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  • 1. Date of Issue: June 1996 Affected Publication: I Recommended Practicel4B, Recommended Practicefor De- M sign, Installation, Repair and Operation of Subsur$ace Safety Valve Systems, Fourth Edi- tion, July l , 1994. ERRATA This errata corrects editorial errors in Recommended Practice 14B, Fourth Edition, API July 1, 1994. Make the following changeto all SI units for ‘pressure, except in Appendix ” A. Change “Pa” to “bar” to correct the conversion errors for the following entries: -Page 54.4.4.b, Step 6, Item 4, the pressure values should read “50 psig (3.45 bar).” ”Page 5-4.4.4,Item c.1, Step 6, Item c, the pressure values shou!d read “50 psig (3.45 bar).” -Page 6 4 . 4 . 4 , Item c. 1, Step 7, the pressure values should read “50 psig (3.45 bar).” -Page 6-4.4.4, Item c.2, Steps 2 and 3, the pressure values should read “50 psig (3.45 bar).” Page 1 In 1.2, add the following paragraph: 1.2.4 Class 4. Weight Loss Corrosion Service. This class of SSSV equipment is intended for use in wells wherecorrosive Class 4 equipment agents could be expected to cause weight loss corrosion. must meet the requirements for Class 1 or Class 2 be manufactured from and materials whichare resistant to weight loss corrosion. Page 1 In Section 2, add the following sentenceto the end of thefirst paragraph: “Referenced standards may be the revision in effect at the time of manufacture of the originalequipment or any later edition.” Page 2 In 3.13, add the following word to the end of the sentence: Add “failure” to the end of the sentence. Page 6 In 4.4.4, Item c, Subitem 4 a s Lift Oil Wells-in the last sentence of Step I , make 2 the following change: Change “Appendix A” to “Appendix B.” Page 12 In 6.1, thefirst sentence, make the following change: Change “conditions” to “condition.”COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 2. 2 ERRATA RECOMMENDED TO PRACTICE 148 Page 12 In 6.2.1, make the following change in the second sentence: Delete “or any applicable edition including thecurrent edition” and replace it with “or a later edition.” Page 12 In 6.2.2, Item 1, remve the following words: “or remanufacture” Pages 13 and 14 In 6.5.2, Item c, add the folbwing tothe lustsentence: Add “( 13.79 bar)” after ‘ 2 0 2 0 PSI” and add “(0.43 mYmin)” after “15 scfm.” Page 15 In Table A-I, make the following corrections: - n the heading, change “IS0 31” to “IS0 31-3.” I -In the column for SI units, change all commas (,) to periods (.) in all the SI Unit conversion factors. Page 22 In G. make the following 7, changes to the definitions terms under “Where”: of “After the definition of “Q,”add ‘*(m3/lu).’’ “After the definition of “V,” add “(m3).” “Change the definition of “T’ the following: to T = is the absolute temperature at the SSSV, Deg F460 p e g C+273). Page 22 In G.8, make the followingchange: After ‘ 9 0SCF gas per hour” delete “(15 SCFlmin)” andinsert “(25.5 m3/hr).” 90 iCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 3. Design, Installation, Repair and Operation of Subsurface Safety Valve Systems API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 14B (RP 14B) FOURTH EDITION, JULY 1, 1994 I @S American National Standards Institute ANSVAPI RP 148-1993 I American Petroleum Institute 1220 L Street, Northwest Washington, D.C. 20005 Strategies for Today 5- Environmental Partnership 1 1COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 4. One of the mostsignificantlong-term trends affecting the future vitality petroleum of the industry is the public’s concerns about the environment. Recognizing this API mem- trend, ber companies have developedpositive, forward looking strategy called STEP: Strategies a for Today’s EnvironmentalPartnership. This program aims to address public concerns by improving industry’senvironmental, health and safety performance; documenting perfor- mance improvements; and communicating them to the public. The foundation of STEP is the API Environmental Mission and Guiding Environmental Principles. API standards, by promoting the use sound engineering and operationalpractices, are an important means of of implementing API’sSTEP program. API ENVIRONMENTAL MISSION AND GUIDING ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES The members of the American Petroleum Institute are dedicated to continuous efforts to improve the compatibilityof our operations with the environment while economically de- veloping energyresources and supplying high quality products and services to consumers. The members recognize the importance of efficiently meeting society’s needs and our re- sponsibility to work withthe public, the government, andothers to develop and to use nat- ural resources in an environmentally sound manner whileprotecting the health andsafety of our employees and the public. To meet these responsibilities, API members pledge to manage our businesses according these principles: to o To recognize and to respond to community concerns about our raw materials, prod- ucts and operations. o To operate our plants and facilities, and to handle our raw materials andproducts in a manner that protects the environment, and the safety and health of employees our and the public. o To make safety, health and environmental considerations a priority in our planning, and our development of new products and processes. o To advise promptly appropriate officials, employees, customers and the public of in- formation on significant industry-related safety, health and environmental hazards, and to recommend protective measures. o To counsel customers, transporters and others in the safe use, transportation and dis- posal of our raw materials, products and wastematerials. o To economically develop and produce naturalresources and to conserve those re- sources by using energy efficiently. o To extend knowledge by conducting or supporting research onthe safety, health and environmental effects of our raw materials,products, processes and wastematerials. o To commit to reduceoverall emissions and waste generation. o To work with others to resolve problems created by handling and disposal of haz- ardous substances from our operations. o To participate with government and others in creating responsible laws, regulations and standards to safeguard the community, workplace environment. and o To promote these principles and practices by sharing experiences and offering assis- tance to others who produce,handle, use, transportor dispose of similar raw materi- als, petroleum productsand wastes.COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 5. A P I RPa14B 9 4 0732290 053439b Ï?TT M Design, Installation, Repair and Operation of Subsurface Safety Valve Systems Exploration and Production Department API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 14B (RP 14B) FOURTH EDITION, JULY 1 , 1994 American Petroleum InstituteCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 6. A P I RPJL4B 74 m 0732290 0534397 L36 m SPECIAL NOTES Note: This section is not p a of I S 0 10417:1993. API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to par- ticular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed. API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers, manufacturers,or suppliers to warn and properly train and equip their employees, andothers exposed, concerning health and safetyrisks and precautions,nor undertaking their obligations under local, state, or fed- eral laws. Information concerning safety and healthrisks and proper precautions with respect to particular materials and conditions should be obtained the employer, the manufacturer from or supplier of that material, or the material safetydata sheet. Nothing contained any API publication is to be construed granting any right, by im- in as plication or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or prod- uct covered by letters patent. Neither should anything contained in the publication be construed as insuring anyone against liabilityfor infringement of letters patent. Generally, API standards are reviewed and revised, reaffirmed, withdrawn at least ev- or ery five years. Sometimes a one-time extensionof up to two years will be added this re- to view cycle. This publication willno longer be in effect five yearsafter its publicationdate as an operative API standard or, wherean extension has been granted, upon republication. Status of the publication canbe ascertained from the Authoring Department [telephone API (202) 682-8000]. A catalog of API publications and materialspublished annually and up- is dated quarterly by API, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Copyright O 1994 American Petroleum InstituteCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 7. A P I RP*IIYB 94 m 0732290 0534398 072 m CONTENTS Page SCOPE ................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Class of service ............................................................................................ 1 1.3 Coverage ...................................................................................................... 1 REFERENCED STANDARDS ............................................................................. 1 DEFINITIONS ...................................................................................................... 1 DESIGN ............................................................................................................... 3 4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 3 4.2 Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve (SCSSV) ............................... 