Disaster Management GOI InitiativesCT.Lakshmanan B.Arch. M.C.P. SRM School of ArchitectureSRM University, Kattankulathur
Natural calamities, of one description or the other, affect nations all over the world. While not all natural calamities can be predicted and prevented, a state of preparedness and ability to respond quickly to a natural calamity can considerably mitigate loss of life and property and the human suffering and restore normalcy at the earliest. It is, therefore, of paramount importance that a plan of action for dealing with contingencies that arise in the wake of natural calamities is formulated and periodically updated.
Different natural calamities can be distinguished from each other in terms oftheir nature and extent of their impact.Calamities like earthquakes, hailstorms, avalanches, landslides, etc. occurquite suddenly but they are restricted in their impact in terms of time andspace.Similarly, though floods and cyclones occur with some element of .warningyet their occurrence is confined in duration.Drought, on the other hand, spans over a much longer time-frame and itsadverse impact on the economic activities and life of an area is of a morelasting nature.The measures required to meet the threats posed by different calamities,therefore, differ considerably in terms of disaster preparedness andamelioration of the economic and social life of the affected people.
Hazard Vulnerability in India 16%60% 12% 3% 8%
Lessons from Recent Disasters Lack of disaster preparedness at all levels. Lack of mitigation planning Lack of communication networking and dissemination of information among states Delayed response due to mismanagement of relief, resources, manpower and duty delegation Lack of Interface and Coordination with State, District Administration & Community HUGE LOSS OF LIFE & PROPERTY
Initiatives after UN International Decadefor Natural Disaster Reduction IDNDR…The Reports of the High Powered Committee (HPC) and NationalCommittee on Disaster Management (chaired by PM) identified wide-ranging issues and concerns and over last couple of years GOIadopted new approach:- Shift in focus from reactive response oriented action to proactive prevention, preparedness and mitigation oriented action. Investments in mitigation more cost effective than expenditure on relief and rehabilitation . Development cannot be sustainable unless disaster mitigation is built into development process.
Initiatives after IDNDR… Mitigation has to be multi disciplinary spanning across all sectors of development. Annual targets fixed for various components. A National Disaster Management Framework has also been drawn up. Primary objective is to mainstream disaster risk reduction into development process.Planning Commission accepted the need for a SafeNational DevelopmentA Chapter on Disaster Management incorporated inthe Tenth Plan document.
RESPONSIBILITIES Under the delegated responsibilities between the central and state governments, disaster management is the responsibilities of the state government which includes disaster preparedness, response and mitigation measures. Responsibilityof the central Government is confined to coordination at the national level, lay down policies and guidelines in consultation with the expert committee, finance commission and the state governments.
Nodal Ministry & Institutional Mechanism Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) declared Nodal Ministry for Disaster Management except drought vide Notification dated 27.2.2002 The Central Relief Commissioner (CRC) in MHA is the nodal officer to coordinate relief operation for natural disasters. Shift in focus from post disaster response and relief to pre-disaster aspects-preparedness, mitigation and human resource development National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) under Cabinet Secretary has Secretaries of all command Ministries as members of NCMC. Crisis Management Group (CMG) - CRC is the Chairman of CMG with nodal officers from concerned ministries as members.
Nodal & Support Ministries The Nodal Ministry is mainly responsible for taking all actions to deal with a particular crisis situations. Some situations may require action by more than one Ministry or Department. The Secretary of the Nodal Ministry coordinates activities of all support Ministries/Departments. Each Nodal Ministry has prepared detailed Contingency Plans for dealing with crisis situations falling in the areas of their responsibility. Copies of the Contingency Plans have been furnished by the Nodal Ministries to the CMG and the supporting Ministries and Departments. These Contingency Plans may be revised and updated from time to time.
Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management Floods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWC Cyclones : Indian Meteorological Department Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological Department Epidemics : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Chemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment and Forests Industrial Disasters : Ministry of Labour Rail Accidents : Ministry of Railways Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil Aviation Fire : Ministry of Home Affairs Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic Energy Mine Disasters : Department of Mines
National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) The National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) is the apex body of high level officials of the Government; of India for dealing with a major crisis which has serious.-or; national ramifications. The composition of the committee would be as under: 1. Cabinet Secretary Chairman 2. Secretary of Nodal Ministries Member 3. Secretaries of Support Ministries Member An officer of the Cabinet Secretariat has been nominated Convenor of the NCMC. In addition to these, the Secretary of the Nodal Ministry and/ or the Head of the Department directly responsible; for dealing with a particular situation of crisis, are, co-opted as member of the NCMC. When a situation is to be handled also by. NCMC it gives such directions to the Crisis Group of the nodal Ministry as deemed necessary. The Secretary of the Nodal Ministry is responsible for ensuring that all developments are brought to the notice of the NCMC promptly.
Crisis Management Group Each Nodal Ministry has established a Crisis Management Group (CMG) for `dealing with the crises which fall within the ambit of its responsibility’. The Crisis Management Group is mainly responsible for dealing with a crisis situation and for reporting all developments to the CMG seeking its directions and guidance as and when necessary
National Emergency Management Authority (NEMA) National Emergency Management Authority (NEMA) set up at the national level with appropriate systems and resource linkages. The National Emergency Management Authority is proposed as a combined Secretariat/Directorate structure – a structure which will be an integral part of the Government while, at the same time, retaining the flexibility of a filed organization. The Authority will be headed by an officer of the rank of Secretary/ Special Secretary to the Government in the Ministry of Home Affairs with representatives from the Ministries/Departments of Health, Water Resources, Environment & Forest, Agriculture, Railways, Atomic Energy, Defence, Chemicals, Science & Technology, Telecommunication, Urban Employment and Poverty alleviation, Rural Development and Indian Meteorological Department as Members. The authority would meet as often as required and review the Status of warning systems, mitigation measure and disaster preparedness. When a disaster strikes, the Authority will coordinate disaster management activities.
The Authority will be responsible for:- Providing necessary support and assistance to State Governments by way of resource data, macro-management of emergency response, specialized emergency response teams, sharing of disaster related data base etc. Coordinating/mandating Government’s policies for disaster reduction / mitigation Ensuring adequate preparedness at all levels Coordinating response to a disaster when it strikes Assisting the Provincial Government in coordinating post disaster relief and rehabilitation Coordinating resources of all National Government Department/agencies involved. Monitor and introduce a culture of building requisite features of disaster mitigation in all development plans and programmes. Any other issues of work, which may be entrusted to it by the Government.
States asked to convert Departments of Relief and Rehabilitation into Departments of Disaster Management with wider Terms of Reference to include mitigation and vulnerability reduction- 11 States change over taken place. Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Nagaland, Andaman & Nicobar Admn, Sikkim and Lakshadweep. States also asked to set up Disaster Management Authorities with the Chief Minister as the Head and Ministers of relevant Departments like Health, Agriculture, Water Resources, Home, Urban Development, PWD as Members. 10 States have notified Tamilnadu, Orissa, Gujarat Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Kerala, Nagaland, Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Chandigarh Admn. Constitution of District level Disaster Management Committees under District Magistrate (In 256 districts already constituted).
At the district level, the District Magistrate who is the chief coordinator will be the focal point for coordinating all activities relating to prevention, mitigation and preparedness apart from his existing responsibilities pertaining to response and relief. The District Coordination and Relief Committee is being reconstituted/ re- designated into Disaster Management Committees with officers from relevant departments being added as members. Because of its enhanced mandate of mitigation and prevention, the district heads of the departments engaged in development are now being included in the Committee so that mitigation and prevention is mainstreamed into the district plan. The existing system of drawing up preparedness and response plans will continue. There will, however, also be a long term mitigation plan. District Disaster Management Committees have already been constituted in 256 districts and are in the process of being constituted in the remaining districts.
