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Dealing With Requests For Hastened Death (Handout)

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This is the handout for a 60 minute workshop with roleplay for the KUMC Palliative Medicine Fellowship lecture series. There is no accompanying slideset as this was a small group workshop. …

This is the handout for a 60 minute workshop with roleplay for the KUMC Palliative Medicine Fellowship lecture series. There is no accompanying slideset as this was a small group workshop.

Please contact with questions and see this disclaimer. This is not medical advice.

Published in: Health & Medicine

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  • Thanks for the feedback Susan. Funny thing, I just taught at UMKC tonight on prognosis to the 4th year med students. It is really nice to hear that people are making good use of these handouts. I post them here to share information so we can all be a little better informed.
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  • I am a Clinical Medical Librarian at UMKC who goes on daily rounds with docent teams. The question of hastening death came up this week, and your presentation will help me gather insights that I can take to help my team. Good job on all your work. Incidentally, my friend Jim is going to start doing hospice visits at Good Shepherd with his therapy cat, Sammy. Thanks again for your excellent work. Susan Sanders
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  • 1. Dealing with Requests For Hastened Death
    Handout
    Presented August 20, 2009
    Audience: University of Kansas Medical Center Palliative Medicine Fellowship Program
    Location: Kansas City Hospice House
    Presenter: Christian Sinclair, MD – csinclair@kchospice.org
    DISCLAIMER: These handouts are for educational purposes associated with the program above and are not considered to be medical advice or constitute a doctor-patient relationship. The information contained within is supplemental to a live presentation.
    COPYRIGHT: There is text which is being used under fair use for educational purposes and not for commercial value. They are referenced accordingly and should not be further distributed without proper attribution..
    INFORMATION BEGINS ON SECOND PAGEDealing With Requests For Hastened Death
    Handout – Page 1/2
    Created by: Christian Sinclair, MD – csinclair@kchospice.org
    Objectives
    Gain a clear understanding of the various terms used when referring to hastened death
    Define the characteristics of patients requesting hastened death
    Comprise a professional strategy in responding to requests for hastened death
    Definitions:
    Medically Hastened Death
    Physician Assisted Suicide/Death
    A consenting patient self-administering a lethal dose of medication prescribed by a physician with the intent of hastening death via the medication.
    Euthanasia
    A medical professional (doctor or nurse) administering a lethal dose of medication to a consenting patient with the intent of hastening death via the medication.
    Legality in the United States
    PAS/PAD
    Illegal in all US States and Territories except:
    Legal by voter initiative in Oregon since 1994, enacted in 1996
    Legal by voter initiative in Washington since 2008, enacted in 2009
    Legal by court ruling in Montana since 2008
    Euthanasia
    Illegal in all US States and Territories
    Demographics and Stats1
    401 deaths since 1998 (OR)
    0.1% of OR deaths
    47% female
    46% Married
    67% Some college or higher
    Age Median 70
    Age Range (25-96)
    83% cancer
    87% hospice
    Losing Autonomy 90%
    Poor Pain Control 24%
    Strategy for Medical Staff in Dealing with Requests for Hastened Death2
    • Clarify the question – Ready to die vs future request vs. request for hastened death now
    • 2. Support the patient and yourself in finding a mutually acceptable solution
    • 3. Evaluate decision making capacity
    • 4. Explore the patient’s suffering
    • 5. Respond to patient’s and your own emotions
    • 6. Intensify treatment
    • 7. Respond clearly
    Dealing With Requests For Hastened Death
    Handout – Page 2/2
    What do Patients and Families Want?4
    • Openness to discussion about physician assisted suicide
    • 8. Expertise in dealing with the dying process
    • 9. Maintenance of a Therapeutic Patient-Clinician Relationship, Even When Patient and Clinician Disagree About PAS
    Role Play:
    Review your role, spend 5 minutes roleplaying a request for hastened death. Then go over the review questions. You may make up any supporting evidence or details you wish.
    Situation: Home visit between a patient and palliative care medical staff who have known each other clinically for 2 months over a handful of visits. Both patient and medical staff feel very comfortable with each other given a trusting relationship so far.
    Patient: You are a 54 year old patient dying with leukemia. You don’t know how much time you have left which makes you nervous. You career and habits lead you to want to have control over as much as possible and dying seems like you have lost all control. You have two children, one of who just finished high school and the other who just had your first grandchild. You feel you have accomplished as much as you can or want or don’t see the point of just watching your body wilt away to nothing.
