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  1. 1. Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 8-Sampling Section 1-Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products THIRD EDITION, OCTOBER 1995 I American Society Materials for Testing and D4057 American Petroleum InstituteCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  2. 2. API M P M S * B = L 9 5 W 0732290 0 5 4 8 9 7 8 237 m Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 8”Sampling Section 1-Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products Measurement Coordination THIRD EDITION, OCTOBER 1995 American Petroleum InstituteCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  3. 3. SPECIAL NOTES 1. API PUBLICATIONS NECESSARILY ADDRESS PROBLEMS OF A GENERAL NATURE. WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES, LOCAL, STATE, AND FEDERAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS SHOULD BE REVIEWED. 2. API IS NOT UNDERTAKINGTO MEET THE DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS, MANU- FACTURERS, OR SUPPLIERS TO WARN AND PROPERLY TRAIN AND EQUIP THEIR EMPLOYEES, AND OTHERS EXPOSED, CONCERNING HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS AND PRECAUTIONS, NOR UNDERTAKING THEIR OBLIGATIONS UNDER LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL LAWS. 3. INFORMATION CONCERNING SAFETY AND HEALTH RISKS AND PROPER PRECAUTIONS WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR MATERIALS AND CONDI- TIONS SHOULD BE OBTAINED FROM THE EMPLOYER, THE MANUFACTURER OR SUPPLIER OF THAT MATERIAL, OR THE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET. 4. NOTHING CONTAINED IN ANY API PUBLICATION TO BE CONSTRUED AS IS GRANTING ANY RIGHT, BY IMPLICATION OR OTHERWISE, FOR THE MANU- FACTURE, SALE, OR USE OF ANY METHOD, APPARATUS, OR PRODUCT COV- ERED BY LETTERS PATENT. NEITHER SHOULD ANYTHING CONTAINED IN THE PUBLICATION BE CONSTRUED AS INSURING ANYONE AGAINST LIABIL- ITY FOR INFRINGEMENT OFLETTERS PATENT. 5. GENERALLY, APISTANDARDSAREREVIEWEDANDREVISED,REAF- FIRMED, OR WITHDRAWNAT LEAST EVERY FIVE YEARS. SOMETIMES A ONE- TIME EXTENSION OF UP TO TWO YEARS WILL BE ADDED TO THIS REVIEW CYCLE. THIS PUBLICATION WILL NO LONGER BE IN EFFECT FIVE YEARS AF- TER ITS PUBLICATION DATE AS AN OPERATIVE API STANDARD OR, WHERE AN EXTENSION HAS BEEN GRANTED, UPON REPUBLICATION. STATUS THE OF PUBLICATION CANBE ASCERTAINED FROM THE API AUTHORINGDEPART- MENT [TELEPHONE (202) 682-8000]. ACATALOG OF API PUBLICATIONS AND MATERIALS IS PUBLISHED ANNUALLY AND UPDATED QUARTERLY BY API, 1220 LSTREET, N. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20005. W., All rights reserved. No partof this work may be reproduced, stored a retrieval system, in or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,or other- wise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Contact API Publications Manager, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20005. Copyright O 1995 American Petroleum InstituteCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  4. 4. API MPNS*:B.L 95 0732290 0 5 4 8 9 8 0 5 99 W FOREWORD API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made of by the Institute to assure the accuracy and reliability the data contained in them; however, the Institute makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this pub- lication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use orfor the violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation with which this publication may conflict. Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to the Measurement Coordina- tor, Exploration and Production Department, American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  5. 5. CONTENTS SECTION 1"STANDARD PRACTICE FOR MANUAL SAMPLING OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Page O INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 1 1 SCOPE ..................................................................................................................... 1 2 REFERENCES .................................................................................. ..................... 1 2.1 Standards ........................................................................................................... 1 2.2 Other References .............................................................................................. 1 3 DEFINITIONS ......................................................................................................... 2 4SIGNIFICANCE AND USE .................................................................................... 4 5 MANUAL SAMPLING CONCEPTS ..................................................................... 4 5.1 Objective ofManual Sampling ......................................................................... 4 5.2 Required Conditions for the Application of Manual Sampling ........................ 4 5.3 Manual Sampling Considerations ..................................................................... 5 6 SAMPLE CONTAINERS (RECEIVERS) .............................................................. 5 6.1 Sample Containers ............................................................................................ 51 6.2 ContainerClosure ............................................................................................. 6 6.3 CleaningProcedure ........................................................................................... 6 6.4 SampleMixing Systems ................................................................................... 6 6.5 Other Equipment ............................................................................................... 7 6.6 SamplingDevices ............................................................................................. 7 7 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS .................................................................................... 7 7.1 PersonnelSafety ............................................................................................... 7 7.2 Special Instructions forSpecific Materials ....................................................... 7 7.3 Special Instructions forSpecificTests .............................................................. 8 7.4 Special Instructions forSpecificApplications .................................................. 9 8 SAMPLING PROCEDURES .................................................................................. 9 8.1 Precautions ........................................................................................................ 9 8.2 GeneralRequirements ...................................................................................... 10 8.3 TankSampling .................................................................................................. 10 8.4 ManualPipelineSampling ................................................................................ 16 8.5 Dipper Sampling ............................................................................................... 18 8.6Tube Sampling .................................................................................................. 18 8.7 BoringSampling ............................................................................................... 19 8.8 Grab Sampling .................................................................................................. 19 8.9 Grease Sampling ............................................................................................... 20 APPENDIX A-PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENTS ................................................ 23 APPENDIX B-KEYWORD LIST ............................................................................. 25 Figures l-Spot SamplingLocations ................................................................................... 3 2"Stand Pipe (with Overlapping Slots) ................................................................. 10 3-Typical Core-Type Sampling Thief ................................................................... 11 4-Typical Assemblies for Bottlemeaker Sampling ............................................... 13 5-Assemblies for Tap Sampling ............................................................................ 14 6-Typical Closed-Core Type Sampling Thief ....................................................... 15 7-Typical Extended-TubeSampler ....................................................................... 16 8-Probes for Spot Manual Samples ...................................................................... 17 V COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services
  6. 6. 9-Typical Drum or Barrel Sampler ....................................................................... 18 IO-Ship Auger for Boring Procedure .................................................................... 19 1 1-Location of Sampling Points at Different Levels for Rail Cars ....................... 20 12-Location of Sampling Points from Exposed Surfacefor Rail Cars ................. 20 Tables 1-Typical SamplingProcedures and Applicability ............................................... 2 2-Sampling 1nstructions.for Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks ................................... 4 3-Minimum Number of Packages to Be Selected for Sampling ........................... 8 +Spot SamplingRequirements ............................................................................ 11 5-Weighted Sampling Bottle or Beaker ................................................................ 13 &Sample Tap Specifications ................................................................................. 15 7-Tap Sampling Requirements .............................................................................. 15 8-Size of Grease Samples....................................................................................... 21 viCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  7. 7. A P I MPMS*8*L 95 0732290 0548983 bT4 m Chapter 8-Sampling Section 1”Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products O Introduction Chapter 8.3, “Standard Practice for Mix- ing and Handling of Liquid Samples of This standard describes methods and equipment used to Petroleum and Petroleum Products” manually obtain representative samples of petroleum and Chapter 8.4, “Standard Practice for the petroleum products. Sampling and Handling of Fuelsfor Volatility Measurements” 1 Scope Chapter 9.3, “Thermohydrometer Test Method for Density and API Gravity of This standard presents procedures for manually obtain- Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum ing samples of petroleum and petroleum products of a liq- Products” uid, semi-liquid, or solid state whose vapor pressure at Chapter 10, “Sediment and Water Deter- ambientconditions is below 101.32kilopascals(14.7 mination” pounds per square inch absolute). Procedures are also in- Chapter17.1,“Guidelines for Marine cluded for the sampling of free water and other heavy com- Cargo Inspection” ponents associated with petroleum and petroleumproducts. Chapter 17.2, “Measurement of Cargoes If sampling isfor the precise determination of volatility, use Aboard Marine Tank Vessels” API MPMS Chapter 8.4 in conjunction with this standard. Chapter 18.1, “Measurement Procedures For sample mixing and handling, refer API MPMS Chap- to for Crude Oil Gathered from Small Tanks ter 8.3. The standard does not cover sampling of electrical by Truck” insulating oils and hydraulic fluids. See Notes 1, 2, 3. A summary of the manual sampling procedures and their 2.2 OTHERREFERENCES applications is presented in Table l. Note 1 : The procedures described in this standard may be applicable in also AST%í2 sampling most noncorrosive liquid industrial chemicals, provided that all D86 Testfor Distillation of Petroleum Products safety precautions specificto these chemicalsare followed. Note 2: The procedure for sampling liquified petroleum gasesdescribed is D217 Test Method for Cone Penetration of Lu- in ASTM D1265; the procedurefor sampling power hydraulic fluids is cov- bricating Grease ered in ANSI B93.19 and B93.44; the procedure for sampling insulating D244 Methods for Testing Emulszjìed Asphalts oils is described in ASTM D923; and the procedure for sampling natural gas is described in ASTM l 145. D D268 Test Methods of Sampling and Testing Note 3: Theprocedure for special fuel samples fortrace metal analysis is Volatile Solvents and Chemical Interme- described in an appendix to ASTM D2880. diates for Use in Paint andRelated Coat- ings and Materials 2 References D346 Collection and Preparation of Coke Sam- ples for Laboratory Analysis Unless otherwise specified, the most recent editions or D525 Test Method f o r Oxidation Stability o f revisions of the following standardsshall, to the extent spec- Gasoline (Induction Period Method) ified herein, form a part of this standard. D873 Test Method Oxidation Stability of Avi- for ation Fuels (Potential Residue Method) 2.1 STANDARDS D923 Test Method for Sampling Electrical Insu- ANSI‘ lating Liquids D977 Spec$cation for Emuls$ed Asphalt B93.19 Method for ExtractingFluidSamples Dl 145 Method of Sampling Natural Gas from Lines of an Operating Hydraulic D 1265 Practice for Sampling Liquified Fluid PowerSystem Cforparticulate Con- Petroleum (LP) Gases-Manual Method tamination Analysis) D1856 Test Method for Recovery of Asphalt from B93.44 Extracting Fluid Samples from a Reser- Solution by Abson Method voir of an Operating Fluid PowerSystem API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards ’American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, NewYork, New York 10018. Chapter 8.2, “Automatic Sampling of American Society for Testing Materials, 100 Bar Harbor Drive, West and Petroleum and Petroleum Products” Conshohocken, Pennsylvania19428. 1COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  8. 