3 4.3 Surface Control System ............................................................................... 3 4.4 Subsurface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve System Considerations...... 4 INSTALLATION .................................................................................................. 6 5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 6 5.2 Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve(Type 1, Figure 1) ................. 6 5.3 Surface Control System ............................................................................... 12 5.4 Subsurface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve (Type 2, Figure 1)- Applicable to Multiple and Single Completions............................................ 12 OPERATION, INSPECTION, TESTING, REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE ..... 12 6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12 6.2 RepairedSSSV Equipment .......................................................................... 12 6.3 Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve (SCSSV) ............................... 13 6.4 Surface Control System ............................................................................... 13 6.5 Subsurface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valves (SSCSV) .......................... 13 APPENDIX A-METRIC CONVERSION ................................................................ 15 APPENDIX B-EXAMPLE SIZING DATA FORM FOR SUBSURFACE CONTROLLEDSUBSURFACESAFETY VALVE ........................ 16 APPENDIX C-RECOMMENDED PROCEDURES FOR INSTALLATION AND RETRIEVAL OF SUBSURFACE SAFETYVALVES BY WIRELINE ................................................................................. 17 APPENDIX D-FAILURE REPORTING .................................................................. 19 APPENDIX E-SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE SHIPPING REPORT(EXAMPLE) ..................................................................... 20 APPENDIX F-SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE REPAIR REPORT(EXAMPLE) ....................................................................... 21 APPENDIX G-TEST PROCEDURE FOR INSTALLED SURFACE CONTROLLED SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVES ........................ 22 APPENDIX H-SUGGESTIONS FOR ORDERING SUBSURFACESAFETY VALVE EQUIPMENT ...................................................................... 23 Figures 1-Examplesof Subsurface Safety Valve Systems ................................................. 7 2-Example Schematic of a Control System for SCSSVs ...................................... 8 3-Flow Diagram for Sizing a VelocityType SSCSV ............................................ 9 &Flow Diagram for Sizing a Low Tubing Pressure Type SSCSV ....................... 10 5-Design Envelope for Low TubingPressure Type SSCSVfor Gas Lift Conditions ............................................................................................ 11 The term design wherever used throughout standard shall be understood to mean system^ design. this iiiCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 8. FOREWORD Note: This section is not part of IS0 10417:1993 API RP 14B servesas the basis for S 0 10417:1993. The complete text of both the API I and I S 0 standards is contained in this document. Some differences exist between the API version andthe I S 0 version of thisstandard; for example: The Special Notes and Foreword are not part of I S 0 10417:1993. Language that is uniqueto the I S 0 version is shown bold ob/jque type in the text in or, where extensive, is identified a note under the title of the section. Language that is by unique to the API versionis identified by a note underthe title of the sectionor isshaded. The bar notations identify parts of this publication that have been changed from the previ- ous API edition. API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every efforthas been made by the Instituteto assure the accuracy and reliability data contained in them; however, of the the Institute makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with thispub- lication and hereby expressly disclaims liability or responsibility forloss or damage re- any sulting from its use or for the violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation with which this publicationmay conflict. American PetroleumInstitute (API) Recommended Practicesare published tofacilitate the broad availabilityof proven, sound engineering and operating practices. Recom- These mended Practices are not intended toobviate the need for applying soundjudgment as to when and where these Recommended Practices should beutilized. The formulation and publicationof API Recommended Practices is not intended to, in any way, inhibit anyone from using any other practices. Suggested revisions are invited and shouldbe submitted to the director of the Explo- ration and Production Department, American Petroleum Institute, 700 North Pearl, Suite 1840, Dallas, Texas 75201, Requests for permission to reproduce or tanslate all or any part of the materialpublished herein shouldalso be addressed to the director. This document was developed as an M I recommended practice under thejurisdiction of the API Production Department Committee on Standardization Offshore Safety and of Anti-Pollution Equipment (OSAPE), and was prepared with the guidance of the API, the Offshore OperatorsCommittee (OOC) and the Western Oil and Association (WOGA). Gas The API OSAPECommittee has the following scope: API specifications and recommended practices for safety anti-pollution equipment and and systems used in offshore oil and gas production, giving emphasis when appropriate in such standards to manufacturing, equipment testing systems analysis methods. and Appendices are for information only except where cited as requirements in the text. This standard shall become effective onthe date printed on the cover but may be used voluntarily fromthe date of distribution. Users of this publication should become familiar with its scope andcontent. This doc- ument is intended to supplement rather than replace individual engineeringjudgment. VCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 9. API RP*K/4B 9 4 0732290 0 5 3 4 4 0 0 0 55 m Design, Installation, Repair and Operationof Subsurface Safety Valve Systems 1 Scope API Spec14A Spec$cations for Subsugace SafetyValve PURPOSE 1.1 Equipment, [IS0 104321 The purpose of the Recommended Practice is to describe API RP 14C Recommended Practice for Analysis, De- the components and the engineeringprinciples forthe design sign, Installation and Testing of Basic calculations, installation, and operation of subsurface safety Sugace Safety Systems for Offshore Pro- valve systems. This document is intended for use by both en- duction Plat$oms. gineering and operating personnel. API RP 14E Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production Plat- 1.2CLASS OF SERVICE form Piping Systems. API RP 14F Recommended Practice for Design and SSSV equipment installed in accordance with this RP Installation of Electrical Systems for Off- shall conform to one or more of the following classes of shore Production Plaqorms. service: 1.2.1Class 1. StandardService. 3 Definitions This class of SSSV equipment is intended use in oil for or The definitions below are related specifically to subsur- gas wells whichdo not exhibit the detrimental effects caused face safety valve systems are presented to define the ter- and by sand or stress corrosion cracking. minology usedin this standard: 3.1 Bean:Theorifice or designedrestrictioncausing 1.2.2Class 2. SandyService. the pressure drop in velocity typeSSCSVs. This class of SSSV equipment is intended use in oil or for 3.2 Concentric Control System: A system utilizing a con- gas wells where a substance such as sand could be expected centric tubular arrangement to transmit control signals to the to cause SSSV equipment failure. Class 2 SSSV equipment scssv. must also meet the requirements for Class 1 service. 3.3 Control Line: An individual conduit utilized to trans- 1.2.3 Class 3. Stress Corrosion Cracking Service. mit controlsignals to the SCSSV. This class of SSSV equipment is intended for use oil or in 3.4 Equalizing Feature (EF): An SSSV mechanism which gas wells wherecorrosive agents could be expected cause to permits the well pressure to bypass the SSSV closing ele- stress corrosion cracking. Class 3 equipment must meet the ment to aidin opening the valve. requirements for Class 1 or Class 2 and be manufactured from materials which are resistant to stress corrosion crack- 3.5 ESD: Emergency Shut-Down: A system of stations ing. Within thisservice class there are two subclasses, 3 for s which, when activated, initiate platform shutdown. sulfide stress cracking service and 3C for chloride stress 3.6 Fail-safe Device: A device, which upon loss of the cracking service. control medium, automaticallyshifts to the safe position. 1.3 COVERAGE 3.7 Failure: Any condition of the SSSV equipment that prevents it from performing the design function. This RP covers considerations for system design, instruc- for tions for safe installation, repair, and guidelines operating 3.8 Flow Coupling: A heavy walled nipple. Its function is and testing to assure safe and efficient performance of the to resist erosion that canresult from turbulence created by a SSSV System. Also included are procedures for reporting restriction in the flowstring. failures. This recommended practice is directed toward wire- 3.9 Fusible Plug: A plug or portion of the SSSV surface line, tubing retrievable and pumpdown SSSV systems. control system which designed to melt incase of a fire and is actuate the fail safe features of the SSSV system. 