At the village level Disaster Management Committees and Disaster Management Teams are being constituted. Each village in multi-hazard prone district will have a Disaster Management Plan. The Disaster Management Committee which draws up the plans consists of elected representatives at the village level, local authorities; Government functionaries including doctors/paramedics of primary health centres located in the village, primary school teachers etc. The plan encompasses prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures. The Disaster Management Teams at the village level will consist of members of youth organisations like Nehru Yuvak Kendra and other nongovernmental organisations as well as able bodied volunteers from the village. The teams are provided basic training in evacuation, evacuation, search and rescue, first aid trauma counseling etc. The Disaster Management Committee will review the disaster management plan at least once in a year. It would also generate awareness among the people in the village about dos’ and don’ts for specific hazards depending on the vulnerability of the village.
Policy National Disaster Management Policy drafted, Proposes to integrate disaster mitigation into developmental planning.Objectives To minimize loss of lives and social, private and community assets Contribute to sustainable development Better standard of living for all Protect interest of poor and vulnerable sections States also advised to clearly enunciate a Disaster Management Policy—Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat have notified, many in pipeline
Broad Features of Draft National Policy on DM A holistic and proactive approach Each Ministry /Deptt. set apart an appropriate fund under the plan for specific schemes /projects for vulnerability reduction and preparedness. Each project in hazards prone area will have mitigation as an essential Terms Of Reference. Community involvement & awareness generation. Close interaction between corporate sector, NGO, media and Govt. Standard Operating Procedures(SOP) and DM Plans at all level for handling specific disasters. Contd..
Broad Features of Draft National Policy on DM Institutional structures to be built up and development of inter state arrangements for sharing of resources during emergencies. Culture of Planning and preparedness for capacity building. Construction designs as per Bureau of standards codes. All life line buildings eg. hospitals,railway stations,airport control towers, etc to be disaster resistant or retrofitted. Revision of Relief Codes in the States and develop them into disaster management codes/manuals.
Legal Framework Inclusion of Disaster Management in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution States advised to adopt Disaster Management Acts.- Gujarat and Bihar have enacted the Act , many States in pipeline. States advised to change their Relief Codes into Disaster Management Codes by including aspects of prevention/reduction/mitigation - Guidelines prepared by NIDM.
Financing Terms of Reference of the Twelfth Finance Commission changed to mandate that the Finance Commission looks at the entire disaster management cycle and not only relief and rehabilitation. Memorandum drafted in consultation with States, sent to the Finance Commission and includes creation of Disaster Mitigation Fund
Thrust Areas Pre Disaster Preparedness Emergency Operation Centres• Multi-purpose Cyclone Shelters• Coastal Shelterbelt Plantation• National Disaster Information System• Early Warning System Contd………
• Mapping• Disaster Insurance• Capacity Building: Training & Research• Documentation & Data-base Management• Inventory & Equipment Management• Emergency Services• Minimum Standards of Relief for people
During Disaster Emergency search & rescue Disposal of dead bodies and Carcass Ex-gratia announcement Immediate relief Mobile Hospitals
Post-Disaster After Care Restoration of Basic Facilities Relief & Reconstruction Economic Rehabilitation Psycho-social Rehabilitation Community Mental Health Scientific Damage Assessment
Guidelines issued to all Ministries/ State Governments:- Wherever there is a shelf of projects, projects addressing mitigation will be given priority. At least one Search & Rescue Unit comprising one coy of Armed Police, one engineering unit and one medical unit. Ministry of Finance sanction -for procuring search & rescue equipment for these teams. All projects in vulnerable areas must have disaster mitigation as a Term of Reference States to set up District Control rooms under District Magistrates for both law and order/disaster management. 602 Emergency Operation Centres to be set up in 35 States and UT. 125 EOC to be set up under GoI / UNDP Project.