8. API MPMS*d-L 95 0732290 05L18984 530 m 2 CHAPTER &SAMPLING Table I-Typical Sampling Proceduresand Applicability Auolication Procedure Container T v ~ of e Liquids of not more ship Storage than tanks, and barge Bottle sampling 101.32 kPa (14.7 psia) RVP tanks, tank cars, tank trucks Core sampling Liquids of 101.32 kPa (14.7 psia) RVP Storage tanks with taps Tap sampling or less Bottom sampling of liquids of Storage tanks with taps Tap sampling psia) RVP or less 13.8 kPa (2 Liquids of 101.32 kPa (14.7 psia) RVP Pipes or lines Manual pipeline or less sampling Liquids of 13.8 kPa(2 psia) RVP or less Free or open discharge streams Dipper sampling Liquids of 13.8 kPa (2 psia) RVP or less Drums, barrels, cans Tube sampling Bottom or core samplingof liquids of Tank cars, storagetanks Core sampling 13.8 kPa (2 psia)RVP or less Liquids and semi-liquids of 13.8 kPa Free or open discharge streams; Dipper sampling (2 psia) RVP or less open tanksor kettles with open heads; tank cars, t n trucks, drums ak Crude petroleum Storage tanks, ship and barge Automatic sampling tanks, tank cars, tank trucks, pipelines Core sampling Bottle sampling Tap sampling Industrial aromatic hydrocarbons Storage tanks, ship barge tanks and Bottle sampling soft Waxes, solids bitumens, other solids Barrels, cases, bags, cakes Boring sampling Petroleum coke, lumpy solids Freight cars, conveyors, bags, barrels, Grab sampling boxes Greases, softwaxes, asphalts Kettles, drums, cans, tubes Grease sampling Asphaltic materials Storage tanks, tank cars, lines, - packages Emulsified asphalts Storage tanks,tank cam, lines, packages D2026 Cutback Asphalt 3 2 automatic sampler: A device used to extract a rep- . D2172 Test Methodfor Quantitative Extraction of resentative sample from theliquid flowing in a pipe. The au- Bitumen from Bituminous Paving Mix- tomatic sampler generally consists of a probe, a sample tures extractor, an associatedcontroller, a flow measuring device, D2880 Specificationfor Gas Turbine Fuel Oils and a samplereceiver. For additional information onan au- D4306 Practice for Sampling Aviation Fuel for tomaticsampler,seeAPI MPMS Chapter 8.2, ASTM Tests Affectedby Trace Contamination D4177. D4865 Guide for Generation and Dissipation of 3.3 boring sample: A sample of the material contained Static Electricity Petroleum Fuel in Systems in a barrel, case, bag, or cakethat is obtained from the chips created by boring holes into the material with a ship auger. 3 Definitions 3.4 bottomsample: A spot sample collected from the material at the bottom of the tank, container, or line at its For the purposes of this standard, the following defini- lowest point. In practice, the term bottom sample has avari- tions apply: ety of meanings. As a result, it is recommended that the ex- act sampling location (for example, centimeters (6 inches) 15 3.1 all-levelssample: A sampleobtained by submerg- from the bottom) shouldbe specified when using this term. ing a stoppered beakeror bottle toa point as near as possible to the draw-off level or, if higher, to a pointjust above the 3.5 bottom water sample: A spot sample of free water free water or other heavy material, then opening the sampler taken from beneath the petroleum contained in a ship or and raisingit at a rate such thatit isbetween 70 percentand barge compartment or a storage tank. 85 percent fullas it emerges fromthe liquid. Alternately, all- 3.6 clearance sample: A spotsampletakenwiththe level samples may be taken with samplers designedfor fill- inlet opening of the sampling apparatus 10 centimeters ing as they pass downward through the liquid. (4 inches) (some regulatory agencies require 15 centimetersCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  9. 9. _ _ _ _ ~ A P I MPMS*8-L 75 H 0 7 3 2 2 7 0 5 4 8 9 8 5 0 477 SECTION 1"STANDARD PRACTICE FOR MANUAL SAMPLING OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 3 (6 inches)) below the bottom of the tank outlet. (This term is normally associated with small (1000 barrels or less) tanks, commonly referred to as lease tanks.) 3.7 compositesample: A blend of spot samples mixed 15 cm (6) in proportionto the volumesof material from which spot the samples were obtained. )t-Upper Upper sample third 3 8 core sample: A sample of a uniform cross-sectional . "_"""""_ Tank area taken at a given height ina tank. contents *Middle Middle sample third 3.9 dipper sample: A sample obtained by placing a dip- I I""""""" per or other collecting vessel in the path of a free-flowing I stream to collect a definite volume from the full cross sec- tion of the stream regular time intervals for a constant time at rate of flow or at time intervals varied in proportion to the flow rate. Notes: 3.10 dissolved water: Waterin solution inan oil. l . The location shown for the outlet sample applies only to tanks with side outlets. It does not apply whenthe outlet comes from the floor of the tank 3.1 1 drainsample: Obtained from the waterdraw-off or turns down into a sump.Bottom sample location must be specified. valve ona storage tank. Occasionally, a drain sample may be 2. Samples should not be obtained from within solid stand pipes the ma- as terials normally are not representative of the material in the tank at that the same as a bottom sample (for example, in the case of a point. tank car). Figure 1-Spot Sampling Locations 3.12 emulsion: An oiVwater mixture that does not read- ily separate. 3.1 3 entrained water: Water suspended in the oil. En- of liquid below the liquids surface excluding free water and trained water includes emulsions but does not include dis- other heavy material). See Figure 1. solved water. 3.22 multiple tank composite sample: A mixture of in- 3.14 floating roof sample: A spot sample taken just be- dividual samples or composites of samples that have been low thesurface to determine the API gravityof the liquid on obtained from several tanks shipharge compartments con- or which the roof is floating. taining the same grade of material. The mixture is blended 3.15 flow proportional sample: A sample taken from a in proportion to the volume of material contained in the re- pipe such that the rate of sampling is proportional through- spective tanks or compartments. out the sampling period to the flow rate of the fluid in the 3.23 outlet sample: A spot sample takenwith the inlet pipe. opening of the sampling apparatus at the level ofthe bottom 3.16 free water: The water thatexistsasaseparate of the tank outlet (fixed or floating). See Figure l . phase. 3.24 primarysamplereceiver/receptacle: A container 3.17 grab sample: Asampleobtained by collecting in which a sample is initially collected. (Examples of pri- equal quantities from parts or packages of a shipment of mary sample containers include glass and plastic bottles, loose solids such that the sample is representative of the en- cans, core-type thief, fixed and portable sample receivers.) tire shipment. 3.25 representativesample: A portion extracted from 3.1 8 grease sample: Obtained by scooping or dipping a the total volume that contains the constituents in the same quantity of soft or semi-liquid material contained from a proportions that are present in that total volume. package in a representative manner. 3.26 runningsample: A sample obtained by lowering 3.1 9 intermediate container: The vessel into which all a beaker or bottle to the level of bottom of the the outlet con- or part of the sample from a primary containerheceiver is nection or swing line and returning it to the top of the oil at transferred for transport, storage, or ease of handling. a uniform rate such that the beaker or bottle is between 70 3.20 lower sample: A spot sample of liquid from the percent and 85 percent full when withdrawn from the oil. middle of the lower one-third of the tanks content (a dis- 3.27 sample: A portion extracted from a total volume tance of five-sixths of the depth of liquid below the liquids that may or may not containthe constituents in the same pro- surface excluding free water and other heavy material). See portions that are present in that total volume. Figure 1. 