Presentation On Copper, Cu

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Presentation On Copper, Cu

  1. 1. Presentation On Copper, Cu Craig S. Thames, PE
  2. 2. Introduction• History• Characteristics• Uses and Applications• Characteristics Of Alloys• UL Evaluations• What’s New 2
  3. 3. A Little About Copper§ Distinctive Reddish Orange Color§ Mostly Found In Ore Form§ Density = 8.9 g/cm3§ Melting Point = 1083°C§ Boiling Point =2595°C 3
  4. 4. History Of Copper 4
  5. 5. The Copper Age 5000-3000 BC• Age Following The Stone Age• Believed First Used On Cypress 5
  6. 6. The Bronze Age 3000-750 BC• Milestone In History• First Large Scale Use of Metals• Stronger & Harder Than Plain Copper• Stronger Tools, Weapons, Armor• Bronze Age Replaced by Iron Age 6
  7. 7. Characteristics of Copper 7
  8. 8. Properties Of Copper• Excellent Electrical & Thermal Conductor 8
  9. 9. An Excellent Electrical Conductor• 99.99% Cu Used For Wiring Applications• (5.95x107 /O-m ) Electrical Conductivity Cu• (6.15x107 /O-m) Electrical Conductivity Ag• 97% Conductivity Ag At 1/8 Cost• All Cu Applications - 60% Electrical 9
  10. 10. Optional Electrical Conductors?Aluminum• (3.77x107 /O-m) Electrical Conductivity• 3.5 X Cheaper Than Cu• Need Larger Wire Dia. For Same Current• Transmission Lines, (lightweight)• Compatibility Issues With Copper 10
  11. 11. An Excellent Thermal Conductor• 2nd Best Heat Transfer Metal (400W/m°K)• Ag (429W/m°K), Al (250W/m°K)• Refrigeration/Air Conditioning Applications• Heat Exchangers, Radiators• Heat Sink Applications, Electronics Cooling 11
  12. 12. Properties Of Copper• Excellent Electrical & Thermal Conductor• Excellent Corrosion Resistance 12
  13. 13. Excellent Corrosion Resistance• Generally Less Subject To Corrosion• Plumbing Applications – Very Stable• Avg. Home Has 250lbs. Of Cu• Great Salt Water Resist., Copper-Nickel• Susceptible to Galvanic Corrosion• Green “Patina” -Long Term Air Exposure 13
  14. 14. Patina Formation Of Copper 14
  15. 15. Corrosion Resistance• Tarnishes After Air Exposure (Dull Tan), CuO• After Few Years Dark Orange Color• Corrosion Rate Slows After Patina FormationAvg. Corrosion Rates• 0.05 mil/yr (Industrial), 0.02 mil/yr (Marine) 15
  16. 16. Corrosion ResistanceNot Recommended For Following Exposures:• Ammonia (Fertilizers, Household Cleaners)• Nitric Acid (Lab Uses, Commercial Cleaning)• Chromate Acid (But Used To Brighten Brass)• Sulfuric Acid (Car Battery Acid, Restores Fe)• Acetic Acid (Vinegar) 16
  17. 17. Properties Of Copper• Excellent Electrical & Thermal Conductor• Excellent Corrosion Resistance• Excellent Workability 17
  18. 18. Excellent Workability• Easily Workable, Molded Without Cracking• Malleable - Easily Hammered Into Shapes• Ductile - Easily Drawn (Wire & Tubes)• Machinability – Easy Threading, Cutting, Bending• Surface Can Be Highly Polished 18
  19. 19. Properties Of Copper• Excellent Electrical & Thermal Conductor• Excellent Corrosion Resistance• Excellent Workability• Antimicrobial 19
  20. 20. Antimicrobial• Kills Bacteria, Viruses, & Micro-organisms• Feb. 2008, EPA Registered 275 Cu Alloys• Tarnishing Doesn’t Affect Property• Many Applications For This Feature E Coli Methicillian Resistant Staphylococcus 20
  21. 21. Antimicrobial• Great For High Touch Areas• Door Knobs, Hand Rails, Push Plates• Hospital Applications• Marine Applications (Barnacle Resistant)• HVAC Ductwork Improves IAQ 21
  22. 22. Kills Mold Spores Mold – Aspergillus Niger 22
  23. 23. Properties Of Copper• Excellent Electrical & Thermal Conductor• Excellent Corrosion Resistance• Excellent Workability• Antimicrobial• An Abundant Element 23
  24. 24. An Abundant Element• 3.7 Billion Tons Known Worldwide• 8.3 Million Tons Mined Yearly Worldwide• Most Mining Western N & S. America 24