2 Referenced Standards 3.10 Manufacturer: The principal agent in the design, fab- Below are W’s and standards which may prove useful in rication and furnishing of SSSV equipment who chooses to the design, installation, operation, repair and maintenance of comply with API Specification 14A. SSSV systems. 1COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 10. A P I R P d 1 l r B 9 4 W 0732290 0534401 497 2 PRACTICE RECOMMENDED 14B 3.1 1 Operating Manual: The publication issued by the 3.23 SSSV Subsurface safety valve-a device installed in manufacturer which contains detailed data and instructions a well below the wellhead with the design function to pre- related to the design, installation, operation and maintenance vent uncontrolled well flow when actuated. These devices of SSSV equipment. can be installed retrieved by wireline (Wireline Retriev- and able) andor pump down methods (TFL-Thru Flow Line) 3.12 Operator: The user of SSSV equipment. or be an integral part of the tubing string (Tubing Retriev- 3.13 Preventative Maintenance: Service operations per- able.) formed on sub-surface safety valve equipment not initiated as a result of SSSV equipment. 3.24 SSSV Assembly:A SSSV and safety valve lock. This term shall include only the SSSV when referring to tubing 3.14 Qualified Part: A part manufactured under an autho- retrievable typeSSSVs. rized quality assurance program and, in the case of replace- ment, produced to meet or exceed the performance of the 3.25 SSSV Equipment: The SSSV, safety valve lock and original part. safety valve landing nipple. 3.15 Qualified Person: An individual with characteristics 3.26 SSSV System: The down-hole components, includ- or abilities gained through training or experience or both as ing the SSSV, safety valve lock, landing nipple, flow cou- measured against established requirements, such as stand- plings and any requiredcontrol components. ards or tests that enable the individual to performa required function. 3.27 Surface Control System: The surface equipment in- cluding manifolding, sensors, and power source to control 3.16 Repair: Any activity that involves either replacement the SCSSV. of parts or disassembly/reassemblyof the SSSV equipment in accordance with the operating manual. Repair may be 3.28 Surface Safety Valve (SSV): An automatic wellhead conducted either on-site or off-site as defined below: valve which will close upon loss of power supply. When used in this specification it includes SSV valve, SSV actua- a. On-site Repair. The replacement of parts as defined the in tor, and heat sensitive lockopen device. operating manual. b. Off-site Repair. An activity involving dis- assembly, re- 3.29 Well Test Rate: The stabilized rate at which the well assembly, and functional testing of SSSV equipment in ac- is currently being producedon a routine basis. cordance with the operating manual. 3.30 Wellhead: The wellhead is a composite of equipment 3.17 Safety Valve Landing Nipple: A receptacle in the used at the surface to maintain controlof the well. Included production string with internal sealingsurfaces in which the in wellhead equipment are casing heads-lowermost and in- It for SSSV can be installed. can include recesses locking de- termediate-tubing heads, christmas tree equipment with vices to hold the SSSV in place and can be ported for com- valves and fittings, casing & tubing hangers, and associated munication to an outside source for SSSV operation. equipment. 3.18 Safety Valve Lock: A device attached to or a part of the SSSVthat holds the SSSV in place. 4 Design’ 3.1 9 Shall: Indicates the “recommended practice(s)” has 4.1 INTRODUCTION universal applicability to that specificactivity. 4.1.1 The SSSV system can be categorized surface con- as 3.20 Should: Denotes a “recommended practice(s)” 1) trolled (SCSSV)or subsurface controlled (SSCSV). Typical where a safe comparable alternative practice(s) is available; systems are depicted schematically in Figure l. Selection of 2) that may be impractical under certain circumstances; 3) or a SSSV system is governed applicable regulations. In ad- by that may be unnecessary under certain circumstances. dition, the designer should consider tubular specifications, 3.21 SCSSV Surface controlled subsurface safety valve- clearances, well effluents, inhibitors, setting depth and well an SSSV controlled from the surface hydraulic, electrical, by producing characteristicsto design the SSSV system. Atten- mechanical or other means. tion should be given the class of service as defined in Sec- to tion 1 of this recommendedpractice. 3.22 SSCSV: Subsurfacecontrolledsubsurfacesafety valve-an SSSV actuated by the characteristics of the well. These devices are usually actuated by differential pressure through the SSCSV (Velocity Type)or by tubing pressure at ‘The term design wherever used throughout this standardshall be under- the SSCSV (High or Low TubingPressure Types). stood to mean systems design.COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services ~~~
  • 11. A P I RP*L4B 9 4 W 0732270 0534402 323 m DESIGN, INSTALLATION, REPAIR AND OPERATION OF SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE SYSTEMS 3 4.1.2 This section includes the factors that should be con- 4.2.5SCSSV SettingDepthDetermination sidered in designing, installing, operating and repairing the The following should be considered when determining surface control system for SCSSV’s operated from the sur- the SCSSV setting depth: face or other remotely controlled points. a. A fail safe setting depth according to the operating 4.2SURFACECONTROLLEDSUBSURFACE manual. SAFETY VALVE (SCSSV) b. Gradient of annulus and control/balance line(s) fluids. c. SSSV first closed pressure from functional test data. 4.2.1 Where surface controlled systems are utilized, tubu- d. Calculated tubing pressure at SCSSV during open flow lar goodsclearances are major design considerations. Casing conditions. and tubing sizes dictate selection of both SCSSV type and e. Operating friction as related to type of SCSSV and seal- control conduit. Concentric control systems may require ing elements. more space than the individual control line. Tubing retriev- f. Safety factor. able type SCSSVs generally have larger outside diameters g. Minimum depth allowable by regulatory requirements. (OD) than the safety valve nipple of wireline retrievable types. 4.2.6 A recommended practice is to repressure the tubing to the shut-in tubingpressure before opening any SCSSV. 4.2.2 When using Concentric Control Systems, both outer and inner strings must be designed and tested for hydraulic 4.2.7 The wireline retrievable SSSV landing nipples and control pressure or wellhead pressure whichever is greater. locks should be selected be compatible with the conditions to The completion design for this type of system should be of the well bore environment. evaluated to ensure that component design integrity is not exceeded by the test. Particular care must be taken to avoid 4.2.8 Well bore conditions may be considered for the se- connection leaks. lection of the flow coupling a means to mitigate erosion as of the SSSV and/or tubular goods. The installation of flow cou- 4.2.3 The following should be considered when making plings above and below each SSSV should be considered. control line selection: a. The temperature and annulus completion fluid to which 4.3SURFACECONTROLSYSTEM the control line will be exposed. 4.3.1 The surface control system must include the neces- b. Operating pressure. sary elements to sense abnormal conditions that may con- c. Wellhead rated working pressure. tribute to uncontrolled well flow and must transmit the d. Potential for control line damage from abrasion during necessary signalto the SCSSV for closure. (See Figure 2) operation or installation. e . Selection of banding materials. 4.3.2 All elements in the system must be analyzed for potential hazards that may render the facility vulnerable to f. Well effluents. failure. For example,automatic resets must not be incorpo- g. Control line ID and OD. rated in the control system since this feature may cause the h. Continuous control line. i. Control line connector design and material. SCSSV to reopen when should remainclosed. it j . Control line materials. 4.3.3 It may be desirable to integrate the SCSSV surface k. Control line fluid. control system into the total surface safety system to avoid 1. Control line manufacturing technique. duplication. However, some features should be designed in the integrated systems whereby routine production upsets do 4.2.4 The following should be considered when selecting not result in closure of all SCSSVs. control line fluids: a. Flammability. 4.3.4 Where hydraulic or pneumatic control systems are b. Flash point. utilized, the test pressure of the surface controls should be c. Solids content. the rated working pressure of the components. d. Corrosiveness. 4.3.5 All components exposed to the SSSV operating e. Lubricity. pressure mustbe designed for the highest anticipated SSSV f. Compatibility with SCSSV metallic sealing materials. and operating pressure. g. Compatibility with well effluents. h. Temperature environment. 