about which I was “meant” to remain oblivious” (McIntosh, 1998)
  • 28. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • Measuring Prejudice: The Social Distance Scale
      • Dr. Emory S. Bogardus (1968) coined the term “social distance” during his research on the effects of culturally rooted prejudices.
        • He focused on the “degrees of understanding and intimacy which characterize pre-social and social relations generally.”
        • Specifically, Bogardus wanted to see if individuals physically placed themselves in locales further or closer to ethnic groups they either feared or felt relatively comfortable with
        • He developed a scale in which several ethnic groups were placed on and individuals rated their feelings or perceptions on what he called, “social contact quality”
  • 29. Social Distance Continued
    • Other definitions:
      • Social distance-describes the distance between different groups of society and is opposed to locational distance. The notion includes all differences such as social class, race/ethnicity or sexuality, but also the fact that the different groups do not mix.
  • 30. Race and Ethnicity in the United States Note: The following aren’t specific different “races” but for this presentation illuminating the different cultures will be focused on.
    • Native Americans/ American Indians
      • Indigenous peoples of America
    • White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASP’s)
    • Caucasian American
    • African or African Americans
      • Note Black American’s or the American Black are a new lexicon of descriptor being used to denote a more authentic description with out much contradiction. Charlize Theron for example: She’s South African and if she became an American citizen, she would be African American. Note a recent change: According to Judy Rosen (2008-03-12). “ [Charlize]Theron became a naturalized citizen of the United States in May 2007” "Charlize Theron: Glad To Be A U.S. Citizen". CBS News. Retrieved 2008-08-17
    • Asian or Asian Americans
      • Which would include but would not be limited to East Indian, Pakistani, Chinese, Vietnamese, Japanese, Iran, Afghanistan, Indonesia, and the like would be considered Asian American if either, nationalized, or born in America
    • Hispanic or Hispanic Americans/Latinos
      • Which would include but would not be limited to Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and others.
      • Some opt to use the term Latin or Latin American, however, being “Latin or Latino” could include those from Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, or Romania (each members of what is called the Romance/Latin language cultures).
    • Arab Americans
      • See website (Retrieved 1/25/2010
  • 31. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • Attitudes toward Race and Intelligence
      • Why do you think U.S. adults rank racial and ethnic categories differently with regard to intelligence?
      • Do you think what we call “intelligence” is real? Can it be measured fairly?
      • Why are IQ tests important? Do you think the use of IQ tests can fuel unfair prejudice?
      • See website (Retrieved 10/23/2007 )
  • 32. Books over Race /Ethnic Interaction
    • by Nicolas C. Vaca (1 st book The Presumed Alliance : The Unspoken Conflict Between Latinos and Blacks and What It Means for America )
    • by Eduardo Bonilla-Silva (2 nd book Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States)
    • by George M. Fredrickson (3 rd book The Black Image in the White Mind)
    • by Ronald W. Walters (4 th book White Nationalism, Black Interests: Conservative Public Policy and the Black Community)
    • by Anani Dzidzienyo, Suzanne Oboler (5 th book Neither Enemies nor Friends : Latinos, Blacks, Afro-Latinos)
    • by Maurianne Adams (Editor), John H. Bracey (Editor) (6 th book Strangers & Neighbors: Relations Between Blacks & Jews in the United States)
  • 33. Books over Race /Ethnic Interaction Continued
    • by Charles A. Gallagher, Charles A Gallagher (5 th book Rethinking the Color Line: Readings In Race and Ethnicity)
    • by Beverly Daniel Tatum (6 th book "Why Are All The Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?": A Psychologist Explains the Development of Racial Identity)
    • by Jim Carnes, Harry A. Blackmun, Herbert Tauss (7 th book Us and Them: A History of Intolerance in America
  • 34. Racial and Ethnic Inequality
    • Definitions of Social Justice:
      • From the journal First Things: The term “social justice” was first used in 1840 by a Sicilian priest: The belief in an equitable, compassionate world where difference is understood and valued, and where human dignity, the Earth, our ancestors and future generations are respected. Website ( (Retrieved 3/18/2006)
      • Equitable access to resources and the benefits derived from them; a system that recognizes inalienable rights and adheres to what is fair, honest, and moral. Website (
      • (Retrieved 3/18/2006)
  • 35. Racial and Ethnic Inequality Race and Ethnicity: Looking Ahead
    • The United States has been, and will probably remain, a land of immigrants. Immigration has brought striking cultural diversity and tales of success, hope, and struggle told in hundreds of tongues.
