OUTLINE• ACTIVITIES• WRITING• LEARNING STYLES• EXAMPLE TASKS
ACTIVITY 1 ORGANIZING INFORMATION• Stand up, discuss and organize yourselves in three groups, according to the activity in your cards.• Explain the rationale for the organization.
ACTIVITY 2 GENERATING IDEAS• In pairs, take turns speaking non-stop for three minutes each.• Partner A: “What do you know about perceptual learning styles?”• Partner B: “How can teachers apply knowledge about different learning styles to their teaching?”
ACTIVITY 3 ORGANIZING INFORMATION• Fill in the mind map with information generated in the previous activities.• Share your mind map with a partner and complete the information about learning styles
WRITING ACTIVITY• Write an article for your school bulletin board about how important it is to cater to students’ different learning styles in class.
PRE-WRITING ACTIVITIES AND LEARNING STYLES• what is the connection?• pre-writing – why is it important?• the writing process• generating ideas and planning are the most neglected
LEARNING STYLES• “… an individual’s natural, habitual, and preferred ways of absorbing, processing, and retaining new information and skills.” (Kinsella, 1995, p. 171, in Christison, 2003)
LEARNING STYLES• “How a person is likely to perceive and process information and experiences.” (Mc Carthy, 1980)
LEARNING STYLES• “Cognitive, affective, and physiological traits that are relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment.” (Keefe, 1979, p. 4)
KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS• ESL / EFL teachers’ teaching styles often reflect their own learning style• As cited in Leopold, 2010
KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS• Higher student achievement relates to a match between student learning styles and teacher teaching styles• As cited in Leopold, 2010
KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS• Although culture is not the sole determinant, it is one of the principal factors influencing learning styles• As cited in Leopold, 2010
KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS• More than 90% of the traditional college classroom is auditory• As cited in Leopold, 2010
KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS• Most ESL students strongly prefer kinesthetic learning• As cited in Leopold, 2010
LEARNINGstyles in TESOL Learning STYLES IN TESOLType 1: Cognitive Type 2: Sensory Type 3: Personality Styles Styles Styles Field Dependent Perceptual: Tolerance of ambiguityFiled Independent Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Tactile Analytic Environmental: Right and left Global Physical hemisphere Sociological dominance: Left-brain Right-brain Reflective Impulsive Christison, 2003
PERCEPTUAL LEARNING STYLES• “the perceptual perspective allows us to take into account aspects of several well- recognized learning-style theories by synthesizing their important characteristics into an approach that is based on behaviors and/or actions that can be easily perceived in a classroom situation (Sarasin, 1998).”
WHAT IS YOUR LEARNING STYLE?• Read the sentences on the posters• Stand next to the poster with sentences that best describe your preferred learning style• Adapted from Barsch http://ww2.nscc.edu/gerth_d/AAA0000000/barsch_inventory.htm• The actual test involves choosing whether the sentences are seldom, often, or sometimes true
VISUAL LEARNERSVisual learners have two sub-channels• Linguistic• Spatial
VISUAL LEARNERSvisual-linguistic learners• learn through written language, such as reading and writing tasks• remember what has been written down, even if they do not read it more than once• like to write down directions• pay better attention to lectures if they watch them
VISUAL LEARNERSvisual-spatial learners• usually have difficulty with the written language• do better with charts, demonstrations, videos, and other visual materials• visualize faces and places by using their imagination and seldom get lost in new surroundings.
KINESTHETIC LEARNERSKinesthetic learners two sub-channels:• kinesthetic (movement) and• tactile (touch)• tend to lose concentration if there is little or no external stimulation or movement
KINESTHETIC LEARNERS• When listening to lectures, they may want to take notes for the sake of moving their hands.• When reading, they like to scan the material first, and then focus in on the details (get the big picture first).• They typically use color highlighters and take notes by drawing pictures, diagrams, or doodling.
KINESTHETIC LEARNERSPre-writing activities• forming groups - organizing• tossing objects• computers and the internet• acting out• changing places / moving around
AUDITORY LEARNERS• often talk to themselves• may move their lips and read out loud.• may have difficulty with reading and writing tasks.• often do better talking to a colleague or a voice recorder and hearing what was said.
Activity 1 – My weekend• Work in groups of six. Each person has a connector. Say the first sentence and use the connector in another sentence.• The next person repeats the sentences and adds one more, using his/her connector• The last participant should have a whole paragraph, that can be memorized by the group On my last vacation I went to China and I did many interesting things there.
Activity 2 – Hosting a world cup• Form a circle. The first participant gives one advantage to hosting a world cup and throws the ball.• The participant who gets the ball has to say one disadvantage to hosting a world cup and throw the ball.• Continue until all participants have given an advantage or disadvantage to the topic.
Activity 3 – Global Warming• Complete the tree with causes and consequences of global warming.• The trunk of the tree represents the problem. The roots represent the causes and the canopy represents the consequences.• Share your tree with a partner.
Bibliography• BROWN, H. Douglas Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy, 2nd ed.New York: Longman, 2001.• CHRISTISON, M. A. Learning styles and strategies. In D. Nunan (Ed.). Practical English Language Teaching. New York: McGraw Hill, 2003.• DUNN, R., K DUNN AND G. E. PRICE. The learning style inventory. Lawrence, KS: Price Systems, 1975.• KEEFE, J. W. Student learning styles: Diagnosing and prescribing programs. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1979.• KINSELLA, K. Understanding and empowering diverse learners. In J.M. Reid (ed.) Learning Styles in the ESL/EFL Classroom. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1995.• LIGHTBOWN, Patsy and SPADA, Nina. How Languages are Learned, 3rd ed. China: Oxford, 2006.• WOOLFOLK, Anita Educational Psychology - 10th ed. New York: Pearson, 2007.
Available online• http://www.bhsu.edu/Academics/TheColleges/CollegeofArtsandSciences/D epartmentsandPrograms/Humanities/English/WritingResources/LearningSt yles/tabid/953/Default.aspx• http://eca.state.gov/forum/vols/vol37/no4/p6.htm#top• http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Zhenhui-TeachingStyles.html• http://www.slideshare.net/51625678/teaching-and-learning-styles- research• test http://www.vark-learn.com/english/index.asp• http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/learningstylesjigsaw.html• test http://www.open.ac.uk/skillsforstudy/learning-style-activity.php• http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/learningstyle.php• links http://www.shambles.net/pages/staff/lstyles/• http://ww2.nscc.edu/gerth_d/AAA0000000/barsch_inventory.htm• http://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm