All Data & analysis courtesy of John Bryce of Harris & Associates
WELCOME
Katie Strain
TenCate Mirafi – Roadway Reinforcem...
Geosynthetics In Construction
3 | Road Show
Geosynthetic Functions
• Separation
• Filtration
• Drainage
• Confinement
• Reinforcement
4 | Road Show
Separation
Geotextile placed between
dissimilar materials so that the
integrity of both can remain
intact or...
5 | Road Show
Mirafi RS280i
6 | Road Show
7 | Road Show
Filtration / Drainage
8 | Road Show
Product Comparisons
RS580i RS380i HP570 HP270 600X
AOS 40 40 30 30 40
Flow Rate 75 75 30 50 4
Permittivity 1...
9 | Road Show
10 | Road Show
11 | Road Show
12 | Road Show
Confinement
Depends on the fill, but usually is a function of
interlock for geogrids and friction for geote...
13 | Road Show
Product Comparisons
RS580i RS380i HP570
Ci .90 .89 .85
14 | Road Show Mirafi RS580i
15 | Road Show
Reinforcement
Improvement of the system
strength created by the
introduction of a geosynthetic into
a soil/...
16 | Road Show
Product Comparisons
RS580i HP570 RS380i HP370
2% XD (#/ft) 1800 1320 1020 540
5% XD (#/ft) 4380 2700 2255 1...
17 | Road Show
18 | Road Show
19 | Road Show
Mirafi® RS580i, RS380i & RS280i
Integration of 5 Key Properties for Base Reinforcement
and Subgrade Stabili...
Geosynthetics Pavement Interlayers
Base Preservation – Crack Mitigation
All Data & analysis courtesy of John Bryce of Harris & Associates
 Deterioration Causes & Delay
 Interlayer Types & Func...
All Data & analysis courtesy of John Bryce of Harris & Associates
Distressed Pavements
Pavement Deterioration
Subbase/Native
Crack Growth 1“ / Yr Avg
HMA Layer
HMA Overlay
Thermal movement
Traffic Loading
Base
Moisture intrusion
Pav...
Forces Interlayers Address
Pavement Deterioration
Water intrusion
Reflective Crack Forces
Base
Traffic Loading
Thermal Mov...
Protect base from moisture saturation
Pavement Interlayer Functionality
Point Load Distribution
Interlayer Functions that ...
“One major factor that degrades a roadbed’s ability
to function is the infiltration of water into the base
material.”
Calt...
Drainage Quality Time Drainage Coefficient
Excellent 2 hours 1.2
Good 1 day 1.0
Fair 1 week 0.8
Poor 1 month 0.6
Very Poor...
Pavement Interlayer Value
HOW?
...Extend Life:
 Preserve base structural value
 Delay crack return & severity
 Add flex...
Pavement Interlayer Evolution
NEW?...Interlayer evolution to
higher levels of performance
to multifunctional, Moisture
ba...
How Interlayers Work
STRAIN
ABSORBING
STRESS DISSIPATING
Mass to soak up
(Sponge)
Tensile strength and efficiency to dispe...
RECYCLABLE
With Asphalt forms Moisture Barrier
Description
With Asphalt absorbs and/or disperses crack forces
Multi-Axial,...
Bi-Axial Multi-Axial
Crack Stress Relief and Delay
Monolithic
bond
Mills + Recycles
into new mix
Wide Vs
Narrow
Rolls
Unco...
GRID
Glass +
Moisture
Barrier
MAT
Glass+
Multi-
Axial
FABRIC
(PP)
Slight
Cracks
Moderate
Cracks
Severe
Cracks
…..increasin...
Original Pavement
Hot AC Tack Coat
(Approx .25 Gal/SY)
Provides Moisture Barrier
Interlayer Installation
Bitumen Saturatio...
The Asphalt Pavement Analyzer - Wheel Track
Figure 5: Asphalt Pavement Analyzer – Wheel Track
Interlayer Functionality Stu...
Grid
IEF # of cycles with interlayer/#of cycles
to 100% crack on the control
Cycles to 100% failure
Interlayer Effectivene...
Pavement Age (Time In Years)
Excellent
Good
Fair
Poor
Failed
Pavement
PavementCondition
Time For New Overlay
Possibly Recy...
HMA Cost: $75.00 Ton HMA Density 140 Lbs/Inch Tons 0.07 Inch/ SY $5.25 Cost
$SY
Inch Thickness: 2.0 $10.50 0 1 2 $5.25
AVG...