3.28 sampling: All the steps required to obtain a sam- 3.21 middle sample: A spot sample taken from the mid- ple that is representative of the contents of any pipe, tank, dle of the tanks contents (adistance of one-half of the depth or other vessel and to place that sample in a containerCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  10. 10. 4 CHAPTER 8"sAMPLlNG from which a representative test specimen canbe taken for 4 SignifiCaIlCe and Use analysis. Representative samplesof petroleum and petroleum prod- 3m29 spot A taken at a specific location ucts =e required for the determinationof chemical phYs- and in a tank Or Om a flowing stream in a pipe at a Fific time* ical properties, which are used establish standard volumes, to 3-30 stand pipes: Vertical sectionsofpipeortubingprices,andcompliancewithcommercialandregulatory usedforgauging,that extendfrom the gauging platform to specifications. near the bottom of tanks that are equipped with external or internal floating roofs. Stand pipesmay also be found on barges.ships and 5 Manual Sampling Concepts 3.31 surface sample: A spot sample skimmedfromthe 5.1 OBJECTIVE OF MANUALSAMPLING surface of a liquid in a tank. The objective of manual samplingis to obtain a small 3.32 tank composite sample: A blend created from the portion (spot sample) of material froma selected area within upper, middle, and lower samples from a single tank. For a a container that is representative of the material in the area tank of uniform cross section, such as an upright cylindrical or, in the case of running or all-level samples, a sample tank, the blend consists of equal parts of the three samples. whose composition is representative of the total material in For a horizontal cylindrical tank, the blendconsists of sam- the container. A series of spot samples may be combined to ples in the proportions shown in Table2. create a representative sample. 3.33 tapsample: A spot sample taken from a sample 5.2 REQUIRED CONDITIONS FOR THE tap on theside of a tank. It may also be referredto as a tank- APPLICATION OF MANUAL SAMPLING side sample. Manual sampling may be applied under all conditions 3.34 test specimen: A representative sub-sample taken within the scope of this standard, provided that the proper from the primary intermediate sample or container for anal- sampling procedures followed. are ysis. In many liquid manual sampling applications, the mate- 3.35 topsample: A spot sampleobtained 15 centime- rial to be sampled contains a heavy component (suchas free ters (6 inches) below the top surface of the liquid. See Fig- water) that tends to separate from the main component. In ure 1. these cases, manual sampling is appropriate under the fol- lowing conditions: 3.36 tube or thief sample: A sample obtained with a a. Sufficient time must have elapsed for the heavy compo- sampling tubeor special thief, either a core sampleor spot as nent to adequately separate and settle. sample from a specific point in the tank or container. b. It must be possible to measure the level of the settled 3.37 upper sample: A spot sample taken from the mid- component inorder tostay well above that level when draw- dle of the upper one-third of the tankscontents (a distance ing representative samples, unless all or partof the heavy of one-sixth of the liquid depth below liquids surface ex- the component will be included in the portion of the tank con- cluding free water and other heavy material). See Figure1. tents to be sampled. Table 2-Sampling Instructions for Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks Liquid Depth Sampling Level Composite Sample (percent of diameter) (percent of diameter above bottom) (DroDortionate D- on Upper Middle Lower Upper Lower Middle 100 80 50 20 3 4 3 90 75 50 20 3 4 3 80 70 50 20 2 5 3 70 50 20 6 4 60 50 20 5 5 50 40 20 4 6 40 20 10 30 15 10 20 10 10 10 5 10COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  11. 11. A P I IPMS*B-L 95 m 0732270 0548987 2 4 T m SECTION PRACTICE MANUAL i-STANDARD FOR SAMPLING OF PETROLEUM PETROLEUM AND PRODUCTS 5 When one or more of these conditions cannot be met, to prepare the composite tank sample must be proportional sampling is recommended to be accomplished by means of to the volumes in the corresponding tanks. In most other an automatic sampling system (see API MPMSChapter 8.2, compositing situations, equal volumes from the individual ASTM D4177). samples must be used. The procedure for compositing should be documented and care taken to preserve the in- 5.3 MANUALSAMPLINGCONSIDERATIONS tegrity of the samples. It is recommended that a portion of The following factors must beconsidered in the develop- each tank sample be retained separately (notcomposited) for ment and application of manual sampling procedures: retesting if necessary. When compositing samples, care must be taken to ensure 5.3.1 Physical and Chemical Property Tests sample integrity. Refer to API MPMS Chapter 8.3, ASTM The physical andchemical property tests to be performed D5854 for guidance on mixing andhandling of samples. on a sample will dictate the sampling procedures, the sam- 5.3.5 SampleTransfers ple quantity required, and many of the sample handling re- quirements. The number of intermediate transfers from one container to another between the actual sampling operation and test- 5.3.2 SamplingSequence ing should be minimized. The loss of light hydrocarbons as Any disturbance of the material in a tank that is to be the result of splashing and loss of water due to clingage sampled may adversely affect the representative character of and/or contamination from external sources may distort test the sample. Therefore, the sampling operation should be results, for example, density, S&W, andproduct clarity (see conducted before innage gauging, other than for free water API MPMS Chapters 9.3 and 10). The more transfers be- and other heavy components, the associated temperature de- tween containers, the greater the likelihood one or both of termination, and anyother similar activity that could disturb these problems may occur. See API MPMS Chapter 8.3, the tank contents. ASTM D5854 for additional information concerning the To avoid contaminationof the oil column during sam-the handling and mixing of samples. pling operation, the order of precedence for spot sampling should start from the top and work downward, according to 5.3.6 SampleStorage the following sampling sequence: surface, top, upper, mid- Samples should be maintained in a closed container in dle, lower, outlet, clearance, all-levels, bottom, and running order to prevent loss of light components. Samples should sample. be protected during storage to prevent weathering or degra- dation from light, heat, or other potential detrimental condi- 5.3.3 Equipment Cleanliness tions. The sampling equipment should be clean prior to com- 5.3.7 Sample Handling mencing the sampling operation. Any residual material left in a sampling device or sample container from a previous If a sample is not homogeneous and a portion of the sam- sample or cleaning operation may destroythe representative ple must be transferred to another container or test vessel, character of the sample. It is good practice with light the sample must be thoroughly mixed accordance with the in petroleum products to rinse the sample container and equip- type of material and appropriate test method, in order to en- ment with the product to be sampled prior to drawing sam- sure the portion transferred is representative. Care must be ples. taken to ensure mixing does not alter the components within the sample (for example, loss of light ends). See M I MPMS 5.3.4 Compositing of Individual Samples Chapter 8.3, ASTMD5854. If the sampling procedure requires that several different samples be obtained, physical property tests may be per- formed on each sample or on a composite of the various 6 SampleContainers(Receivers) samples. When the respective tests are performed on indi- 6.1 SAMPLE CONTAINERS vidual samples, which is the recommended procedure, the test results generally are averaged. Sample containers come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and When a multiple tank composite sample is required, such materials. To be able to select the right container for a given as onboard ships and barges, a composite tank sample may application one must have knowledge of the material to be be prepared from samples from different tanks the when they sampled to ensure that there will be no interaction between contain thesame material. In order for such a composite tank the sampled material and the container that would affect the sample to be representative of the material contained in the integrity of either. Additional considerations in the selection various tanks, the quantity from the individual samples used of sample containersare the type of mixing required to remixCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  12. 12. API M P M S * 8 = 1 95 W 0732290 0548988 186 W 6 CHAPTER 8"SAMPLING the contents before transferring a sample from container the c. An inspection coverklosure of sufficient size to facilitate and the type oflaboratory analyses that are to be conducted filling, inspection and cleaning. on the sample. To facilitate the discussion on proper han- a d. Designed to allow the preparation of homogeneous mix- dling and mixing ofsamples, sample containers are referred ture of the sample while preventing the lossof any con- to as either primary or intermediate containers. Regardless stituents that affect the representativeness of the sample and of the type of sample containerused, the sample container the accuracy of the analytical tests. should be large enough to contain the required sample vol- e. Designed to allow the transfer of samples from the con- ume and sufficient ullage space for thermal expansion and tainer to the analytical apparatus while maintaining their rep- mixing of the sample. S e e API MPMS Chapter 8.3, ASTM resentative nature. D5854. 6.2 CONTAINERCLOSURE 6.1.1 Bottles (Glass) Cork stoppers or screw caps plastic or metal may be of Clear glass bottles may be examined visually for cleanli- used for glass bottles. Corks must be of good quality, clean, ness, and they allow for visual inspection of the sample for and free from holes and loosebits of cork. Never userubber free water cloudiness and solid impurities. The brown glass stoppers. Contact of the sample with cork may be prevented bottle affords some protection the samples when to light may by wrapping tin or aluminum foil around the cork before affect the test results. See API MPSM Chapter 8.3, ASTM forcing it into the bottle. Screw caps providing a vapor tight D5854. closure seal shall be used for cans. Screw caps must be pro- tected by a disk faced with material that will not deteriorate 6.1.2 Cans and contaminate the sample. Containers used to take sam- When cans are to be used, they must have that have seams ples that will be tested density or gravity shall have screw for been soldered on exterior surfaces with a flux of rosin in the caps. a suitable solvent. Such a flux is easily removed withgaso- line, whereas many others are very difficult to remove. 6.3 CLEANINGPROCEDURE Minute tracesof flux may contaminate the sample so that re- sults obtained on tests such asdielectric strength, oxidation Sample containers must be clean and free from all sub- resistance, and sludge formation may be erroneous. Internal stances that might contaminate the material being sampled epoxy lined cans may have residual contamination and pre- (such as water, dirt, lint, washing compounds, naphtha and cautions should be taken ensure its removal. ASTM D4306 to other solvents, soldering fluxes, acids, rust, and oil). Prior to should be used when taking samples for aviation fuels further use, reusable containers such as cans and bottles should be rinsed with a suitable solvent. Use of solvents to 6.1.3 Bottles (Plastic) remove alltraces of sediments and sludge may be necessary. Plastic bottles made ofsuitable material may be used for Following the solvent wash, the container should be washed the handling and storage of gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil, and with a strong soap solution, rinsed thoroughly with tap wa- lubricating oil. Bottles of this type should not be used for ter, and givena final rinse using distilled water. Dry the con- gasoline, aviation jet fuel, kerosene, crudeoil, white spirit, tainer either by passing acurrent of clean warmair through medicinal white oil, and special boiling point products un- the container or by placing it in a hot, dust-free cabinet at less testing indicates there no problem with solubility, con- is 40" C (104" F) or higher. When dry, stopper or cap the con- tamination, or loss of light components. tainer immediately. Normally, it is not necessary to wash In no circumstancesshallnonlinear(conventional) new containers. polyethylene containers be used to store samples of liquid When sampling aviation fuel, ASTM D4306 should be hydrocarbons. This is to avoidsample contamination or sam- consulted for recommended cleaning procedures for con- ple bottle failure. Used engine oil samples that may have tainers that are to be used intests for determination of water been subjected to fuel dilution should not be stored in plas- separation, coppercorrosion, electrical conductivity, thermal tic containers. stability, lubricity, andtrace metal content. Plastic bottles have an advantage. They will not shatter like glass or corrode like metal containers. 6.4SAMPLEMIXINGSYSTEMS The sample container shouldbe compatible with the mix- 6.1.4 General Container Design Considerations ing system for remixing samples that have stratified to Following are general design considerations for sample ensure that a representative sample is available for transfer containers: to anintermediate container or the analytical apparatus. This a. No internal pockets or dead spots. is especially critical when remixing crude, some black prod- b. Internal surfaces designed to minimize corrosion, en- ucts, and condensates for S&W analysis to ensure a repre- crustation, and waterhediment clingage. sentative sample.The requirements governing the amount ofCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  13. 