Writing The Introduction, Body, And Conclusion


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Examples for opening and closing a research paper.

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  • Writing The Introduction, Body, And Conclusion

    1. 1. Writing the Introduction, Body, and Conclusion The Main Event
    2. 2. The Introduction <ul><li>If the research paper can be compared to a meal, than the introduction is the appetizer. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of the introduction is to entice your reader to further delve your paper. </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Introduction—Function <ul><li>The introduction should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the specific topic (general) and then define, limit, and narrow it down to one specific issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the relevant background information . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and explain the complications found within the topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the thesis statement to establish the direction of study and point the audience toward the conclusion. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. The Introduction—Form <ul><li>Well written paragraphs (up to a page or more) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a thesis </li></ul><ul><li>Attention grabbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate to the well known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide background information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review History and Background of a Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take Exception to Critical Views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge the Assumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply Data, Statistics, and Special Evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a Brief Summary </li></ul></ul>I wrote these examples during my Master’s program. Click here to go to Body paragraphs’ discussion.
    5. 5. Relate to the well known <ul><li>John Hughes’ movies in the 80s defined teen life. Both adults and adolescents identified with the characters in the movies Sixteen Candles, The Breakfast Club and Pretty in Pink. Typically called “teen angst” movies, these films dealt with the search for identity during the high school years. The characters wrestled with stereotypes, searched for identities and tried to find popularity. </li></ul><ul><li>In the closing scene of The Breakfast Club, Brian writes to the principal: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dear Mr. Vernon... We accept the fact that we had to sacrifice a whole </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saturday in detention for whatever it was that we did wrong, what we </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>did was wrong. But we think you're crazy to make us write this essay </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>telling you who we think we are, what do you care? You see us as you </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>want to see us... in the simplest terms and the most convenient </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definitions. You see us as a brain, an athlete, a basket case, a </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>princess, and a criminal. Correct? That's the way we saw each other at </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>seven o'clock this morning. We were brainwashed... (Hughes 1985) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Provide background information <ul><li>Over the recent years, much debate has centered on the privatization of government services. Many of the proponents argue that the private sector can deliver better services for less money. Opponents of privatization posit that the government can only run certain government functions—service and cost should not be issues. In efforts to appease the taxpayer (who usually think taxes are too high) and in efforts to stretch shrinking budgets, many state and local governments have explored the private sector as means to deliver government services. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Literature Review <ul><li>Essential to understanding the concept of a peer crowd is (1) its definition, and (2) its purpose. Peer crowds can be classified in two ways: either a clique (interaction-based) or a crowd (reputation-based). Cliques are defined by the “self” and crowds are defined by others. Bradford Brown (1990) posits that peer crowds “can also be a commentary on one’s status among peers or level of social skills” (177). Margaret Stone and B. Bradford Brown state that “one’s crowd affiliation reveals not only who one “hangs around” with, but also one’s reputation among peers” (158). All of us seem to instinctively know the jock, the loner, the nerd and so on; all of us know the reputation and status that is reflected by these labels. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Review History and Background of a Subject <ul><li>Teachers in America were predominately white, middle-class males until the middle 1800s. The Industrial Revolution, the opening of the western frontier and the Civil War combined to offer more opportunities for women in teaching positions as men were leaving education to pursue managerial roles in business, settling the frontier and fighting and dying in the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s roles in education increased so rapidly “that by 1940, only one in five teachers was male” (Kowalski 303). Although women were rapidly becoming the predominant force in the classroom, they were still bound by the social mores of the time. It was not uncommon to find contractual clauses that specified dating, marriage, religious and moral requirements. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Take Exception to Critical Views <ul><li>Truth be told, I do not think there is any such thing as teacher-proof curriculum. In its most absolute sense, it would have to exclude the teacher from the equation and perhaps the student as well. If one buys into the notion that each individual learns differently and has a different framework to which knowledge is attached, then it follows that no matter how lock step and prescriptive the curriculum, it will be experienced differently by each child. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Challenge the Assumption <ul><li>If one argues that teachers and administrators are professionally trained, educated individuals, then it follows that teachers and administrators have a level of expertise in educational matters that most parents and student do not have. Conversely, if one argues that students are the direct beneficiary of their education, then it follows that they should be allowed to choose that which they would benefit most from learning. Neither premise is entirely correct; the answer can and does lie in the middle. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Supply Data, Statistics, and Special Evidence <ul><li>Most of the current research on and position papers written about women in educational administration decry the fact that women hold 70-80% of the elementary teaching positions and over half of the secondary teaching positions (Riehl & Byrd 45) while maintaining “only a 13.2% share of superintendent positions” (Glass). Riehl and Byrd further break down administration demographics by stating, “In 1993, women held 34% of the school principalships and 41% of the assistant principalships in the nation’s schools (Montenegro 1993). [Overall,] 41% of elementary principals were women, as were 16% of secondary school principals” (“1997”46). </li></ul>