HMA Cost: $75.00 Ton HMA Density 140 Lbs/Inch Tons 0.07 Inch/ SY $5.25 Cost
$ / SY
Inch Thickness: 2.0 $10.50 0 1 0 2 0 $5...
Interlayer Performance Compromised
1. Incomplete Interlayer System:
Includes Interlayer WITH asphalt
2. Installation quali...
Extreme Pavement and Base Failures
Base Failures
Extreme fatigue cracking/unstable base
Slab Fracture/Uneven
Extreme Fatig...
NC Old Rt. 52
NC Rt. 52 April 19, 2005 (14 months)
Control
TruPave
Expansion crack “reflected” through…..after 14 mo.
Arkansas Route 67-Hope, AR
Original Pavement Concrete on 10’centers…widened to 12’-0”
Arkansas Route 67-Hope, AR
Arkansas Route 67-Hope, AR
Level-up w/ 100kN bi-axial grid
Arkansas Route 67-Hope, AR
Interlayer Use Summary
Extend pavement life
Maximize base performance
Delay crack return & severity
Reduce impact of a...
Mirafi® MTK Crack Solution
• Seals crack –Keeps water out
• Flexes to keep cracks sealed
• Delays reflective cracking
• Sl...
Mirafi® MTK Crack Solution
Thank You
QUESTIONS?
TenCate Mirafi
www.tencate.com
Katie Strain
Roadway Engineer
Cell: (512) 534-9028
k.strain@tencate.co...
Narrow Pavement Widening - Enhancing Performance with Interlayers
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Narrow Pavement Widening - Enhancing Performance with Interlayers

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This presentation discusses pavement construction issues, and the use of interlayers in pavement widening. Prepared by Katie Strain and Michael Samueloff of TENCATE. Please remember to cite this research if the information you find here is used.

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  • Southwest WashingtonOne of first installations of our RS280i product just introduced. Same characteristics as 380i & 580i, just not as strong so it costs less
  • See where the geosynthetic is and then where the mud is pushing up where it’s not
  • Gals/min/ft2of material
  • Technology came from the pool covers we manufacture. Allows water thru but not sunlight.Double-weave
  • RS580i vs 600x
  • Coefficient of interaction1.0 – rock on rock0.0 – glass on glass
  • Legion Trail Park just outside of St. Louis, MO – geogrid was originally specified by the geotechContractor wanted to use SHOT rock – geosynthetic spec was changed to RS580i
  • High strength at low strain – we don’t want it to stretch hardly at allFor comparison BX1200 - 600 lb/ft.
  • Results of an independent lab testing down in AtlantaRS580i outperforms all of our best productsProof is in the pudding
  • Now we’ve covered the key functions of geosynthetics performing in a roadway
  • The Asphalt Pavement Analyzer is an established wheel tracking device that is configured to run both the Georgia Loaded Wheel and Wheel Track test methods. The primary difference in these methods is how the load is applied to the sample. The Georgia Loaded Wheel applies a load to a rubber hose that is resting on the sample. The Wheel Track applies the load using a steel wheel and is shown in Figure 5. The Wheel Trackapproach was selected for the APA-RCR.Several refinements were made to this method to produce a microstrain in the range of 600 to 800 and initiate crack propagation in less than 10,000 cycles (>3.5 hours). The stress was increased from 100 psi to 120 psi and beam dimensions were reduce to 3 inches in width by 2.5 inches in depth.
  • The orange bar graph is simple cycles to failure.The blue bar graph is showing that if a pavement with no interlayer cracks through at 1.0 then withMPV500 it will take 1.6 times longer for crack returnTruPave will take 2.75 times longerGrid will take 5.5 times longerIn other words, Theoretically, In these ideal lab conditions, if the un-reinforced asphalt pavement cracked at 1" per year then a 2" un-reinforced pavement will have cracks back in 2 yearsIn that same ideal lab situation if you use the following interlayer, cracks will be delayed for:MPV500 at 1.6 times or not back for 3.2 years or a 60% improvementTruPave at 2.75 times or cracks not back for 5.5 Years or a 175% improvementGrids at 5.5 Times or cracks not back for 11 Years or a 450% improvementTake away is only to clearly demonstrate the difference in performance capability with these three interlayer types.These test results are done in a controlled environment and isolate differences that help quantify the differential performance in this particular test of these three interlayers compared to a control.Which means we can say that if everything else is equal, this is a good measure of the differential in performance between these products that can be used to justify the value differential between each of them.Now of course, in the real world we do not have ideal nor controlled conditions--we have many variables! If we can determine the exact distress condition and know it was exactly like the last project with exact same traffic loads, exact same weather and environmental conditions with the exact same base conditions we could all be very confident in predicting the results possible in the real world--Of course this is not likely and makes our job much more difficult--but not impossible!When we relate this back to our specific experience with our past installs I think we all agree, we have had some significant improvement in performance that agencies have been very happy with and which indicate that in some applications the interlayer performed even better than the above test results would indicate.Eg. Santa Cruz where TruPave was installed over PCC with an overlay and at 8 Years still has no cracks. If in the un-reinforced 2" overlay, the cracks returned in 2 years then TruPave provided a 4 times or a 400% improvement already and still not cracks???
  • Narrow Pavement Widening - Enhancing Performance with Interlayers

    1. 1. All Data & analysis courtesy of John Bryce of Harris & Associates WELCOME Katie Strain TenCate Mirafi – Roadway Reinforcement Enhancing the Performance and Design Life of Roadways Michael Samueloff TenCate Mirafi - Pavement Solutions Narrow Pavement Widening Using Interlayers
    2. 2. Geosynthetics In Construction
    3. 3. 3 | Road Show Geosynthetic Functions • Separation • Filtration • Drainage • Confinement • Reinforcement
    4. 4. 4 | Road Show Separation Geotextile placed between dissimilar materials so that the integrity of both can remain intact or be improved.
    5. 5. 5 | Road Show Mirafi RS280i
    6. 6. 6 | Road Show
    7. 7. 7 | Road Show Filtration / Drainage
    8. 8. 8 | Road Show Product Comparisons RS580i RS380i HP570 HP270 600X AOS 40 40 30 30 40 Flow Rate 75 75 30 50 4 Permittivity 1.0 0.9 0.4 0.7 .05
    9. 9. 9 | Road Show
    10. 10. 10 | Road Show
    11. 11. 11 | Road Show
    12. 12. 12 | Road Show Confinement Depends on the fill, but usually is a function of interlock for geogrids and friction for geotextiles
    13. 13. 13 | Road Show Product Comparisons RS580i RS380i HP570 Ci .90 .89 .85
    14. 14. 14 | Road Show Mirafi RS580i
    15. 15. 15 | Road Show Reinforcement Improvement of the system strength created by the introduction of a geosynthetic into a soil/aggregate system
    16. 16. 16 | Road Show Product Comparisons RS580i HP570 RS380i HP370 2% XD (#/ft) 1800 1320 1020 540 5% XD (#/ft) 4380 2700 2255 1560
    17. 17. 17 | Road Show
    18. 18. 18 | Road Show
    19. 19. 19 | Road Show Mirafi® RS580i, RS380i & RS280i Integration of 5 Key Properties for Base Reinforcement and Subgrade Stabilization - High Modulus especially in CMD - High Water Flow/Permittivity - Separation (US sieve #40) - High Interaction Coefficient (Confinement) - Product Identification
    20. 20. Geosynthetics Pavement Interlayers Base Preservation – Crack Mitigation
    21. 21. All Data & analysis courtesy of John Bryce of Harris & Associates  Deterioration Causes & Delay  Interlayer Types & Functionality  Cost/Benefit Geosynthetic Pavement Interlayers
    22. 22. All Data & analysis courtesy of John Bryce of Harris & Associates Distressed Pavements Pavement Deterioration
    23. 23. Subbase/Native Crack Growth 1“ / Yr Avg HMA Layer HMA Overlay Thermal movement Traffic Loading Base Moisture intrusion Pavement Deterioration From day ONE these forces are at work Weather / Environmental Action Deficiencies in design, construction and maintenance Aging
    24. 24. Forces Interlayers Address Pavement Deterioration Water intrusion Reflective Crack Forces Base Traffic Loading Thermal Movement PAVEMENT SECTION
    25. 25. Protect base from moisture saturation Pavement Interlayer Functionality Point Load Distribution Interlayer Functions that Delay Deterioration Mitigate Impact of Top HMA Layers Base Stress Absorbing/Dispersing Paving Interlayer Bottom HMA Layers Mitigates Weather / Environmental Effects Stops water intrusion Thermal MovementReturn and Severity Delay Crack
    26. 26. “One major factor that degrades a roadbed’s ability to function is the infiltration of water into the base material.” Caltrans Pavement Evaluation Manual Pavement Condition Survey John Poppe FHWA - Moisture intrudes through pavement: Asphalt up to 50% Concrete up to 67% Deteriorating Impact of Moisture Intrusion
    27. 27. Drainage Quality Time Drainage Coefficient Excellent 2 hours 1.2 Good 1 day 1.0 Fair 1 week 0.8 Poor 1 month 0.6 Very Poor Doesn’t drain 0.4 Deteriorating Impact of Moisture in Base