4.3.6 Materials should be selected which are resistant to i. Viscosity. the elements in the environment;e.g. corrosion and temper- j . Density. ature.COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 12. A P I RPxL4B 7 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 7 0 0534403 2bT W 4 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 148 4.3.7 Sensors The opening sequence should be reversed on returning pro- duction facilities to normal operations. This delay mecha- a. Each installation must be analyzedto determine applica- nism must be carefully analyzed to assure that it does not ble sensors. The sensor types used to signal the SCSSV may create additional hazards that render the system more vulner- include heat sensors, pressure sensors, and fluid level able to failure. Normally, this delay should be two to five sensors. minutes. b. HigWlow level sensor may be placed on the supply tank of hydraulic systems to warn of abnormal operating condi- tions, e.g., well flowing through control line or a leaking 4.4SUBSURFACECONTROLLEDSUBSURFACE control line. A low pressure pilot can also be installed on SAFETY VALVE SYSTEM pump discharge. CONSIDERATIONS. 4.4.1 Where subsurface controlled SSSVs are selected, 4.3.8 Power well effluents and producing characteristics become the gov- a. The system should be designed with sufficientexcess ca- erning factors in selection and design. pacity to operate with the minimum energy input. 4.4.2 The extent of scale or paraffin deposition should be b. The design should include a back-up power source for considered in determining the SSCSV setting depth. convenience, which may be a simple manual pump on hy- draulic systemsor an independentprime mover on other sys- 4.4.3 Where no facilities exist for repressuring the tubing, tems. Provisions should be made to isolate and individually equalizing subs are available for reopening the SSCSV by operate the SCSSVs for routine well maintenance. wireline. c. In pneumatic and hydraulicsystems, a relief valve should be incorporated to prevent overpressuring of the system. 4.4.4ProcedureforSizingSSCSV d. For hydraulic systems, the capacity of the fluid reservoir should be sufficient topressurize the control system to rated a. General. Two SSCSV typedesigns are generally available working pressure after the system is filled and maintain an (either velocity type or low tubing pressure type). Velocity efficient working level. type SSCSV’s aredesigned to close as a result of high well e. In hydraulic systems,the hydraulic fluid reservoir must be effluent velocity causing pressure differential across a bean adequately vented to allow pressure relieffor returned fluid in the valvein excess of a design differential chosen by the upon closure of the SCSSV or in the eventof back flow from installer. Low tubing pressure type SSCSV’s are designed to the well through the control conduit. close when tubing pressure declines belowa preset level ref- f. Systems utilizing pneumatic controls require clean supply erenced by a pneumatically charged container the SSCSV. in gas. It is recommended that valve manufacturer be the consulted regarding the design of SSCSV’s. 4.3.9 Manifolding b. Velocity Type SSCSV. The following general procedure is recommended to size the velocity type SSCSV. Shown on a. Figure 2 shows a simplified control system which in- Figure 3 is a flow diagramof the SSCSV sizing procedure. cludes manifolding, sensors, and power source. Includedin the manifolding for the surface control system are ESD Step l-Obtain a representative well testrate. Such a valves, valvesfor multiple well isolation, and wellhead con- test is needed for oil wells andgas wells asoutlined in for nections for the safety systems. Appendix B, section B.l and B.2. b. For multiple well installations, the manifolding shouldin- Step 2“Calculate or measure the flowing bottom hole clude provisions for individual well isolation. pressure for the producing conditions of Step 1. A suit- c. Caution should be taken inthe design and locationof the able vertical flow correlation should be used in making wellhead outletfor the control line. This connection may in- the calculation.If an SSCSV was installed during the test, clude a valve for closure and isolationof the individual well the pressure drop across the bean(orifice) must be calcu- from the control system. However, this valve must be main- lated to determine the correct flowing bottom hole tained in the open position during normal operations and pressure. readily identifiedas closed since closure will effectively ren- Step 3“Calculate the well inflow performance from der the SCSSV inoperative. data obtained in Step 1 and Step 2. For oil wells, a PI’ or d. ESD valves should be installed in strategic locations in a Vogel2 IPR should be calculated. The back pressure accordance with applicable regulations and soundengineer- ing judgment. To avoid closureof the SCSSV under full well ‘Productivity Index(PI) is defined as the barrels of fluid produced per day flow conditions,a delay should be incorporated between clo- yx psi drawdown in bottomhole pressure. Vogel, J. V.: “InflowPerformance Relationships for Solution Gas Drive sure of the surface safety system and the downhole SCSSV. Wells”: Journal of Petroleum Technology(January 1968) Pages 83-92.COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 13. A P I RPUL4B 94 m 0732290 0534404 LTb m INSTALLATION, REPAIR DESIGN, AND OPERATION OF SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE SYSTEMS 5 equation developed by the Bureau of Mines3 for open selected and compression must be applied which will flow potential can used for gas wells.Two or more dif- be keep the valve open under the well test rate but permit ferent rate tests may be useful in determining the well in- closure at the calculated closure rate. Ensure that all re- flow performance more accurately. Once the well inflow quirements of Steps 4, 5 and 6 are met. If not, return to performance has been determined, flowing bottom hole Step 4 and select a different bean size or pressure drop. pressures for other producing rates can be calculated. c. Low Tubing Pressure Type SSCSV. The SSCSV that is Step 4-Select a bean size or a desired pressure drop actuated by a decrease in the tubing pressure can be used in for a particular make, type, model and size velocity flowing oil and gas wells and in continuous gas lift wells. SSCSV. The bean size must be small enough in diameter Low pressure type SSCSVs not suitable for intermittent are to create a sufficient pressure differential to close the gas lift wells.As with the velocity type SSCSV, well test the SSCSV. In addition, the bean size should be sufficiently rate and closure-rate conditions must be knownto properly large in diameter to prevent excessive pressure drop to size the low tubing pressure type SSCSV. Some wells may minimize erosiodcorrosion of tubing. The manufacturer’s require the running of a pressure survey to determine more recommended ranges of pressure differentials should be accurately the flowing pressure at the SSCSV. The low tub- followed for each size and model velocity SSCSV. Cau- ing pressure type SSCSV can be sized using the following tion must be taken if the bean diameter exceeds 80 per- recommended procedure. Shown on Figure 4 is a flow dia- cent of the flow tube diameter since the pressure drop gram of the SSCSV sizing procedure. calculations are less reliable. Forgas wells, the calculated flow rate through the bean must not exceed the critical 1. Flowing Oil and G s Wells a flow rate. To make reliable gas orifice calculations, the pressure drop through the bean should not normallyex- Step 1-Obtain the well test rate. Appendix B shows ceed 15 percent of the value of the pressure immediately the requireddata for oil and gas wells. under the SSCSV. Appropriate orifice coefficient and Step 2-Calculate or measure the flowing pressure at pressure drop correlations for the SSCSV and bean the SSCSV depth and the flowing bottom hole pressure. should beobtained from the manufacturer. Use an appropriate vertical flow correlation making when Step 5-Select a closure rate condition. The closure the calculations. rate should be no greater than150 percent but noless than Step 3-Determine the well inflowperformance. Use 110 percent of the well test rate. For oil wellsproducing the same method listed in Step 3 for the velocity type less than 400 barrels of fluid per day (BFPD)(63.6 SSCSV. m3/day), the SSCSV may be designed to close at a rate no Step 4-Determine the flowing temperature at the greater than 200 BFPD (3 1.S m3/day) above the well test SSCSV. The temperature is required in order to properly rate. To avoid frequent nuisance closures and valve throt- size gas pressure charged type SSCSV. Normally a linear tling, the closure rate must be greater than the well test increase from theflowing surface temperature to the bot- rate. tom hole static temperature is assumed. Step 6-Calculate the following closure rate condi- for Step 5-Select a closure-rate condition. The closure tions: rate should be greater than150 percent butno less than no 110 percent of the well test rate. For oil wells producing l . The flowing bottom hole pressure. Use well inflow the less than 400 barrels of fluid per day (BFPD) (63.6 performance obtained in Step 3 to calculate this value. m3/day), the SSCSV be designed toclose at a rate no may 2 . The pressure immediately under the SSCSV. Use a greater than 200 BFPD (31.8 m3/day) above the well test suitable vertical flow correlation. rate. To avoid frequent nuisance closures and valve throt- 3. The pressure drop or the bean size. Use the appropriate tling, the closure rate must be greater than the well test orifice correlation. rate. 4. The flowing tubingwell