  25. 25. USA Copper Mining• Phelps Dodge - 60% of US Copper/Yr.• AZ, UT, NM, NV, MT• 20 Mines Account For 99% GP• 1 Ton Ore Produces 6 lbs. Cu• 550 Million Tons Estimated Resources 25
  26. 26. Consumers Of Copper• China: Single Leading Country• Big Spike In Last 10 Years• US: Steady For Last 30 Years 26
  27. 27. China’s Consumption Growth• Economic Growth: 10% YOY 10 Yrs• Explosion In Automotive Production• Electric Car Production 2X Copper• Expansion In Home Building 27
  28. 28. Recycling Copper• 100% Recyclable• 160,000 Tons = 10% Cu Consumption• Relied Upon For US Self Reliance• Meets 41% Of Global Yearly Demand 28
  29. 29. Cost Of Copper 29
  30. 30. Uses For Copper 30
  31. 31. Uses For Copper (2009)Manufacturing Consumers49% - Wire Mills 50% - Building Construction40% - Brass Mills 21% - Electrical & Electronic Products7% - Foundries 10% - Consumer & General Products1% - Powder Plants 11% - Transportation3% - Other 8% - Industrial Machinery & Equipment 31
  32. 32. POP QUIZ• 99.99 % Copper is the second best metallic electrical conductor. Which is the best?Silver• What period of time was revolutionary in human history, which was earmarked by man’s first wide spread exploitation of metals?Bronze Age• The United States Produces what percentage of the world’s copper? What single Country Produces the Most?8%, Chile 37% 32
  33. 33. POP QUIZ• Why should 99.99 copper be used for electrical conductor applications?Small addition of other elements/impurities reduces conductivity. Only 0.20% Arsenic reduces electrical conductivity by 15%.• Why is Aluminum sometimes considered an alternative to Copper (alloy)?Reduced Cost, with still good electrical and thermal conductivities, strength, and corrosion resistant properties. 33
  34. 34. Copper Alloys• The Most Commonly Alloyed Metal• Over 475 Distinct Alloys• Wrought and Cast Products 34
  35. 35. Wrought Alloys of Copper7 Main Families (Wrought Alloys)• High Copper Alloys• Brasses• Bronzes, (Sn/P, Al, Si)• Copper-Nickels, Nickel Silvers 35
  36. 36. Effect Of Alloying Elements• Al - Hardness, Strength, Corrosion Resist• Si - Most Effective at Increasing Strength• Pb, Te- Increases Machinability• Sn- Increase Strength, Decreases Conduc.• Zn, Increase Strength, Decreases Conduc.• Ni - Hardness, Strength, Corrosion Resist 36
  37. 37. High Copper Alloys (C1xxxx)• High Percentage of Copper (97-99.99)• Retains Many Properties Of Elemental Cu• High Strengths Attainable (Be Cu)• Electrical: (Wire, Conductors, Switches)• Mechanical: (Condenser Tubing, Plumbing) 37
  38. 38. Wrought Brass Alloys• Red Brass Cu, Zn (C2100-C28000)• Leaded Brass Cu, Zn, Pb (C31400-C38500)• Gun Metal Cu, Zn, Sn (C40500-C46700) 38
  39. 39. Brasses (C2xxxx)(C3XXXX)(C4XXXX)• Alloy of Copper & Zinc (5-40%)• Most Common Alloy Of Copper• Overall Low Cost• Inexpensive Machining And Fabrication• Resistance To Aggressive Environments 39
  40. 40. Mechanical Props. Of Brass• Highest Strength Brass Alloy• C36000 The Standard In Machinability 40
  41. 41. Machinability ComparablesTitanium 6%316 Stainless Steel(18/8) 12%Medium Carbon Steel 20%Aluminum Alloy 50%Copper 20%Leaded High Copper 80% 41
  42. 42. Wrought Bronze Alloys• Phosphor Bronze (Sn/P) C5xxxx• Aluminum Bronzes (Al) C60600-64200• Silicon Bronzes (Si) C64700-C66100 42
  43. 43. Sn/P Bronze (C50100-C52400)• Alloy of Copper & Tin• Excellent Marine Corrosion Resist.• Harder & Heavier Than Brass Counterpart• Good Stength and Wear Resistance• Excellent Cast ability• Bearings, Diaphragms, Fasteners 43
  44. 44. Aluminum Bronze (C60600-64200)• 5-12% Al• Stronger Than Tin Bronze• More Corrosion Resistant: Al2O3 Skin• Very Little Tarnishing With Time• Bearings, Bushings, Gears, Pinions• Wear Resistant Applications 44
  45. 45. Silicon Bronze (C64700-C66100)• Great Strength• Great Inert Chemical Properties• Gets Stronger More Its Worked• Harder To Fabricate, (Machine)• Pumps, Boilers, Chemical Vessels, Marine 45
