Evolution of human settlements


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Evolution of human settlements

  1. 1. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Asst. Professor, School of Architecture SRM University Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  2. 2. five major phasesPrimitive non-organised human settlements (startedwith the evolution of man.)Primitive organised settlements ( the period ofvillages - eopolis - which lasted about 10,000 years.)Static urban settlements or cities (polis - which lastedabout 5,000-6,000 years.)Dynamic urban settlements (dynapolis - which lasted200 - 400 years.)The universal city (ecumenopolis - which is nowbeginning.) Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  3. 3. Primitive non-organised human settlementsThe communities take up a smaller areawhere they are agricultural, and a larger onewhere they are hunting and cattle-breedingcommunities.on a macro scale, they consists of a nucleuswhich is the built up part of the humansettlement, and several parts which lead outinto the open, thinning out until theydisappear Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  4. 4. There is no physical lines connecting this primitive settlement with others; there are no networks between settlements.Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  5. 5. Primitive organised settlementsera of organised agriculture, settlements alsobegan to show some characteristics oforganisationIn initial the human had one-room dwelling incircular form, to organise the relationship ofhis community with other communities heexpanded his dwelling by placing many roundforms side by side Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  6. 6. Due to the loss of space between them, they developed moreregular shapes with no space lost between them. The evolutionreached the stage at which a rectilinear pattern develops into aregular grid - iron one. Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  7. 7. Static urban settlementsAs settlements grew in size, man came to realise thatthe principle of the single-nucleus was not alwaysvalid in the internal organisation of the total shells ofthe community, at this single nodal point, which wasadequate for the village and for small cities, no longersufficed.The first thing to happen was the expansion of thenucleus in one or more directions; it was no longerlimited to the settlements center of gravity. Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  8. 8. Example: The small settlement of Priene, in ancientGreece, where the central nucleus expanded in twoways:first in a linear form along a main street whichcontained shops that would normally be clustered inthe central agorasecondly through the decentralisation of somefunctions, such as temples. Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  9. 9. Dynamic urban settlementIn the dynamic urban phase,settlements in space are characterisedby continuous growth.Hence, all their problems arecontinuously intensified and new onescontinuously created. Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  10. 10. Dynamic settlements, created as a result of anindustrial technological revolution, multiplying innumber and form, and now being created at an evenhigher rate.The evils described in them are the evils of yesterdaywhich are being multiplied today in a very dangerousmanner.This makes the dynamic settlement completelydifferent from any other category of settlements and areal threat to humanity itself. Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  11. 11. mans position is dangerousin the dynamic settlement Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  12. 12. Early DynapolisThis is the phase when small independenthuman settlements with independentadministrative units are beginning to growbeyond their initial boundaries.From the economic point of view thisdevelopment is related to industrialisation,and from the technological point of view tothe railroad era, which first made commutingfrom distance points possible. Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  13. 13. Metropolis I Dynametropolisfate of the historical metropolises hasbeen dynamic growth, a static phase,and then deathstatic phase for a metropolis is theprelude of its decline and deathdynamic metropolis, after losing itsmomentum for growth, becomesnegatively dynamic. Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  14. 14. Megalopolis I DynamegalopolisA megalopolis has the same externalcharacteristics as the metropolis, the onlydifference being that every phenomenonappears on a much larger scale.It is characteristic that all phenomenon of thedevelopment of human settlements up to themetropolis shown on a 100 sq.km. Scale, formegalopolis would be 1,000sq.km. Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan
  15. 15. EcumenopolisRegardless of whether dynamic settlementsare simple (Dynapolis), or composite(metropolises and megalopolises), they havebeen growing continuously during the lastcenturies and this is apparent everywhere atpresent i.e. the whole Earth will be coveredby one human settlement Evolution of Human Settlements by CT.Lakshmanan