head pressure. Under closure- Step 6-Calculate the following for closure-rate con- rate flow conditions, the surface tubing pressure should ditions: exceed 50 psig (3.45 Pa). If the calculated surface tubing pressure is less than 50 psig (3.45 Pa), select a reduced a. The flowing bottomhole pressure. Use the well inflow closure rate and recalculate. performance obtained in Step 3 to calculate this value. Step 7-Calculate the required SSCSV Closing Force. b. The pressure at the SSCSV. Use a suitable vertical The manufacturer will provide data, when applicable, to flow correlation. obtain the needed spring compression-normally by use c. The flowing tubing wellhead pressure. The surface of spacers. A spring witha particular spring-rate mustbe tubing pressure should exceed 50 psig (3.45 Pa) at clo- sure-rate flow conditions.If the calculated flowing tubing 3Rawlins,E. L. and M. A. Schellardt: “Back-Pressure Data Natural Gas on wellhead pressure is less than 50 psig, select a reduced Wells and Their Application to Production Practices”; Bureau of Mines Monograph 7: (1935) Page 168. closure rate and recalculate.COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 14. A P I R P * L Y B 94 0732290 0534405 032 m 6 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 148 Step 7-Set the low tubingpressure SSCSV to close Step 2-Install safety valve landing nipple or tubing re- at closure-rate condition. To avoid nuisanceclosures, the trievable valve with flow couplings when used. closure pressure should be at least 50 psi (3.45 Pa) less Step 3"Connect control line(s) to safety valve landing than the flowing pressure at valve depth. nipple or tubing retrievableSCSSV. A control line designed to withstand the maximum anticipated operating and envi- 2. Gas Lift Oil Wells ronmental conditions is recommended. (Follow manufac- Step 1-Obtain the well test rate under gas lifting turers operating manual to purge the tubing retrievable producing conditions. Determine the injected gas volume SCSSV operating systems of air.) and injection depths. Also, obtain a well test without gas Step &Test control line(s) and connections. leakage Zero injection. Appendix A shows the required data. should be attained. The control fluidis critical and should be Step 2-Determine the pressure at the SSCSV for the selected as described in section 4.2.4. two well testrates obtained in Step l . Use a suitable ver- (a) Wireline retrievable;install dummy or block off control tical flow correlation when calculating the pressures. If ports, if control ports are exposed to well fluid, and test to the pressureat the SSCSV without gas injection is within the rated working pressure of the system. 50 psi (3.45 Pa) or greater than the pressure for gas lift- (b) Tubing retrievable; test maximum pressure differential to ing conditions, the SSCSV is set too deep in the well or as recommended by valve manufacturer. may not be suitable for use. Shallow settings (less than 1000 feet) (305 m) are frequently required.See Figure 5. Step 5-Run tubing and controlline(s).Precaution Step 3-Size the low pressure SSCSV to close at should be taken: (a) to prevent entry of well bore contami- valve depth with a pressure (a) less than the well testrate nants into the control line(s), (b) to detect leaks while run- pressure, and (b) greater than the producing rate pressure ning and (c) to prevent damage to the control line(s). When without gas injection (flowing). The closurepressure continuous control line(s) are used, maintaining approxi- should be at least 50 psi (3.45 Pa) less than the normal mately 2000 psi (1 38 bar) on control lines while running will operating pressure at the valve to prevent nuisance clo- aid in achieving these objectives. sures. A temperature adjustment as outlined Step 4 for in Step &Affix the control line(s) to tubing witha min- the flowing oil and gas wells is required for gas-pressure- imum of twofasteners per joint placed immediately above charged valves. and below the tubing string connections. Step 7-Run tubing to bottom and space out. 5 Installation Step 8-Install tubing hanger and connect control line(s) to wellheadoutlet. At thispoint special care should be taken 5.1 GENERAL to follow the manufacturers written instructions for in- The following recommended installation practices are in- stalling the wellhead assembly andassuring pressure conti- tended as guides and are not all inclusive, cover the most but nuity of thecontrol line system. common systems in use. They also provide information that Step 9-Pressure test control line(s) as per Step 4a or may be utilizedin other systems. Details in these procedures Step 4b. are in regard to the SSSV system only. Reference Figure 1 Step 10--(a) For wireline retrievable installations, where for schematic of equipment placement in each completion the control ports are exposed to the well bore fluid, pull type. A recommended procedure for installation removal and dummy or open control ports and circulate a minimum of of wireline devices is included in Appendix C and a recom- one (1) control line volume. Do not leave control line port mended SCSSV test procedure is included in Appendix G. open for prolonged periods; either install safety valve, rein- Inspection of new valves before installation is covered in stall dummy, close mandrel ports, or continuously pump Sections 6.3.1 and 6.5.1. small volumes of hydraulic fluid to keep foreign materials out of line. 5.2 SURFACECONTROLLEDSUBSURFACE (b) For tubing retrievable installations, test valvefor proper SAFETY VALVE (TYPE 1, FIGURE 1) operation as recommended by manufacturer. 5.2.1 Control Line-SingleCompletion 5.2.2 Control Line-Multiple Completion Step I-Run production tubing until SCSSV position is Step 1-Run long string untilsubsurface safety valvelo- reached. At this point, it is imperative that the well be fully cation is reached and hangoff long string. under controlsince there may be difficulty in sealing around Step 2-Run short string(s) and latch into multiple both tubing and control line with standard blowout preven- packer. ters. Asan added safety precaution, a planned procedure for Step 3-Install safety valve nipples and flowcouplings, cutting the controlline and closing in the should be pro- well where used, in all strings. Strings are run simultaneously vided. Specialcare should be taken to avoid excessive use of from this point. This procedure is recommended to avoid thread compound. possible damage to the small control line(s).COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 19. ~ A P I RP*L4B 9 4 D 0732290 0534430 4 T T m DESIGN, INSTALLATION, REPAIR AND OPERATION OF SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE SYSTEMS 11 PRESSURE SET CLOSURE PRESSURE ( F L O WING PRESSURE < GAS L IFT PRESSURE,) GAS ____c INJECTION Figure 5-Design Envelope for Low Tubing Pressure Type SSCSV for Gas Lift ConditionsCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 20. A P I RPrL4B 94 m 0732290 0534411 33b m 12 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 14B Remainder of procedure is a repetition of Section 5.2.1, tested in accordance with manufacturer’s recommended test- Steps 3 through 10. ing and operating procedures. An alternate procedure may be used if it is desired to space out the short string from measurements of long string 5.4SUBSURFACECONTROLLEDSUBSURFACE space out. This will minimize movement of tubing strings SAFETY VALVE (TYPE 2, FIGURE 1)- during final landing. APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE AND SINGLE Step l-Run long string including SCSSV landing nipple COMPLETIONS and flow couplings, where used, to packer and space out. 5.4.1 Run tubing with safety valve landing nipple and Step 2-Pull out the hole until SCSSV landing nipple is flow couplings, where used, positioned designed SSCSV at reached and hung-off. (Utilize long string measurement for installation depth. space out of short string.) 5.4.2 Additional safety valve landing nipples with flow Step 3-Run short strings and latchinto multiple packer. couplings, where used, may be desirable to allow alternate Procedure from this point is the same as shown in Section SSCSV placement. 5.2.1, Steps 3 through 10. 5.4.3 Install the SSCSV as per wireline procedures out- 5.2.3 Concentric Control - Applicable to lined in Appendix C. Conventional and Tubingless, Multiple and Single Completions 6 Operation,Inspection,Testing, Repair and Maintenance Step l - C l e a n outer string internally andinner string ex- GENERAL 6.1 ternally as necessary to remove all debris that could interfere with SCSSV operations. The SSSV equipment suppliedin conformance to the re- Step 2-Run the outer string with inner string receptacle quirements of API Spec 14A should be inspected and tested to the designed SCSSV depth. Special care must be taken to on-site to ensure that the equipment is in theoperable condi- avoid use of excessive thread compound on both outer and tions. Repair both on-site and off-site should be performed inner strings to prevent plugging SCSSV. by qualified personnel in accordance with the operating Step 3-Space out and hang-off outer string. manual and this recommended practice. Replacement com- Step 4-Run the inner string, latch assembly and SCSSV ponents or equipment subassemblies used in the repair of port landing nipple with control dummy closed if applicable. SSSV equipment should be qualified parts. A repair report Step 5-Circulate out control annulus to assure clean vol- (Appendix F) should becompleted with each off-site repair. ume chamber for control fluid and then land tubing. (Con- The manufacturer must define the scope of repair such sider filtering control fluid.) At this point, usual procedures that these activities will not adversely affect the ability the of for testing the installation should be performed. SSSV equipment to perform its design function. Step 6-Pressure test control annulus to design working 6.2REPAIREDSSSVEQUIPMENT pressure of the system. Step 7 For tubingretrievableinstallations, test the 6.2.1 Repair SCSSV for proper operation as recommended in Manufac- Repaired SSSV equipment should be of equivalent per- turer’s Operating Manual. formance to the SSSV equipment in its original state.The re- paired SSSV equipment should, at minimum, conform to the 5.3SURFACECONTROLSYSTEM specification (API Spec 14A) in effect at the time of manu- 5.3.1 Installation of the surface control system should be facture of the original equipment, or any applicable edition made in accordance with API RP14C for surface safety sys- including the current edition. Repaired SSSV equipment tems, API RP14E for piping systems and API RP14F for consists of the use of qualified part(s) by qualified person(s) electrical systems. with proper testing anddocumentation. 