13. A P I MPMS*8.1 95 0732290 0548989 O12 m SECTION 1 s T A N D A R D PRACTICE FOR MANUAL SAMPLING OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 7 mixing andtype of mixing apparatus differ depending upon 7.2SPECIALINSTRUCTIONSFORSPECIFIC the petroleum or petroleum product and the analytical test to MATERIALS be performed. Refer to API MPMS Chapter 8.3, ASTM 7.2.1 Crude Petroleum and Residual Fuel Oils D5854. When stratification is not major concern, adequate mix- a Crude petroleum and residual fuel oils usually are non- ing may be obtained by such methods as shaking (manual or homogeneous. mechanical). Tank samples of crude oil and residual oils may not be Manual and mechanical shaking of the sample container representative for the following reasons: are not recommended methods for mixing a sample for a. The concentration of entrained water is generally higher S&W analysis. Tests have shown it difficult to impart suf- is near the bottom. The running sample or the composite of the ficient mixing energy to mix and maintain a homogeneous upper, middle, and lower sample may not represent the con- representative sample. Refer to API MPMS Chapter 8.3, centration of entrained water. ASTM D5854. b. The interface between oil and free water is difficult to measure, especially in the presence of emulsion layers, or 6.5 OTHER EQUIPMENT sludge.I A graduated cylinder or other measuring device of suit- c. The determination of the volume offree water is difficult able capacityis often required for determining sample quan- because the free water level may varyacross the tank bottom tity in some of the sampling procedures and for compositing surface. The bottom is often covered by pools of free water samples. or water emulsion impounded by layers of sludge or wax. 6.6 SAMPLINGDEVICES Automatic sampling (API MPMS Chapter 8.2, ASTM D4177) is recommended wheneversamples of these materi- Sampling devicesare described in detail under each the of als are required for custody transfer measurements. How- specific sampling procedures. Sampling devices shall be ever, tanksamples may be used when agreed by all parties to clean, dry, andfree of all substances that mightcontaminate to the transaction. the material being sampled. 7.2.2 GasolineandDistillateProducts1 7 Special Instructions Gasoline and light distillate products are usually homo- geneous, but they are often shipped from tanks that have 7.1PERSONNEL SAFETY clearly separated water on the bottom. Tank sampling in ac- This standard does not purport to coverall safety aspects cordance with the procedures outlined in 8.3 is acceptable associated with sampling. However, it is presumed that the under the conditions covered in 5.2. personnel performing sampling operations are adequately trained with regardto the safe application of the procedures 7.2.3 IndustrialAromaticHydrocarbons contained herein for the specific sampling situation. A degree of caution is required during all sampling oper- For samples of industrial aromatic hydrocarbons (ben- ations, but in particular when sampling certain products. zene, toluene, xylene, and solvent naphthas), proceed in ac- Crude oil may contain varyingamounts of hydrogen sulfide cordance with Sections 5, 6 , 7.3, and 8.1 through 8.3 with (sour crude), an extremely toxic gas. Appendix A provides particular emphasis on the procedures pertaining to precau- precautionary statements that are applicable to the sampling tions for care and cleanliness. See Appendix A. and handling of many these materials. of When takingsamples from tanks suspected of containing 7.2.4 Lacquer Solvents and Diluents flammable atmospheres, precautions should be taken to When sampling bulk shipments of lacquer solvents and guard against ignitions from static electricity. Conductive ob- diluents that are to be tested using ASTM D268 observe the jects, such as gauge tapes, sample containers, and ther- precautions and instructionsdescribed in 7.2.4.1 and7.2.4.2. mometers, should not be lowered into or suspended in a compartment or tank that is being filled or immediatelyafter 7.2.4.1TanksandTankCars cessation of pumping. Conductive material such as gauge tapes should be grounded until immersed in the fluid. A Obtain upper and lower samples (see Figure 1) of not waiting period (normally 30 minutes or more after filling more than one liter (quart) each by the thief or bottle spot cessation) will generally be required to permit dissipation of sampling procedures outlinedin 8.3.2. In the laboratory, pre- the electrostatic charge. In order to reduce the potential for pare a composite sample for multiple tanksor cars of not less static charge, nylon or polyester rope, cords, or clothing than two liters (two quarts) by mixing equal parts of the up- should not beused. Refer to ASTM D4865. per and lower samples. COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services
  14. 14. A P I MPMS*8.L 95 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 4 8 9 9 0 831) 8 &SAMPLING CHAPTER 7.2.4.2Barrels,Drums,andCans 7.3 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR SPECIFIC Obtain samples from the number of containers per ship- TESTS ment as mutually agreed. In the case of expensive solvents, 7.3.1 General which are purchased in small quantities, it is recommended Special sampling precautions and instructions are re- that each container be sampled. Withdrawportion from the a quired for some ASTM test methods and specifications. center of each container to be sampled using the tube sam- Such instructions supplement the general proceduresof this pling procedure (see 8.6) or bottle sampling procedure(see standard and supersede them if there is a conflict. 8.3.2.3, a smaller bottle may be used). Prepare a composite sample of at leastone liter (1 quart) by mixing equal portions 7.3.2Distillation of PetroleumProducts of not less than 500 milliliters (1 pint) from each container When obtaining samplesof volatile liquids that are to be sampled of the same batch and container size. tested using ASTM D86,the bottle sampling procedurede- 7.2.5 Asphaltic Materials scribed in 8.3.2.3 is the preferred technique, with the excep- tion that precooled bottles and laboratory cornpositing is When sampling asphaltic materials that are to be tested required. Before obtainingthe sample, precoolthe bottle by using ASTMDl856 or ASTM D2172 obtainsamples by the immersing it in product, allowingit to fill, and discarding the boring procedure in 8.7 or the grab procedure 8.8. A sam- in the first filling. If the bottle procedure cannot be used, ob- ple of sufficient size to yield at least 100 grams pound) of tain the sample by the tap procedure describedin 8.3.4. Do recovered bitumen isrequired. About 1 kilogram (2 pounds) not agitate the bottle while drawing the sample. After ob- of sheet asphalt mixtures usually will be sufficient. If the taining the tap sample, close the bottle immediately with a largest lumps in the sample are 2.5 centimeters (1 inch), tight-fitting stopper and store it in an ice bath or refrigerator 1.8 kilograms (4 pounds) will usually be required, and still at a temperatureof O to 4.5" C (32 to 40" F). larger samples if the mixtures containlarger aggregates. 