Response Systems A National Steering Committee under the Home Secretary to oversee the creation of capabilities for emergency response. National Emergency Response Force being constituted with state-of-the-art training and equipments. 8 bns being converted to specialist emergency teams. 3 training centres identified – NISA, Hyderabad, ITBP Training centre at Bhanu and CTC, Coimbatore. Training of Trainers completed at NISA, Hyderabad and ITBP Training Centre, Bhanu. Training of teams in progress. Well equipped Regional Response Centres being set up – 12 already identified.
National Project for strengthening of emergency and fire services. Projectfinalized to convert Fire Services into all hazard response units cost Rs.2457 crores). Equipping and training of fire services for carrying out search and rescue in all types of disasters. Filling up deficiencies in the availability of fire units as well as rescue equipments at sub-divisional and district level. Provision of Hazmat vans in selected metropolitan cities. Planning Commission has given in principle clearance—being posed to MOF
NBC Emergency Response NBC Emergencies – out of the 8 bns, 4 bns to be trained and equipped for responding to NBC emergencies. BARC designated as nodal agency for training of trainers in nuclear emergencies. 48 trainers trained there. TOTs for biological/chemical emergencies to be carried out at DRDE, Gwalior. NISA, Hyderabad and ITBP Training Centre at Bhanu also to have faculties for training NBC teams.
State level initiatives Creation of capabilities in States: States advised to set up specialist response teams. Action initiated by Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Delhi. Provision made in the CRF that 10% of the funds can be used for purchase of search and rescue equipments.
Incident Command System In order to professionalize the management of response, Incident Command System being introduced. LBSNAA identified as the Core Training Institution. Curriculum and training of trainers being undertaken in collaboration with United States Forest Service. 3 programmes conducted. 42 officers trained in Basic and Intermediate ICS course and 29 officers trained in Planning Section Module.
India Disaster Resource Network India Disaster Resource Network - Establishment of web-enabled, centralised database for quick access to resources to minimize response time in emergencies [for the disaster managers at district/State/National level]. The IDRN is a live system providing for updating of inventory every year. Entries into the inventory are made at two levels – district and State level.It has 226 items. IDRN inaugurated on 1st September 2003 69,329 records in 545 districts uploaded.
Communications National DM Communication Plan prepared for implementation. Dedicated Communication System for disaster management with builtin redundancies. Multi Channel Communication System. Links include DOT, POLNET, NICNET, ISDN and SPACENET. Satellite Communication based on mobile voice/data/video communication between national EOC/State EOC/ District EOC/Mobile EOC and Disaster/Emergency Site. Development of a GIS based National Database for Disaster Management.
National Emergency Operation Centre Control Room at MHA upgraded to National Emergency Operation Centre which is equipped with SATPHONES, GPS, GIS info system etc-Control room personnel trained in use of equipments States being assisted to set up Control Rooms at the State level GOI-UNDP project. 602 EOC in each district in the country being set up under GOI-UNDP project.
Earthquake Mitigation Initiatives An Earthquake Mitigation Project drawn up with estimated cost of Rs.1132 crores. In principle cleared by Planning Commission. National Core Group for Earthquake Mitigation formed with eminent national experts and resource institutions as Members to draw up a strategy for mitigation, development of handbooks etc and evolve systems for training of municipal engineers. Working with States in seismic zones III, IV and V for review of Building Bye-laws, Awareness generation and training of engineers and masons National Programme for Capacity Building in Earthquake Mitigation formulated for training of 10,000 engineers and architects. Curriculum for inclusion of earthquake engineering aspects drawn up in consultation with IIT, Kanpur AICTE advised to develop curriculum for inclusion of mitigation technologies in technical education Steps initiated for examination of the structural safety of life-line buildings and public utilities from the seismic point of view. Micro Zonation undertaken by Department of Science & Technology.
Earthquake Mitigation Project To cover 116 districts in seismic zones IV and V. Putting techno-legal regime in place. Capacity building/training of engineers/masons etc. Awareness through technology demonstration. Retrofitting of life line buildings and public utilities. Formulation of preparedness and response plans. PlanningCommission has agreed in principle and being submitted to MOF
Accelerated Urban Earthquake Safety 38 cities with a population of over half a million in seismic zones III, IV and V taken up for focussed attention as regards earthquake mitigation. Consultations with all stakeholders organized in 38 cities. Awareness generation programme initiated in all cities Information, education and communication materials developed in local languages Review of existing techno-legal regime and its compliance initiated Training of architects and engineers started in association with IITs. 1088 engineers and 825 architects trained so far.