5.3.2 The surface control system should be installed in 6.2.2 Documentation such a fashion thatit does not interfere with nor be subject to damage by the normal producing operations performed on This section describes the documentation recommenda- the facility.The location of the control unit, while critical not tions relative to repairedSSSV equipment. to its operation, should be chosen convenience and safety. for 1. Repair of SSSVequipmentshould be described in The control unit enclosure should be weatherproof. records whichinclude the serial number,parts replaced, per- 5.3.3 All functions,hydraulic,pneumatic,orelectric, sonnel or company performing the repair, date of repair or should be tested for proper operation prior to connection to remanufacture and test results (reference Appendix F). the SCSSV. Hydraulic and pneumatic systems should be 2. Repair records should be maintained for a minimum of five years.COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 21. ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ API RPJIAB 94 m 073zzqo 053441,~ 272 m DESIGN, INSTALLATION, OPERATION SUBSURFACE REPAIRAND OF SAFETY VALVE SYSTEMS 13 6.3SURFACECONTROLLEDSUBSURFACE design limits, off-site repaired equipment should be func- SAFETY VALVE (SCSSV) tionally tested as described in Spec 14A. c. A copy of thefailure report as recommendedin Appendix 6.3.1 Inspection D should be forwarded to the manufacturer for all failures a. On receipt of the SCSSV on location, documentation when the SCSSV is returned to the manufacturer. should be checked verify that: (a) the serial number onthe to SCSSV corresponds to that recorded on the accompanying 6.4SURFACECONTROLSYSTEM Shipping Report;(b) the SCSSV is sized in accordance with 6.4.1 To assure performance of the surface control unit the design; (c) the safety valve lockfor a wireline retrievable within the designlimits, manufacturer’s prescribed operating SCSSV is compatible withthe landing nipple installed in the procedures should be followed. well. b. Before running the SCSSV into the well, connections 6.4.2 Periodic operation of the surface control system will should be tightened or checked in accordance with the oper- serve to keep all moving parts free and functioning properly ating manual. Ascertain that all visible sealing elements are and may lead to early detection of failures. It is recom- not damagedor deformed, andthat all other visible features mended that the surface control system be tested at least do not exhibit marring or distortion that may interfere with every six months with considerations given to no-flow the SCSSV operation. conditions: c. Disassembly of the SCSSV for inspection shall not be To test the system, operate an ESD valve. The system attempted by other than qualified personnel and should be in tests successfully when all SCSSVs close after the pre- accordance with the operating manual. scribed delay. The pressure relief valves pressure sensors and should be tested in accordance with API RP 14C. 6.3.2 Testing 6.4.3 Routine checks should be made of all gages and a. On new and replaced SCSSVs, the opening and closing other displayed controls. Ascertain that any valveor switch hydraulic pressures should be verified according to theoper- capable of rendering the systeminoperative is in the proper ating manual. Ascertain that the SCSSV will function fail- position. safe at the setting depth beforeinstallation (see Section 4.2.5). 6.5SUBSURFACECONTROLLEDSUBSURFACE b. After installation of the SCSSV in the well, the SCSSV SAFETY VALVES (SSCSV) should be closed under minimum or no-flow conditions by 6.5.1 Inspection operation of the surface control. Verification ofclosure may be accomplished by either wireline, pressure build-up or a. On receipt of the SSCSV on location, documentation flow test. If the well is capable of flow, the SCSSV can be should be checked to verify (a) the serial number on the that: tested for leakage by opening the surface valves to check the SSCSV corresponds to that recorded on the accompanying flow. The SCSSV is then reopened following the operating Shipping Report;(b) the SSCSVis sized in accordance with manual. Verification of opening may be accomplished by the the design; (c) the safety valve lock is compatible with the same methods as closure verification. landing nippleinstalled in the well. c. A recommended procedure for routine testing of the in- b. Before running the SSCSV into the well, connections place SCSSV is provided in Appendix G, including a test for should be tightened checked in accordance with oper- or the fail-safe operation. ating manual. Ascertain thatall visible packing elementsare d. Testing of repaired SCSSVs should be conducted by a not damaged or deformed, and that other visible features all qualified person in accord with AppendixG and the operat- do not exhibit marring or distortion that may interfere with ing manual. the SSCSV operation. e. Mechanical function of the safety valve lock should be verified before installation. 6.5.2 Testing a. Testing of an SSCSVin the well is not recommended. 6.3.3Operation,MaintenanceandRepair b. Before installing, testing of repaired SSCSVs should be a. The SCSSV should be operated least every six months. at conducted by a qualified person in accordance with the op- More frequent operation of the SCSSV as dictated by field erating manual. experience mayserve to keep all moving parts and func- free c. Mechanical actuation andclosure mechanism pressure in- tioning properly. This will aid inearly detection of failures. tegrity should be verified by testing of repaired SSCSVs. A b. All maintenance and repairs should be performed in ac- mechanical device may be used test the actuation mecha- to cordance with the operating manual and only by qualified nism. Pressure testing of closure mechanism should be the at persons. For verification of proper SCSSVoperation within 200 PSI minimum with a suitable fluid. Leakage exceedingCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 22. A P I RP*34B 94 m O732290 0534433 309 m 14 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 148 400cc/min of liquid or 15 scfm of test gas will because for b. All maintenance and repair should be performed in ac- rejection. cordance with the operating manual and only by qualified d. Mechanical function of the safety valve lock should be personnel. verified before installation. For verification of proper SSCSV operation within de- signed limits, off-site repaired equipment should be func- 6.5.3 Operation,MaintenanceandRepair tionally tested as described in API 14A. a. The SSCSV should be inspected at least every year.More c. A copy of the Failure Report as shown in Appendix D frequent inspection as dictated by field experience may be should be forwarded to the manufacturer for all failures necessary for early detection of service wear or fouling. when the SSCSV is returned to the manufacturer.COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 23. A P I RP*L4B 94 M 0732290 0534414 045 M INSTALLATION, REPAIR DESIGN, OPERATION AND OF SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE SYSTEMS 15 APPENDIX A-SI UNITS The conversionof English units shall be made accordance with I S 0 31. in Table A-1-SI Units Quantity Unit Customary U.S. SI Unit Length 1 inch (in) 25,4 mm (exactly) Pressure 1 pound-force per 6894,757 Pa square inch (Ibf/in2) NOTE: 1 bar = IO5 Pa Strength or stress I pound-force per 6894.757 Pa square inch (Ibf/in2) Impact engery 1 foot-pound force 1,355818J (fi-lbf) Torque 1 foot-pound force 1.355818 Nem (fi-lbf) Temperature The following formula was used to convert degrees Fahrenheit("F) to degrees Celsius ("C): "C = 5/9 ("F-32) Volume 1 cubic foot 0,0283168 m3 or 28,3168 dm3 1 gal (US) 0,0037854 m3 or 3,7854 dm3 1 barrel (US) 0,158987 m3or 158,987 dm3 Mass 1 pound (lb) 0,45359237 kg (exactly) Force 1 pound-force (lbf) 4,448222 N Flow rate 1 barreUday 0,158987 m3/day 1 cubic foot per 0,02831685 m3/min minute (ft3/min) or 40,776 192 m3/dayCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 24. API RP*:L4B 74 m 0732270 0534435 T B 1 m 16 PRACTICE RECOMMENDED 148 APPENDIX B-EXAMPLE SIZING DATA FORM FOR SUBSURFACE CONTROLLED SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE COMPANY DATELEASE LOCATION B.l Well Data-Oil Wells (Gas Oil Production Lifmlowing) BOPD Water Production Gas Separator Pressureng Flowing PSk Crude Gravity Bubble Gas Injection Volume (gas lift only) MCFPD Depth of Gas Injection (gas lift only) Feet B.2 Well Data-Gas Wells Gas Production MMCF/D Condensate B/"CF Water B/"CFng Flowing PS& Condensate Gravity "n" Back Pressure Equation Exponent B.3 Completion and Reservoir Data of DepthTVD) Depth of SSSV Tubing I.D. InchesHole Static Bottom PSk Flowing BHP PSke Hole Static Bottom F head Flowing B .4 Standard Assumptions: (Oil/Gas) Gravity Gas Separator (.7/.6 w/Air = 1.0) S.G. Water Specific Gravity (1.07/1.OS) S.G. Absolute Pipe Roughness(.0018/.0006) Discharge Coefficient of Bean (.85/.90) Standard Psiaperature Standard (60/60) Deg. F B.5 Deviated Hole Data: MD Ft. TVD Ft. B.6 Existing SSSV Data (Where Applicable) Bean Size Inches Valve Code or Flow Tube I.D. B.7 Sizing Data Valve Code or Valve Type: (Mfr.& Description) Bean Size: (1) in., (2) psi, (3) psi OR Pressure Differential: (1) psi, (2) psi, (3) psi Ratio of calculated closure rate to the tested production rate: (1) 9 (2) 9 (3) 3 (4) 3 (5) Refer to Appendix H of this RP for suggested data to be furnished the manufacturer onthe purchase order. COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services