7.3.3 Vapor Pressure 7.2.6 Emulsified Asphalts When sampling petroleum and petroleum products that It is frequently necessary to test samples in accordance are to be tested for vapor pressure, refer to API MPMS with the requirements ASTM D977 and ASTh4 D244. Ob- of Chapter 8.4, ASTM D5842. tain samples from tanks, tank cars, tank bucks by the bot- and tle sampling procedure outlined in 8.3.2.3 using a bottle which 7.3.4 Oxidation Stability has a 4centimeter (1 inches) diameteror larger mouth. Use When sampling productsthat are to be tested for oxida- the dipper procedure in 8.5 to obtain samples for fill or dis- tion stability in accordance with ASTMD525 ASTM D873, charge lines. Sample packages in accordance with Table 3. If or equivalent methods, observethe precautions and instruc- the material is solid or semisolid, use the boring sampling pro- tions described in 7.3.4.1. cedure described in 8.7. Obtain at least four liters (1 gallon) or 4.5 kilograms(10 pounds) from each lot shipment. Store or 7.3.4.1 Precautions the samples in clean, airtight containers at a temperatureof Very small amounts (as low as 0.001 percent) of some not less than 4" C (40" F) until the test. Use a glass or black materials, such as inhibitors, have a considerable effect on iron container for emulsified asphalts the RS-1 type. of oxidation stability tests. Avoid contamination and exposure To to light while taking and handling samples. prevent un- due agitation with air, which promotes oxidation, do not Table 3"inimum Number of Packages to Be pour, shake, or stir samples toany greater extent than neces- Selected for Sampling sary. Neverexpose them to temperatures above those neces- Packages to Packages to sitated by atmospheric conditions. Packages Packages in Lot Be Samoled in Lot Be Sampled 7.3.4.2 Sample Containers 1 to 3 all 1332 to 1728 12 Use only brown glass or wrapped clear glass bottles as 4t064 4 1729 to 2197 13 containers, since it is difficult to make certain that cans are 65 to 125 5 2198 to 2744 14 free of contaminants, suchas rust and soldering flux. Clean I26 to 216 6 2745 to 3315 15 the bottles by the procedure described in 6.3. Rinse thor- 217 to 343 7 3376 to 4096 16 oughly with distilled water, dry, and protect the bottles from 344 to 51 2 8 4097 to 4913 17 dust and dirt. 513 to 729 9 4914 to 5832 18 730 to 1000 10 5833 to 6859 19 7.3.4.3 Sampling 1001 to 1331 11 6860 and greater 20 A running sample obtainedby the procedure in 8.3.3 isCOPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  15. 15. A P I MPMS*8.L 95 I0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0548991 7 7 0 m SECTION 1“STANDARD PRACTICE FOR MANUAL SAMPLING OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 9 recommended because the sample is taken directly in the 7.4.2 Crude Oil Gathered by Truck bottle. This reduces the possibility of air absorption, loss of Refer to API MPMS Chapter 18.1 for additional sampling vapors, and contamination. Just before sampling, rinse the requirements when gathering crude oil by tank truck. bottle with the product to be sampled. 7.4.3TankCars 7.4 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS Sample the material after the car has been loaded or just before unloading. 7.4.1 Marine Cargoes 7.4.4 Package Lots (Cans, Drums, Barrels, or Samples of ship or barge cargoes of crude petroleum may Boxes) be taken by mutual agreement by the following methods: Take samples from a sufficient number of the individual a. From the shore tanks before loading and both before and packages to prepare a composite sample that will be repre- after discharging as in 8.3. sentative of the entire lot or shipment. Alternately, samples b. From thepipeline during discharging or loading. Pipeline may be tested separately. Select at random the individual samples may be takeneither manually or with an automatic packages to be sampled. The number of random packages sampler. If the pipeline requires displacement or flushing, will depend upon several practical considerations, such as: care must be taken that the pipeline sample includes the en- (a) the tightness the product specifications;(b) the sources of tire cargo and none of the displacement. Separate samples and type of the material and whether or not more than one may be requiredto cover the effect of the line displacement production batch may be represented in load; and (c) pre- the on the prior or following transfer. vious experience with similar shipments, particularly with c. From the ship’s or barge’s tanks after loading or before respect to the uniformity of quality from package to pack- discharging. An all-levels sample, running sample, upper- age. In most cases, the number specified in Table 3 will be middle-lower sample, or spot samples at agreed levels may satisfactory. be used for sampling each cargo compartment of a ship or barge. Ship and bargesamples may be taken either through open 8 Sampling Procedures hatches or via vaporcontrol valves. Normally, when loading a marine vessel, the shore tank The standard sampling procedures described in this sample or the automatic pipeline sample taken from the method are summarized in Table 1. Alternative sampling loading line is used for the custody transfer sample. How- procedures may be used if a mutually satisfactory agree- ever, the marine vessel’s tank samples may also be tested ment has been reached by the parties involved. It isrecom- for S&W and for other quality aspects, when required. The mended that such agreements be put in writing and signed results of these marine vessel’s tank sample tests, together by authorized officials. with the shore tank sample tests, may be shown onthe cargo certificate. 8.1 PRECAUTIONS When discharging a marine vessel, usual practice to use is Extreme care and goodjudgment are necessary to ensure the vessel’s tank sample alone with deductions for free wa- that samples are obtained that represent the general charac- ter for the custody transfer or results of an automatic sam- teristics and average condition of the material. pler in the discharge line. Test results of all samples taken Since many petroleum vapors are toxic and flammable, may be shown on the cargo certificate. . avoid breathing them or igniting them from an open flame, Whether loading or discharging a marine vessel, when burning embers, or a spark produced by static electricity.All available, the pipeline sample taken by an automatic line safety precautions specific to the material being sampled sampler that is designed and operated in accordance with should be followed. API MPMS Chapter 8.2 should be used for the custody When sampling relatively volatile products of more than transfer sample. 13.8 kilopascals (2 pounds per square inch absolute) RVP Samples of marine vessel cargoes finished productsare of and transferring the sample to anintermediate container, the taken from both shipping and receiving tanks and from the intermediate container shall also be rinsed with the product pipeline, if required. In addition the product in each of the to be sampled and then drained. When the actual sample is marine vessel tanks should be sampled after the vessel is emptied into the intermediate container, the sampling appa- loaded or just before unloading: ratus should be upended into the opening of the intermedi- Refer to API MPMS Chapters 17.1 and 17.2 for addi- ate container and should remain in this position until the tional requirements associated with sampling materials in contents have beentransferred so that no unsaturated will air marine vessels. be entrained in the transfer of the sample.COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  16. 16. 