    Medical Staff: You know the patient had depression in the past before the leukemia and was treated successfully. You have seen this patient a few times on home visits.
    Reviewing roleplay:
    How did it feel to ask for hastened death?
    Were you able to speak as clearly as you wanted to?
    What would you have liked to say differently?
    How many of the strategies did your group cover in the time?
    References:
    • Oregon Department of Health Services 2008 Death With Dignity Annual Report Summary http://oregon.gov/DHS/ph/pas/docs/year11.pdf - Accessed August 19, 2009
    • 10. Quill T and Arnold R. Fast Facts and Concepts #156 Evaluating requests for hastened death. May 2006. End-of-Life / Palliative Education Resource Center www.eperc.mcw.edu
    • 11. Quill T and Arnold R. Fast Facts and Concepts #159 Responding to a request for hastened death. July 2006. End-of-Life / Palliative Education Resource Center www.eperc.mcw.edu
    • 12. Anthony L. Back; Helene Starks; Clarissa Hsu; Judith R. Gordon; Ashok Bharucha; Robert A. Pearlman. Clinician-Patient Interactions About Requests for Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Patient and Family View Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(11):1257-1265.
    FAST FACT AND CONCEPT #156:
    Evaluating Requests for Hastened Death
    Authors: Tim Quill, MD and Robert Arnold, MD
    A patient’s request to a health care professional to help hasten death is not uncommon. The motivation for this request is usually a combination of relentless physical symptoms, progressive debility, in combination with a loss of sense of self, loss of control, fear of the future, and fear of being a burden on others. Some physicians are frightened by these requests, feeling that they are being asked to cross unacceptable professional boundaries. Others may be tempted to quickly accede, imagining that they would want the same thing in the patient’s shoes. But requests for a hastened death may provide an entree into a patient’s experience of suffering, and may lead to opportunities for more effective treatment if fully evaluated. In general, the clinician should carefully clarify, explore, evaluate, intensify treatment, and support the patient to ensure a full understanding of the request and to ensure that all alternatives have been considered before responding. This Fast Fact provides guidance on how to evaluate and initially respond to a patient who raises the topic of a hastened death. A subsequent Fast Fact will explore how to respond when the request for a hastened death persists after a full evaluation and search for alternatives.
    Clarify which question is being asked before responding. Is the patient simply having thoughts about ending his life (very common), or is he exploring the possibility of a hastened death in the future if his condition deteriorates, or is he exploring your willingness to assist right now. (1;2)
    Support the patient, and reinforce your commitment to trying to find a mutually acceptable solution for the patient’s problem and to continue to work through the process. This does not mean violating fundamental values, but it does mean searching in earnest with the patient and family to find a way to approach the dilemma. (3) Attend to your own support by discussing the patient with trusted colleagues and/or with your multidisciplinary team.
    Evaluate the patient’s decision-making capacity. Is he seeing his medical condition clearly? Is the request proportionate to the level of unrelieved suffering? Are there dominating aspects of anhedonia, worthlessness and guilt, or is the capacity for pleasure and joy preserved in some small ways? Is this request consistent with the patient’s past values? Get help from an experienced psychiatrist or psychologist if you are unsure. (4)
    Explore the many potential dimensions that may contribute to the patient’s “unbearable” suffering to be sure you (and the patient) fully understand its underlying cause(s). Sometimes in may be an unrelenting physical symptom, other times feelings of depression, or a family or spiritual crisis, or perhaps a combination of many factors. (1;2)
    Respond to the associated emotions, which may be strong and conflicted. Try to empathically imagine what the patient is going through and asking for. Distinguish your own feelings and reactions from those of the patient.
    Intensify treatment of any potentially reversible elements of the patient’s suffering. Depending on the patient’s circumstances, offer to increase treatment of pain or other physical symptoms, consider biological or interpersonal treatment of depression; see if an appropriate and acceptable spiritual counselor is available. Be creative and brainstorm potential solutions with your multidisciplinary team. (1;2)
    Respond directly to the request for hastened death only after this multidimensional evaluation has been completed. If the patient has full decision-making capacity and all alternative approaches to the patient’s unbearable suffering have been fully considered, then re-explore exactly what is being requested, and look for mutually acceptable ways to potentially respond. (5) Note that many patients may be looking for the potential of an escape they will never use, but a smaller number will be looking for a way to hasten death in the present.
    References
    Quill TE. Doctor, I want to die. Will you help me? JAMA 1993; 270:870-873.
    Block SD, Billings JA. Patient requests to hasten death: Evaluation and management in terminal care. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154:2039-2047.