  • 25. A P I RP*L4B 9 4 m 0732270 0 5 3 4 4 1 6 918 m DESIGN, INSTALLATION, REPAIR AND OPERATION OF SUBSURFACE SAFETV VALVE SYSTEMS 17 APPENDIX C-RECOMMENDED PROCEDURES FOR INSTALLATION AND RETRIEVAL OF SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVES BYWIRELINE C.l General 7. Sufficient knuckle joints to insure flexibilityof the work string in deviated holes. This appendixcontains practices that have been proven to 8. Depthometer (depth counter). provide optimum safety while efficiently performingpre-the 9. Any SSSV lock-open tool and prong designedto ma- scribed operations. The operating practices are applicable to nipulate SSSV without damage. all wirelineoperations; however, the detailed running and re- c. After installing wireline valve and lubricator, test to the trieving procedures are specifically related to SSSVs. maximum anticipated well pressure. (Do not throttle thru master valve to fill lubricator with wellUfluid.j Count and C.l.l SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS record exact number of turns to open and close master valve. Safety of personnel, environment and equipment will be d. Wireline Valve, Blowout Preventer, lubricator, stuffing the prime consideration on every operation. Before begin- box, depthometer and weight indicator must be in good op- ning any wireline operation, the wireline operator must fa- erating order at all times. Failure of any item that could ad- miliarize himself with all posted facility safety regulations. versely affect the operations should be corrected before Work should be planned to allow completion during daylight proceeding with down hole work. hours unlesssufficientlighting is available. All work must be e. Wireline should not be in the hole unattended. left performed in such a manner as to prevent pollution. f. The wireline or swab valve should be closed when tools are in the lubricator.When unattendedor when lubricator is C.1.2 INFORMATION REQUIRED to be removed,the master valve shouldalso be closed. g. Wire should be cut and retied to the rope socket at least Before anyoperation can bestarted, the wireline operator once each day. After prolonged fishing jobs or extensivejar- must be furnished with following information: the ring at one depth, wire should be slipped and cut to change a. Location (Well identification and directions). the points of maximum wear. Also visually inspect line. b. All pertinent well data, including tubing I.D., O.D., and h. On every run into the well, check drag on tools at least ev- joint type; all landing nipple depths, and SSSV lock type; ery 1,000 (305 m). More frequent checks may be necessary also previous wireline reports to include minimum diameters on initial runs in tubing of unknown condition. and known restrictions or obstructions. i. While coming out of the hole, the speed should be re- c. Wellhead connections maximum and anticipated duced to safe limits when approaching anyrestriction in the pressures. tubing string and when within 500 feet (153 m) of the sur- d. Job to be performed including necessary special equip- face. Once the tools are in the lubricator, the swab/wireline ment-e.g., wireline material, lubricator material, stuffing valve should be closed. All pressure trappedin the lubricator box, tools, etc.-type wireline unit required and whether must be bled before attemptingto remove tools. off hole is straight or deviated. j. Pressure should be equalized before performing any oper- ations that may result in blowing the wireline tools up the C.1.3 OPERATING PRACTICES hole, e.g ., sand bailing, pulling of valves andplugs. k. On wells with pressures exceeding 10,000 psi(689.5 bar), a. Skid units must be securely anchored before beginning it is recommended that the stuffing box be repacked before operations. each trip in the hole. Also, a crown or swab valve should be b. Equipment and tools must be checked to assure that the included withthe blowout preventer and wireline valve. following items are included: 1. In special situations where unusualpressures or safety re- l . Necessary fishing tools to recover any worktools that quirements exist, the following should beconsidered: may be run andlost in the hole. 1. Dual wireline blowout preventer for an added degree 2. Wireline Valve andWirelineBlowoutPreventer of safety while performing wireline operations on or (BOP). through the SSSV. 3 . Sufficient lubricator assembly to enclose all tools in- 2. A wireline valve between the wireline BOPS and the cluding fishing tools on a trip and of adequate pressure wellhead swab valve can be used added safety during for rating to contain maximum anticipated well pressure. wireline operations. (Special fishingjobs may require deviations from normal 3 . High pressure gas wells may require injection of procedure.) methanol or glycol to prevent freezing at the stuffing box. 4. Stuffing box with BOP plug. m. If a braided wireline is used, a grease injector packoff 5. Weight indicator. system is recommended wireline packoff. for 6. Jars.COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 26. A P I RPxL4B 74 W 0732290 0534417 854 W 18 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 148 C.2 Running ProcedureFor SSSVs C.3.2 Ascertain that all tools and connections are properly assembled and made up with new rope socket tie. On wells C.2.1 Test lubricator and wireline valve to maximum where scale or paraffin problems are known to exist or when anticipated pressure, following proper safety procedures. conditions are unknown, a gauge ring run should be made C.2.2 Ascertain that all tools and connections are properly before attempting to pull SSSV. assembled and made up with new rope sockettie. On initial C.3.3 Equalize pressure across closed SSSV and open installation, and on subsequent operations where the tubing valve ifpossible. condition is questionable, run a full size gage thru the safety valve landing nipple before attempting to install the valve. C.3.4 For hydraulically operated SCSSVs, once the hold- open tool is in place, bleed off the controlline pressure to the C.2.3 For SSCSVs, the operation of the equalizing sub well shut in tubing pressure. This will relax the external should be checked on surface with the proper prong. For the packing and aid in ease of removal of the SCSSV from the SCSSVs, check to insure that any lock-opendevice will not mandrel. Once the SCSSV is unseated, small volumes of damage the sealing surfaces. fluid should be continuously pumped thru the control con- C.2.4 Normally run SSSV into well in open position. duit to keep it clear of well effluents, unless some feature is provided to isolate the control conduit from the well bore, C.2.5 Follow the operating manual for the particular lock- e.g., sliding sleeve and side pocket devices. ing devicein use to set SSSV in the safety valve mandrel. the For hydraulically controlled SCSSVs, the control conduit C.3.5 Follow the operating manual procedure for unlock- must be completely filled with hydraulic fluid before the ing and retrieving the SSSV. SCSSV is seated. While running the SCSSV, small volumes C.3.6 Close wireline valve and master valve. Bleed pres- of fluid shouldbe continuously pumped thru the control con- sure off lubricator and remove tools and SSSV. duit to keep it clear of well effluents, unless somefeature is provided to isolate the control conduit from the well bore, C.4 Records e.g., sliding sleeve and side pocket devices. Upon completion of the wireline operation, a report C.2.6 Check to assure that the SSSV is properly seated signed by a qualified person must be submitted to the well and the locking device is completely locked. operator. This report may be the service company wireline C.2.7 On SCSSVs, test valve for proper operation by op- ticket or the operator’s form, but should include: erating the surface control system. Valve open andclose po- C.4.1 Date sitions may be checked by well flow or wireline. If wireline is used, care must be taken to avoid damageto the SSSV. C.4.2 Well identification. C.2.8 Retrieve running tools and close wireline valve and C.4.3 Time summary and operations performed including master valve. Bleed pressure off of lubricator and remove depth, pressures and equipment involved. tools. C.4.4 Subsurface equipment, removed and/or replaced. C.4.5 All equipment lost or left in the hole andany restric- C 3 RetrievingProcedure