  46. 46. Bronze Mechanical Properties• Highest Tensile Strength Bronze C52400• Best Machinability Bronze C54400 46
  47. 47. Copper Nickels, (C7XXXX)• Silvery In Color• Excellent Salt Water Corrosion Resistance• Seawater App, Auto, Pipe & Fittings, etc.• 90% -10%, 70%-30%• Among Highest Tensile Strength Alloy 47
  48. 48. Cast Alloys Of Copper• High Copper• Brass4 Main Families Of Bronze• Copper- Tin (Tin Bronze)• Copper-Leaded-Tin• Copper-Tin-Nickel• Copper-Aluminum 48
  49. 49. Bronze Vs. Brass• Bronze, Increased Tensile & Hardness• Bronze More Costly Than Brass• Bronze More Corrosion Resistant• Sn Decreases Elec. & Therm. Conductivity• Zn<15% Doesn’t Reduce Conduct. Props.• Zn No Decrease in Corrosion Properties 49
  50. 50. How Does UL Evaluate Copper? 50
  51. 51. 10 Day Moist Ammonia Test• In More Than 50 UL Standards• Dezincification of Alloys (Brass) >15% Zn• Fire Protection, Gas & Oil § Valves, Pipe and Fitting § Sprinklers 51
  52. 52. Overcoming Dezincification• Arsenic (0.20%) Improves Resistance• Heat Treatment Processes 52
  53. 53. Copper Sulfate Test• Measures Zn Coating Thickness 53
  54. 54. Al Conductors - Safe• Home Fires: AL Mixed with Cu• Marking Required In Most UL Standards• High Thermal Coefficient of Expansion• Highly Galvanic with Cu – High Resistance• Oxides Not As Conductive 54
  55. 55. HVAC• Disallowed For Ammonia Refrigerants 55
  56. 56. What’s New?• Leveraging Anti Microbial• High Efficiency Electric Motors• Sprinklers 56
  57. 57. Antimicrobial Uses 57
  58. 58. Antimicrobial Uses 58
  59. 59. CA, VT Lead Law• Plumbing, Potable H2O• California Lead Law: Jan. 1, 2010• Fittings: 8% Pb to 0.25% Pb Max.• Affects Existing and New Constructions• Switch From Lead Alloys To Bismuth• QNVB – UL Subject 116875 59
  60. 60. High Efficiency Motors• 50% All Electricity Consumed• DOE - 3 Phase Integral HP Motors• Dec. 19, 2010 Mandate Date• High “E” Motors: 25% More Cu• 70% Increase In Demand by 2013• 15 Million Dollar Increase Projected 60
  61. 61. High Efficiency Motors• Greater Conductor Sizes• Attack 5 Areas For Losses• Electrically Commentated Motors 61
  62. 62. Sprinklers• Mandated: New Constructions• Sprinkler Pipe, Fittings, & FPD Conn. 62
  63. 63. Summary Engineering Uses• High Electrical Conductivity• Excellent Conductor of Heat• High Strength Applications• Corrosion Resistant• Antimicrobial• Excellent Machinability & Workability 63
  64. 64. POP QUIZ• Name 3 Features of BronzeIncrease strength, hardness, durability, highly cast able, poor thermal and electrical conductivities, Tin is main alloying ingredient (as much as 10%).• What is the most common Alloy of Copper?Brass 64
  65. 65. QUESTIONS? 65
  66. 66. Additional Resources• ASM Metals Handbook: Vol. 2, 10th Ed.• Copper Development Association www.cda.org or www.copper.org• CA Lead Law - Thomas Bowman x43797• High E Motors – Frank Ladonne x41888 66
  67. 67. THE END 67
  68. 68. Copper Tubing• All Tubing 99.9% Cu• Ease In Cutting, Bending, Installing• Lighter Weight Than Steel• Does Not Burn, Release VOCs• Corrosion Resistant• Mech. Factors Drive Cu Tube Selection 68
  69. 69. Copper Tubing• Type K - ASTM B 88• Type L - ASTM B 88• Type M – ASTM B 88• Type DMV – ASTM B306• Type ACR – ASTM B 280• Type OXY/MED – ASTM B 819 69
  70. 70. Type K, Tubing• Provided in ¼ in. - 12 in. Diam.• Thickest Wall For Given Size• Highest Strength• Hardest To Bend• Fire Suppression, Med. Gas, Compres. Air 70
  71. 71. Type L, Tubing• Intermediate Wall Thickness & Cost 71
  72. 72. Type M, Tubing• Thinnest Wall Thickness• Lightest Weight• Easiest To Bend• Cheaper Than K, or L Tubing• Underground. H20 Dist., Heating, Fire, 72
  73. 73. Type DWV, Tubing• Drainage Waste Venting 73
  74. 74. Type ACR, Tubing• Air Conditioning & Refrigeration 74

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