    12. 12. Provide a Brief Summary <ul><li>Gail Giles’ first novel is a tale of friendship, popularity, betrayal and murder. The reader follows a group of high school boys as they turn the class geek into the class favorite. Along the way, secrets about each of the boys are revealed. Group leader, Rob, is menacing in his need to control people and events around him. The rest of the group--Young, Bob and Coop--all find out that they are not the persons they believe themselves to be. </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Body of the Paper--Function <ul><li>This is your main course. You are the cook. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide rich, specific facts, quotes, and details. </li></ul><ul><li>The body of the paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classifies the major issues and analyzes them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asserts and supplies detailed evidence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a variety of rhetorical modes to support position. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The Body of the Paper--Form <ul><li>Paragraphs should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>be varied in length (four to twelve-fifteen sentences long) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use transitions (repetition of key words, transitional words) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain a solid, topic sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each paragraph should contain a writer’s rationale for including a quote or statistic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never end a paragraph with a quote/paraphrase/ summary. Always tell the reader why that particular piece of information was important (connect it back to the thesis). </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The Body of the Paper--Form <ul><li>Avoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“The purpose of this study is to….” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeating the title in the text (redundant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jargon or difficult questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Webster’s dictionary defines monogamy as “marriage….” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humor (unless that is the topic of the paper) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cute or decorative elements </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. The Body of the Paper--Form <ul><li>Remember your outline? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical progression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific, supporting evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mix the modes of development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use appropriately and effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include the research material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check out the 3 examples posted in Doc Sharing. Read one, they’re very good papers! </li></ul>
    17. 17. The Conclusion--Function <ul><li>Consider this the dessert and the after dinner conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Wraps up the paper—should be more than a simple summary. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t leave the guests hanging—let them know the party is over and it’s time to go home. </li></ul>
    18. 18. The Conclusion--Form <ul><li>The conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaffirms thesis statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaches a judgment about the merits of a subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discusses the implications of findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers plan of action or proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings closure (specifically by the effective final paragraph/sentence) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. The Conclusion--Form <ul><li>Avoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Oh, and by the way…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I forgot to mention this earlier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Here’s a whole new thought </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using “thus”, “in conclusion”, and “finally” at the beginning of the last paper (visually redundant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaving the reader hanging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions that raise new issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“The End” or decorative elements </li></ul></ul>These are the new thoughts that you didn’t incorporate into the body of the paper.
    20. 20. The Conclusion--Form <ul><li>Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reach beyond the thesis statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why you should believe me </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In a literary study-refocus on author </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close with an effective quotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Not with a bang and but a whimper.” (T.S. Elliot) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more;/Or close the wall up with our English dead.” (Shakespeare) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare the past to the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer a directive or solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss test results </li></ul></ul></ul>Click here to end lecture
    21. 21. Reach Beyond the Thesis/Implication <ul><li>In closing, many studies have focused on women and their representation and perceptions of leadership. New research should focus upon directly comparing successful administrators of both genders. It should be quantifiable and specific. The literature is in agreement as to the numbers, the reasons for lacking representation and ways to improve it, but it is now time to move forward and change the ratios, if women so desire. With the forecasted lack of qualified applicants for administrative positions, more women and minorities, just by virtue of applying, should make it into the field. In the end, this writer is still torn as to the exact reasons for under-representation of women in educational administration. Is it a question of society, gender, or ability? </li></ul>
    22. 22. Offer a Directive or Solution <ul><li>To better advocate this knowledge, there needs to be consistent Public Service Announcements on the risks of infertility and pregnancy complications in women over 35. In addition, the desire for having children and the afore-mentioned risks and difficulties for mothers over 35 should also be discussed by every physician and patient under 35 when administering OB/GYN prescribed medication, practice or procedure. Therefore, being well informed and making childbirth decisions while choices are still available will be key in preventing heartache and disappointment in the future. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Close with an Effective Quote <ul><li>Once a perfectionist is able to set attainable goals he or she will finally feel good enough. The key to overcoming perfectionism is to be able to identify it and then work on restructuring the negative schemas of perfectionism. By setting realistic goals and focusing on the process of achievement, a perfectionist can focus on his or her own hard work and ability, rather than the areas they feel weak in. Once a perfectionist sheds his or her negative habits, he or she can work for excellence in a healthy manner. According to Hewitt, a psychologist specializing in perfectionism, “when you strive for excellence, there’s a tangible end point, and you can evaluate realistically whether you’ve attained it. We want to be pushing ourselves to do the best possible work we can [sic] and that’s a very positive thing” (Stone 41). </li></ul>
    24. 24. Compare Past to Future <ul><li>The Haight suffered a gradual decline and its vibrancy disappeared. According to Alcatraz.gov, most of the storefronts were boarded up by the end of the 1960s. Today, the area has returned to be a tourist destination of exclusive boutiques and high-end vintage shops. A Gap Store sits on that infamous corner of Haight-Ashbury. While little physically remains of that unforgettable Summer of Love, there is a hope that the simple, poignant message from the counterculture to honor peace, love, and happiness lives on. </li></ul>