For SSSVs . tion not previously reported. C.3.1 Test lubricator and wireline valve to maximum an- C.4.6 Information required to complete failure analysis ticipated pressure. reports.COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 27. A P IP * 3 4 B R 74 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 4 4 3 8 790 W DESIGN,INSTALLATION, REPAIR OPERATION OF SUBSURFACE AND SAFETY VALVE SYSTEMS 19 APPENDIX D-FAILURE REPORTING User Recommendation D.2 D.1 This report should include, as a minimum, the informa- tion includedin Table D. . l The operator of SSSV equipment manufactured to this specification should provide to the manufacturer a written re- port of equipment failure. TABLE D.1-Failure Report-Subsurface Safety Valve Equipment (Minimum Data) OPERATOR DATA MANUFACTURER DATA (Completed on Receipt of Equipment) I. Identification - Operator I. FailedEquipmentCondition - Operator - Condition as received - Date - Failed components - Field and/or Area - Damaged components - Lease Name and Well Number II.TestResults II. - SSSV Equipment Identification - Furnished by Operator and/or - SSSV-; SSV Landing Conducted by Manufacturer Nipple -; SSSV Lock - - Failure Mode - Make - Leakage Rate - Model - Control Fluid Tubing retrievable- - Operational Data (Opening and Closing Pres- Wireline retrievable - sures, etc.) SCSSV retrievable - III. Cause of Failure SSCSV retrievable - - Probable Cause - Serial Number - Secondary Cause - Working Pressure - Nominal Size IV. Repair and Maintenance - Service Class - Parts Replaced - Class 1 only - Other Maintenance or Repair - Class 1 and 2 V. Corrective Action to Prevent - Class 3 Recurrence III. Well Data - Operator Procedures - Designmaterial Change - Well Test Rate - Proper EquipmentApplication - Environmental Conditions - Percent Sand VI. Additional Information - HzS - Facility location wherefailed valve was origi- -coz nally manufactured - Pressures and Temperatures - Date of manufacture - Surface VII. Manufacturer’s Signature and Date -Bottom Hole - Completed Report to be transmittedto Opera- - SSSV Equipment Setting Depth tor with a copy retained - SSSV Equipment Installation Date - Time Equipment in Service - Unusual Operating Conditions IV. Description of Failure - Nature of Failure - Observed conditions which could have caused failure V, Operator’s Signature and DateCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 28. API RP*:LYB 94 W 0732290 0534417 627 W 20 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 148 APPENDIX E-SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE SHIPPING REPORT(EXAMPLE) (MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENT) MANUFACTURER DATA Manufacturer Equipment Name SSSV Catalog or Model No Serial No Size Working Pressure Temperature Rated Rating: Min Max Tubing Retrievable Only. Internal Yield Pressure PSk Psig Pressure Collapse Strength Tensile Load lbsReport Test Agency Performance Test No. Date of Report Class of Service: Customer: Test Functional Test Summary a. SCSSVs l . Opening Pressures: Maximum Minimum 2. Closing Pressures: Maximum Minimum 3. Leakage Rate: 100% Working Pressure: Low Pressure Gas: 4. Performed by: - Date b. SSCSVs l . Closing Flow RatesPressure DifferentialsRubing Pressures: 2. Orifice (bean) Size: 3. Number Length and of Spacers: Spring Rate: lbs/ in 4. Leakage Rate: 100%Working Pressure: Low Pressure Gas: 5 . Performed by: DateCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 29. A P I RP*I4B 94 m 0732290 0534420 3 4 9 m DESIGN, INSTALLATION, OF SUBSURFACE VALVESYSTEMS REPAIR OPERATION AND SAFETY 21 APPENDIX F-SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE REPAIR REPORT (EXAMPLE) (MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENT) MANUFACTURER DATA Manufacturer Equipment Name SSSV Catalog or Model No Serial No Size Replacement Parts*: Customer: Test Date: Date: Shipment Functional Test Summary a. SCSSVs l. Opening Pressures: Maximum Minimum 2. Closing Pressures: Maximum Minimum 3. Leakage Rate: 100%Working Pressure: Low Gas: Pressure 4. Performed by: Date b. SSCSVs l . Closing FlowRatesPressure Differentialsmubing Pressures: 2. Orifice (bean) Size: 3. Number Length of and Spacers: Spring Rate: lbs/ in 4. Leakage Rate: 100% Working Pressure: Low Pressure Gas: 5. Performed by: Date serial number. *Include, if appropriate, informationon safety valve lock manufacturer, type, andCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 30. API RP*1YB 94 m 0732290 0534421 285 m 22 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 148 APPENDIX G-TEST PROCEDURE FOR INSTALLED SURFACE CONTROLLED SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVES G.l For low pressureapplicationsthis formula may be simpli- fied as follows: Record the control pressure. Q = 4(A!”)V At G.2 Q = 58.1 W“ V Isolate the controlfrom system the well to be tested. At (SI Units) For oil wells, the pressure build-up depends on the static G.3 fluid level and the amount of gas in oil. If the fluid level the is below the SCSSV, the formula for gas wells can be used. Shut the well in at the wellhead. If the fluid level is above the SCSSV, the leakage rate should be measured. G.4 Wait a minimum offiveminutes.Checkthe control line G-8 for lost of pressure which may indicate a leak in the system. If the SCSSV failed to close or if the leakage rate exceeds 900 SCF gas per hour SCFhin.), or 6.3 gallons of liquid (15 G.5 hour per (400cc/min.), correctivebe action should taken. Bleed the control line pressure to zero to shut in the SC- ~ -- 9 SSV. Closethe control line system and observe pressure for After the SCSSV tests successfully, use the following rec- buildup which mayindicate a faulty SCSSV system. If such ommended reopening procedure: pressure buildup occurs. Corrective action should betaken. G.9.1 SCSSVs withEqualizingFeatures G.6 a. With external pressure source. Bleed the pressure off the wellhead to the lowest practical Pressure the tubing above the valve until the pump thru pressure and then shut in the well at the wing or flowline feature of the SCSSV functions to indicate the pressures are valve. When possible, bleed flowline header pressure down equalized. When equalized, slowly increase control line to or below wellhead pressure and observe flowline and the pressure to the value recordedin Step 1 or to the pressure es- wellhead for a change in pressure which would indicate a tablished for normal operations. faulty surface valve. Any leaks through the wing or flowline b. Without external pressure source. valve must be repaired before proceeding with test. the With the well shut in, increase control pressure slowly un- til the tubing pressure begins toincrease. Close the manifold G.7 control valve and record the opening pressure. When the tub- Conduct leakagetest and documentresults. For gas wells, ing pressure stabilizes, pressure up the control system to flow rates can be computed from pressure build-up by the open the SCSSV. Increase the hydraulic controlline pressure formulas. to the value recorded in Step 1, or at least 500 psi greater than the opening pressure. G.9.2 SCSSVs withoutEqualizingFeatures An external pressure source should be used to equalize the pressure across the SCSSV before opening. When equal- Where: ized, slowly increase control line pressure to the value = is the final P (pressure in psia) (Bar) divided (Z) by final Z (gas deviationfactor)minusintial recorded in Step 1 or to the pressure established for normal operations. P divided by initial Z Q = is the leakage rate, SCF/Hr. G.l O At = isthebuild-uptime in minutes to reach a When the SCSSV has been determined to operate prop- stabilized pressure. erly and is opened, the control line pressure must be tied V = is the volume of the tubing string above the back into the system control pressure and the well be can t SSSV in cubic feet. placed back on production. Check well test rate. A signifi- T = is the absolutetemperature at theSSSV I cant reduction in the well test rate may be the result of the (Deg F+460). SCSSV not reopening fully.COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 31. A P I R P t L 4 B 94 W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0534422 LLL W DESIGN,INSTALLATION, REPAIR OPERATION OF SUBSURFACE SAFElY VALVE SYSTEMS AND 23 APPENDIX H-SUGGESTIONS FOR ORDERING SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE EQUIPMENT In placing orders for subsurface safety valve equipment in accordance API Spec 14A,operator should specifythe following with on the purchaseorder: Specification and Monogram (API Edition required) Yes - No - Tubing Size, Weight, Connection Grade, Yes - No - SSSV Equipment Type System (See Section 4.1,4.2 and 4.4) Type and Model Class of Service-API Spec 14A Size-API Spec 14A Rated Working Pressure-API Spec 14A Temperature Range-API Spec 14A Special Features scssv Control System Pressure Setting Depth-API Spec 14A Type Control Fluid Strength (tubing retrievable only) API Spec 14A sscsv Orifice Size, Spring, Spacers, Dome Charge,etc. Yes ___ No - OTHER EQUIPMENT Safety Valve Lock-API Spec 14A Safety Valve Landing Nipple-API Spec 14AJ COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services
  • 32. A P I R P s L Y B 7Y D 0732290 0534423 058 m 1-01200-7/~2M ( )COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  • 33. Order No. 811-14804 Additional copies available from AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE Publications and Distribution Section 1220 L Street, NW Washington, DC 20005 (202)682-8375COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services