    28. 28. Pavement Interlayer Value HOW? ...Extend Life:  Preserve base structural value  Delay crack return & severity  Add flexural strength to HMA …Greater Value:  Reduce impact of asphalt cost i.e In Dec. 07, $175/ton, today…$650+  Greater benefit at less cost
    29. 29. Pavement Interlayer Evolution NEW?...Interlayer evolution to higher levels of performance to multifunctional, Moisture barrier Plus reinforcement to multi-axial reinforcement to focus on in-place functionality
    30. 30. How Interlayers Work STRAIN ABSORBING STRESS DISSIPATING Mass to soak up (Sponge) Tensile strength and efficiency to disperse low strain crack energy (Rebar) Multi-Axial strong all directions Tighter bond, thicker/more mass = greater ability to absorb = better reflective crack retardation Tighter bond, higher, more efficient tensile strength, more homogeneous the structure = greater ability to dissipate crack energy = better reflective crack retardation FABRICS MAT Multi-Axial GRIDS Continuous Strand Fiberglass Bi-Axial I Multi-Axial Interlayers Types Pavement Interlayer Functionality
    31. 31. RECYCLABLE With Asphalt forms Moisture Barrier Description With Asphalt absorbs and/or disperses crack forces Multi-Axial, multi-directional reinforcing Bi-Axial, 2 way reinforcing, weak at bias angle With Asphalt tack forms a strong bond between layers Mills completely and can be added back into new mix Function Pavement Interlayer Functionality
    32. 32. Bi-Axial Multi-Axial Crack Stress Relief and Delay Monolithic bond Mills + Recycles into new mix Wide Vs Narrow Rolls Uncoated, Flexible Rolls TenCate Products Interlayer Functionality Summary Stress Absorbing Tensile to Reinforce Stress Absorbing Geosynthetic Interlayer Polypropylene Fabric FUNCTIONALITY Constructibility Ease of Installation Description Moisture Barrier Membrane MPV Fabric YES YES NO NO YES Can Be YES YESPolypropylene Fabric Fiberglass Tensile Reinforcing Geosynthetic Interlayers Tru Pave Mat Multi-Axial Mat YES YES YES Up to 80N YES YES YES YES PGM G4 Multi-Axial Composite YES YES YES Up to 100kN YES YES YES YES PGM G2 Composite YES YES Up to 100kN NO YES Can Be YES YES FG¹ PreCoated Self Stick/Scrim NO NO Up to 100kN NO NO YES NO NO FGC² PreCoated Composite YES YES Up to 100kN NO YES Can Be NO NO ¹Replaced by G4, ²Replaced by G2 Fiberglass Tensile Reinforcing Geosynthetic Interlayers Multi-Axial Grids Bi-Axial
    33. 33. GRID Glass + Moisture Barrier MAT Glass+ Multi- Axial FABRIC (PP) Slight Cracks Moderate Cracks Severe Cracks …..increasing ADT & ESALS Traffic Loads Interlayer Selection by Functionality Over Stable Base
    34. 34. Original Pavement Hot AC Tack Coat (Approx .25 Gal/SY) Provides Moisture Barrier Interlayer Installation Bitumen Saturation and Fabric • Delays Reflective Cracking • Reinforces Overlay • Waterproofing membrane NEW EXTENDED LIFE ASPHALT SURFACE Pavement Interlayer Installation
    35. 35. The Asphalt Pavement Analyzer - Wheel Track Figure 5: Asphalt Pavement Analyzer – Wheel Track Interlayer Functionality Study
    36. 36. Grid IEF # of cycles with interlayer/#of cycles to 100% crack on the control Cycles to 100% failure Interlayer Effectiveness and Total Life Averages Interlayer Functionality Capability MatFabricControl
    37. 37. Pavement Age (Time In Years) Excellent Good Fair Poor Failed Pavement PavementCondition Time For New Overlay Possibly Recycle Original Pavement HMA Overlay w/ Interlayers HMA Overlay Only Yr X Yr Y Selection by Type/Functional Impact No Interlayer REHAB – OVERLAY PAVEMENT Delay Deterioration - Extend Life (Yr Y – Yr X): Mat 2.75 times longer Interlayer Impact on Pavement Deterioration Curve Crack Delay using an interlayer