10 &SAMPLING CHAPTER When sampling nonvolatileliquid products 13.8 kilopas- ers are subject to obliteration from moisture, oil smearing, cals (2 pounds per square inch absolute)RVP or less, the and handling. Include the following information on the la- sampling apparatusshall be filled and allowed to drain be- bel: fore drawing the actual sample. If the actual sample is to be a. Date and time (the period elapsed during continuoussam- transferred to another container, the sample container shall pling and the hour and minute of collection for dipper sam- be rinsed with some of the product to be sampled and ples). drained before it is filled with the actual sample. b. Name of the sample. The transfer of crude oil samples from the sample ap- c. Name and number and owner of the vessel, car, or con- paratus/receiver to the laboratory glassware in which they tainer. will be analyzed requires special care to maintain their rep- d. Grade of material. resentative nature. Mechanical mixing is recommended e. Reference symbolor identification number. prior to transfer of any sample with care given to avoid evaporation losses. The number of transfers should be min- 8.2.3 SampleShipment imized. To prevent loss of liquid and vaporsduring shipmentand 8.2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS to protect against moisture and dust, cover the stoppers of glass bottles with plastic caps that have been swelled in wa- 8.2.1 Sample Handling ter, wiped dry,placed over the tops of the stoppered bottles, 8.2.1.1 Volatile Samples and allowed to shrink tightly in place. Before filling metal Preferably the sampling apparatusand container should containers, inspect the lips and caps for dents, out-of-round- be one and the same. When it is necessary to use a separate ness, or other imperfections. Correct or discard the cap sampling apparatus and container, the sample should be and/or container. After filling, screw the cap tightly and transferred to the sample container immediately.Keep the check for leaks. Appropriate governmental carrier regu- and container closed except when the material is being trans- lations applying to the shipment of flammable liquids must ferred. After delivery to the laboratory, volatile samples be observed. should be cooled beforethe containers are opened. 8.3 TANKSAMPLING 8.2.1.2 Light-SensitiveSamples Samples should not be obtained from within unslotted stand pipesas the material is normally not representative of It is important that samples sensitive to light, such as the material in the tank.at that point. Stand pipe samples gasoline, be kept in the dark if the testing is to include the should only be taken from pipes with least two rows of at determination of such properties as color, octane, tetra- overlapping slots. See Figure2. ethyl lead and inhibitor contents, sludge forming charac- When sampling crudeoil tanks with diameters in excess teristics, stability tests, or neutralization value. Brown glass of 45 meters (150 feet), additional samples should be taken bottles may be used. Wrap or cover clear glass bottles im- from any other available gauging hatches located around the mediately. perimeter of the tank roof, safety requirements permitting. All the samples should be individually analyzed using the 8.2.1.3 Refined Materials same test method and the results should thenbe averaged Protect highly refined products from moisture and by dust arithmetically. placing paper, plastic, or metal foil over the stopper and the top of the container. 8.2.1.4Container Outage Never completelyfill a sample container. Allow adequate room for expansion, taking into consideration the tempera- ture of the liquidat the time of filling and the probable max- imum temperature to which the filled container may be subjected. Adequatesample mixing may be diffkult if there is not enough ullage remaining in the container. 8.2.2 Sample Labeling Label the container immediately after a sample is ob- tained. Use waterproof and oil proof ink or a pencil hard enough to dent the tag. Soft pencils and ordinary ink mark- Figure 2-Stand Pipe (with Overlapping Slots)COPYRIGHT American Petroleum InstituteLicensed by Information Handling Services
  17. 17. SECTION 1"STANDARD PRACTICE FOR MANUAL SAMPLING OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 11 8.3.1 CompositeSamplePreparation 2.0-2.5 centimeters (3/4-1 inch) of the bottom or at any other A composite spot sample is a blend of spot samples that specific location within the tank or vessel. The size of the are mixed ona volumetrically proportional basis.Some tests core thief should be selected depending upon the volume of may also be made on the spot samples before blending and the sample required. The thief should be capable of pene- the results averaged. Spot samples from crude oil tanks are trating the oil in the tank to the required level and mechani- collected in thefollowing ways: cally equipped to permit fillingany desired level. thief at The may include the following features: a. Three-way: On vertical tanks larger than 159 cubic me- ters (1000 barrels) capacity that contain in excess of 4.5 me- a. Uniform cross section and bottom closure. ters (15 feet) of oil, equal volume samples should be taken b. Extension rods for use in obtaining samples at levels cor- at the upper, middle, and lower or outlet connection of the responding with requirements for high connections or for merchantable oil, in the order named. This procedure may samples to determine high sediment and water levels. also be used ontanks up to and including a capacity of 159 c. Sediment and water gauge for determining the height of cubic meters (1,000 barrels). sediment and water in the thief. b. Two-way: On tanks larger than 159 cubic meters d. A clear cylinder that facilitates observing the gravity and (1,000 barrels) capacity that contain in excess of 3 meters temperature of the oil during a gravity test; it also should be (10 feet) and up to 4.5 meters (15 feet) of oil, equal volume equipped with a windshield. samples should be taken at the upperlower oroutlet con- and e. A ready means to open the valve or side closure. nection of the merchantable oil, in the order named. This f. A cord or tape markedso that samples can be taken any at procedure may also be used on tanks up to and including a depth in the vertical cross section of the tank. capacity of 159 cubic meters (1,000 barrels). g. A hook to hang the thief in the hatch vertically. h. Sample cocks for obtaining samples for determination of 8.3.2Spot SamplingMethods sediment and water spaced at 10-centimeter (4-inch) and the 20-centimeter (8-inch) marker levels. 8.3.2.1 BasicSpotSamplingRequirements I The spot sampling requirements are shown in Table 4. Also see Figure l. 8.3.2.2 CoreThief SamplingProcedure 8.3.2.2.1 Application The core thief sampling procedure may be usedfor sam- :I pling liquids of 101.32 kilopascals (14.7 pounds per square inch absolute) RVP or less in storage tanks, tank cars, tank trucks, or ship and barge tanks. 8.3.2.2.2 Apparatus A typical core-type thief is shown in Figure 3. The thief shall be designed so that a sample can be obtained within Table 4-Spot Sampling Requirements CapacitylLiquid Tank Required Samples Level Lower Middle Upper Tank Capacity Less Than or Equal to 159 m3 (1,000 bbls.) X Tank Capacity Greater Than 159 m3 ( , O bbls.) 1O O Level 5 3 m (10 f) i X 3 m (10 ft) < Level 5 4.5 m (15 f) t X XI Level > 4.5 m (15 f) t X X X 4 Note: When spot samples are required at more than one location in the I II Il- I tank, the samples shall be obtained beginning with the upper sample and progressing sequentially to the lower sample. Figure 3-Typical Core-Type Sampling Thief COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services

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