    Quill TE, Cassel CK. Nonabandonment: A central obligation for physicians. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122:368-374.
    Block SD. Assessing and managing depression in the terminally ill patient. ACP-ASIM End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132:209-218.
    Quill TE, Lo, Brock DW. Palliative options of last resort: A comparison of voluntarily stopping eating and drinking, terminal sedation, physician-assisted suicide, and voluntary active euthanasia. JAMA 1997; 278:1099-2104.
    Fast Fact and Concept #159:
    Responding to a Request for Hastening Death
    Authors: Timothy Quill, MD and Robert M Arnold, MD
    Requests for hastened death among terminally ill patients occur commonly. (See FF# 156). With good symptom management, psychological and spiritual support, most patients do not persist in this request. This Fast Fact focuses on possible ways of responding to patients who continue to want a hastened death despite every effort to find appropriate palliative care alternatives. This Fast Fact does not address such requests by surrogate decision makers of patients who have lost decision-making capacity.
    Reflect on your personal feelings about the request and discuss with other professionals. These cases are emotionally and ethically difficult. Brainstorm options with other members of the care team including physician colleagues, nurses, psychologists, chaplains and others. Allow trusted colleagues to support your emotional reactions.
    Seek out consultation/2nd Opinion. Make sure you understand the medical, legal and ethical issues involved in responding to a particular request for hastened death. Palliative care and/or ethics consultations are invaluable. Independent second opinions may be helpful in clarifying the prognosis and ensuring that all potentially effective therapeutic alternatives have been considered.
    Learn the possibilities. Possibilities are listed below from least to most ethically controversial, Considering these possibilities assumes that aggressive measures to control physical, psychological and spiritual suffering have been exhausted and/or rejected by the patient:
    Withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments. While most clinicians consider stopping invasive treatments under these circumstances (e.g. ventilators, ICD’s, feeding tubes), simpler therapies such as insulin, antibiotics, or steroids might also be voluntarily discontinued if they are prolonging life against the patient’s wishes. (Unlike the other possibilities, there is widespread legal and ethical consensus about the permissibility of this response based on the right to bodily integrity.)
    Voluntary withdrawal of oral intake. Patients may choose to stop eating and drinking to shorten the dying process. Completely stopping oral food and liquids will typically result in death within two weeks.
    Sedation for severe intractable physical symptoms. (see FF #106, 107) The intent of sedation is to relieve intolerable suffering by a reduction in patient consciousness. If artificial hydration and feeding are simultaneously stopped, death will come within 1-2 weeks.
    Assisted Suicide. Assisted suicide is defined as someone who provides the means for another person to end their life (e.g. prescribing an overdose amount of medication), but the patient is the one to decide if and when the medicine is actually used, and the patient is responsible for taking the medicine. Physician-assisted suicide is illegal in the United States except for the state of Oregon.
    Decision making process. Have a detailed conversation regarding the risk and benefits of the different possibilities that fit the patient’s clinical circumstances, and which the patient, family and you find ethically acceptable. Be as specific as possible, and document your thinking process clearly. Thus, if stopping eating and drinking is being considered, be sure everyone understands the importance of complete cessation of drinking or else the process can take months rather than weeks.
    Balance integrity and non-abandonment. It is not always possible to find common ground between the patient and physician. When asked if one can support a particular act, a physician needs to be as specific as possible about what he/she can and cannot do, and why. While the physician should not violate personal principles to respond to a request he/she finds unacceptable, he/she should search in earnest with the patient and family for alternative options that might be mutually acceptable. Typically, this approach will allow the physician to maintain integrity while not abandoning the patient, even if agreement on the particular act in question is not possible. (1-4)
    References
    Quill TE, Cassel CK. Nonabandonment: A central obligation for physicians. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122:368-374.
    Quill TE, Lo, Brock DW. Palliative options of last resort: A comparison of voluntarily stopping eating and drinking, terminal sedation, physician-assisted suicide, and voluntary active euthanasia. JAMA 1997; 278:1099-2104.
    Quill TE, Byock I. Responding to intractable terminal suffering: the role of terminal sedation and voluntary refusal of food and fluids. ACP-ASIM End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132:408-414.
    Quill TE, Coombs-Lee B, Nunn S. Palliative options of last resort: Finding the least harmful alternative. Ann Intern Med 2000