    • Unfortunately, many new arrivals face much the same prejudice and discrimination as those who came before them.
    • Xenophobia is still present in today’s societies
    • (Macionis, 2004)
    • Xenophobia is the “fear or dislike of strangers or the unknown, often used to describe nationalistic political beliefs and movements” Website: ( (Retrieved 3/20/2006)
  • 36. Civil Interactions
    • Hefner (1998) posits, “Few questions more clearly preoccupy our era than that of how to facilitate civil, free, and democratic interactions among the citizen of multicultural societies. In recent years, the importance of this challenge, the challenge of democratic civility, has become globally apparent.”
    • Tinder (1975) uses tolerance to represent civility as, “it is the disposition to tolerate beliefs, practices, or habits differing from one’s own.”
  • 37.
    • What makes a culturally competent counselor?
  • 38. First
    • A culturally skilled counselor is one who is actively in the process of becoming aware of his or her own assumptions about human behavior, values, biases, preconceived notions, personal limitations, and so forth. They understand their own worldviews, how they are the product of their cultural conditioning, and how it may be reflected in their counseling and work with racial and ethnic minorities. (Journal of Counseling & Development. March/April 1992. VOL 70. pp. 477-486)
  • 39. Second
    • A culturally skilled counselor is one who actively attempts to understand the worldview of his or her culturally different client without negative judgments. It is crucial that counselors understand and share the worldviews of their culturally different clients with respect and appreciation. (Journal of Counseling & Development. March/April 1992. VOL 70. pp. 477-486)
  • 40. Third
    • A culturally skilled counselor is one who is in the process of actively developing and practicing appropriate, relevant, and sensitive intervention strategies and skills in working with his or her culturally different clients. Studies consistently reveal that counseling effectiveness is improved when counselors use modalities and define goals consistent with the life experiences and cultural values of clients. It is recognized that extrapsychic as well as intrapsychic approaches may be more appropriate and that differential helping strategies may be needed. (Journal of Counseling & Development. March/April 1992. VOL 70. pp. 477-486)
  • 41. In summarizing these three characteristics, Sue and Sue (1990) [state]: These three goals stress the fact that becoming culturally skilled is an active process, that it is ongoing, and that it is a process that never reaches an end point. Implicit is recognition of the complexity and diversity of the client and client populations, and acknowledgement of our own personal limitations and the need to always improve. (p. 146) (Journal of Counseling & Development. March/April 1992. VOL 70. pp. 477-486)
    • Beliefs and Attitudes
      • Culturally skilled counselors have moved from being culturally unaware to being aware and sensitive to their own cultural heritage and to valuing and respecting differences.
      • 2. Culturally skilled counselors are aware of how their own cultural background and experiences, attitudes, and values and biases influence psychological processes.
      • 3. Culturally skilled counselors are able to recognize the limits of their competencies and expertise.
      • Culturally skilled counselors are comfortable with differences that exist between themselves and clients in terms of race, ethnicity, culture, and beliefs.
    • (Journal of Counseling & Development. March/April 1992. VOL 70. pp. 477-486)
  • 43. Finally, let’s end with a few poignant quotes:
      • “ When we embrace the riches of diverse cultures [thoughts and ideas], we enrich and develop a community of harmony, peace and compassion” M.Sullivan-Tibbs
      • “ You are the people shaping a better world, one of the secrets of inner peace is the practice of compassion” Dalai Lama
      • “ It is compassion that has the POWER to mend all inequalities and feelings of less worth-WE are the wielders of this power, and have a responsibility to direct it accordingly...” M.Sullivan-Tibbs
  • 44. Faces of a People: Beautiful, Different, Changing, Challenging, Fascinating, and Enriching
    • ( Retrieved 3/18/2006)