    38. 38. HMA Cost: $75.00 Ton HMA Density 140 Lbs/Inch Tons 0.07 Inch/ SY $5.25 Cost $SY Inch Thickness: 2.0 $10.50 0 1 2 $5.25 AVG Total $2.10 $12.60 20% 1.6 3.2 60% $3.94 $2.50 $13.00 24% 2.75 5.5 175% $2.36 $6.00 $16.50 57% 5.5 11 450% $1.50 © 2013 TenCate Geosynthetics Americas Crack Mitigation MPV500 4.1 Oz PP Fabric TruPave Multi-Axial Fiberglass Mat PGM G4 Multi-Axial Fiberglass Grid % Added Perf. Hot Mix Asphalt Added Value of Crack Mitigation Interlayer Type Added value based on performance Vs cost Interlayer Cost/Benefit Calculation Cost of Hot Mix Asphalt IEF^* Yrs to Crack Return^ SY Cost Per Year % Added Cost
    39. 39. HMA Cost: $75.00 Ton HMA Density 140 Lbs/Inch Tons 0.07 Inch/ SY $5.25 Cost $ / SY Inch Thickness: 2.0 $10.50 0 1 0 2 0 $5.25 AVG Total $2.10 $12.60 20% 1.6 2.4 4.8 140% $2.63 $2.50 $13.00 24% 2.8 4.1 8.25 313% $1.58 $6.00 $16.50 57% 5.5 8.3 16.5 725% $1.00 50% Added life of keeping base structure dry and protection load bearing capacity 150% © 2013 TenCate Geosynthetics Americas TruPave Multi-Axial Fiberglass Mat PGM G4 Multi-Axial Fiberglass Grid Pavement interlayers that provide crack delay AND added preservation of base structure by creating a moisture barrier to prevent base saturation can add over 50% life over one with base saturation as little as 10% of the time, per theCedergren study. There is also less maintenance cost for crack filling and less road closure. 50% Added Life Crack Mitigation PLUS Base Saturation Protection Added value based on performance Vs cost Hot Mix Asphalt Added Value of Crack Mitigation PLUS Base Protection Interlayer Type MPV500 4.1 Oz PP Fabric Interlayer Cost/Benefit Calculation Cost of Hot Mix Asphalt % Added Cost IEF^* Yrs to Crack Return^ % Added Perf. SY Cost Per Year
    40. 40. Interlayer Performance Compromised 1. Incomplete Interlayer System: Includes Interlayer WITH asphalt 2. Installation quality a. Asphalt tack b. Overlay too thin c. Lack of base prep d. Uncut wrinkles 3. Site selected exceeds functionality a. Unstable base b. Unstable underlying surface c. Wide cracks with excessive thermal movement Expectation Not Met
    41. 41. Extreme Pavement and Base Failures Base Failures Extreme fatigue cracking/unstable base Slab Fracture/Uneven Extreme Fatigue Cracking Caution! Not all conditions interlayer appropriate! Performance Compromised: Site Selection Mix Rutting
    42. 42. NC Old Rt. 52
    43. 43. NC Rt. 52 April 19, 2005 (14 months) Control TruPave Expansion crack “reflected” through…..after 14 mo.
    44. 44. Arkansas Route 67-Hope, AR Original Pavement Concrete on 10’centers…widened to 12’-0”
    45. 45. Arkansas Route 67-Hope, AR
    46. 46. Arkansas Route 67-Hope, AR Level-up w/ 100kN bi-axial grid
    47. 47. Arkansas Route 67-Hope, AR
    48. 48. Interlayer Use Summary Extend pavement life Maximize base performance Delay crack return & severity Reduce impact of asphalt cost Reduce maintenance & road closure CHEAPEST INSURANCE TO:
    49. 49. Mirafi® MTK Crack Solution • Seals crack –Keeps water out • Flexes to keep cracks sealed • Delays reflective cracking • Slows pavement deterioration • Fast, easy to install • Adheres to cleaned surface • Used in wide temperature range • Reduces traffic disruption . Mirafi® MTK Roll Dimensions .30 m x 15.2 m (12 in x 50 ft) .46 m x 15.2 m (18 in x 50 ft) .60 m x 15.2 m (24 in x 50 ft) .91 m x 15.2 m (36 in x 50 ft)
    50. 50. Mirafi® MTK Crack Solution
    51. 51. Thank You QUESTIONS? TenCate Mirafi www.tencate.com Katie Strain Roadway Engineer Cell: (512) 534-9028 k.strain@tencate.com Michael D. Samueloff Pavement Engineer Cell: (248) 302-8806 m.samueloff@tencate.com
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