Cyclone Monitoring & Mitigation Project To cover 13 cyclone prone States and UTs [cost Rs.1050 crores in collaboration with World Bank.] Strengthening of cyclone tracking and monitoring and early warning system. Storm surge modelling. Preparation of disaster management plans at different levels. Conservation and regeneration of mangrove forest & coastal shelter belt plantation. Construction of saline embankments and cyclone shelters. (Approved by Government)
Human Resource Development National Capacity Building Plan as a National Agenda Bring all national training institutions including corporate sector training facilities together in a network Mainstream disaster management training with all induction courses. Setting up of specialized training facilities National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) set up as a regional Centre of Excellence Disaster Management Cell in State Training Institutes being strengthened Disaster Management made an essential component of initial training for Government functionaries. Syllabi for IAS, IPS and Indian Forest Services finalized Training material sent to concerned Academies and Cadre controlling authorities Special orientation programmes for Central Services (IRTS, IDES, ICCES) Initial recruitment training for State Administrative Services in ATIs, SIRD, SLI, SIHFW etc) Induction training for district cadre staff, health workers, agriculture extension workers, revenue functionaries Training for Local Self-Govt representatives and staff
Initiatives by NIDM In keeping with NIDM’s envisaged role of a leading Centre of Excellence in disaster risk mitigation and management in India and the region. Visioning exercise in process. NIDM is presently providing guidelines for converting the States’ Relief Manuals/Codes into Disaster Management Manuals/Codes To make training need based, a nationwide TNA is being conducted. First draft of HR Plan prepared and submitted. NIDM is preparing training modules of various line Departments keeping their job responsibilities. 11 modules already prepared. NIDM has undertaken capacity building of State ATIs.
Capacity Building Initiative Youth Organizations and Student Bodies like NCC/NSS/ Scouts & Guides to be provided training in Emergency Response and Awareness Generation Media professionals to be sensitised and encouraged to integrate DM components in different programmes for public awareness. AICTE to include disaster mitigation technologies in engineering courses. IITs have taken up an orientation for lecturers/professors in engineering colleges in disaster mitigation technologies. Disaster Management introduced in CBSE School curriculum of classes 8th, 9th and 10th. States advised to include Disaster Management in school curriculum. MHA prepared set of resource materials developed by various organisations / institutions to be replicated and disseminated by State Governments based on their vulnerabilities.
Multi-hazard Preparedness and Response Planning- Community Approach All hazard-prone areas to have community-based disaster preparedness plans—Disaster Management Committees [DMCs], Disaster Management Teams [DMTs] and Volunteer Task Forces [VTFs] Roles and responsibilities to be defined in the DM Acts/Codes Regular training and drills organized through local-self Governments Preparation of inventory of local resources and their management
National Emergency Management Authority (NEMA) Major components include constitution of corpus fund for NEMA 8 Battalions to be fully trained and equipped, 4 each in natural and NBC disasters Air mobility by purchase of one large aircraft and 3 MI 17 helicopters Setting up of 3 mobile hospitals Strengthening of Civil Defence - to play a crucial role in disaster situations.
National Emergency Response Force 8 Battalions to form a National Emergency Response Force Civil Defence to be adequately strengthened DG(CD) to be re-designated as DG (NERF & CD) DG (NERF & CD) to be in-charge of NERF as well as Civil Defence
Opportunities for International Cooperation In developing framework for vulnerability reduction and natural disaster mitigation. Collaborative training and capacity building on disaster management Deployment of rapid response and assessment teams on request. Institutional capacity building for host country -education, academic and training institutions
Typical Services andInfrastructure Requirements for Refugee Camps