Tools Scientific Method • Disposing Pre-conceived notions and filters in favor of… “facts?”
Tools Terms and Analysis • Describing Time Spans – Human History versus Facebook History • Making Inferences – Things at the bottom are older • Classifications – Things that are similar can be grouped together
Tools: Inferences Sparkly Words Geologic Features • Layering • Group layers into 11 “periods” – No dinosaurs in last 2 periods • Chemical Decay Rates
Tools: Time spans Sparkly Words Describing Geologic Time spans• Looking at early “records” of Earth, we label increasingly refined segments• SuperEon > Eon (4) > Era (10) > Period (22) – Epoch (7 in the last two periods)
Tools: Classifications Sparkly Words Taxonomic Classifications • Species – All humans alive today are one species because they constitute a group of individuals that could breed with themselves but not with any other group.
Tools: Classifications Sparkly Words Taxonomic Classifications PRIMATE Old World Monkey Hominid Hab • It can go like this then: Sapi ilis ens Au Homo • Species • Groups of Similar Species = GENUS • Groups of Groups of Similar Species = FAMILY • Groups of Groups of Groups of Similar Species = ORDER • etc
Tools: Classifications Sparkly Words Taxonomic Classifications • One sign of life versus another – How does it relate? What’s similar? – What’s different? Phylum Spinal cords Chordate Class Live birth; nurse Mammal Order Looks “monkey-like” Primate Family Looks “great ape” Hominid Genus Looks “human” Homo Species Humans Sapiens
Tools Sparkly Words Fossils • No bones…only stones • Locations – Siberia – BC – Australia – Texas – Utah – Scotland – Etc What do they have in common?
Tools Sparkly Words Extinction Level Event (ELE) “major mass extinctions far exceeding background extinction rate”
Terminology, Classification, Inferences are tools used in discussion of extinction andcan be reused to think critically, discover and discuss our vulnerability to it
Tools Which is it? • WE are vulnerable to extinction – NO! • We are vulnerable to extinction – NO! • We are vulnerable to extinction – YES!
Frame Earth as a Project First 88 % of earth’s history • Requirements Hell – molten requirements swirled • Alpha – continental mockups formed • Dogfood – the earliest friendly users were introduced – atmosphere provided, etc Ends: microscopic hard-shelled users arrive
Frame Earth as a Project • Requirements • Alpha • Dogfood • Early Adopters • Power Users RC1: Early Adopters Fish, • Noobs Arthropods Amphibians Reptiles
Frame Earth as a Project • Requirements RC1: Early Adopters crashed a lot • O-S extinction event: • Alpha • • 27% of all families 57% of all genera • Dogfood • D-C extinction event: • Top spots were all traded throughout the • Early Adopters last half: Fish, arthropods (things with shells), amphibians and reptiles • Power Users • 19% of all families • 50% of all genera • Noobs • 70% of all species
Frame Earth as a Project • Requirements • Alpha • Dogfood • Early adopters • Power Users • Noobs RC2: Power Users archosaurs dominate RC3: Power Users Redux dinosaurs rule
Frame Earth as a Project • Requirements • RC 2 “Great Dying” • Alpha • Out: Mammal-like reptiles • 57% of all families; 83% of all genera • Dogfood • In: Archosaurs, Therapsids Large Amphibians • Early adopters • Power Users • RC 3 “Dawn of Jurassic” • Out: Archosaurs; Therapsids; Amphibians • Noobs • 23% of all families; 48% of all genera • In: Dinosaurs
Frame Earth as a Project Most recent 1.5 % of earth’s history: • Requirements RC4 becomes v1.0 • Alpha Tropical period heading for cooling • Dogfood Small users prosper, fauna diversify • Early adopters v1.1: Mammals and birds revised • Power Users Introduction of “Hominids” • Noobs v1.2: Introduction of “Homo” (Humans)
Frame Earth as a Project • Requirements • RC4 Mass Extinctions • Alpha – Dinosaurs out – Mammals in • Dogfood • 17% of all families • Early adopters • 50% of all genera • 75% of species • Power Users • Noobs
ELE The Story So Far • Species go extinct …which is advantageous for other species
ELE The Story So Far • Extinction takes a while …or does it?
ELE The Story So Far • Mass Extinctions are not 100% across species • Mark the transitions from span to span • Data incomplete …is that supposed to make me feel better? if “me” = “humans” maybe not….
ELE The Story So Far • We care about extinctions because we are only one species …We may just go in a background extinction
ELE The Story So Far • Extinctions don’t destroy the environment …the Earth persisted through all ELE we can detect
ELE Questions • How much control do you think we (as a species) have over: • favored terrain • atmosphere • food supply • our own bodies? …40% of humans poop outside not even a bucket…
ELE Questions • Will we adapt fast enough to react to a sudden event? • What does “sudden” even mean? 0.00000004 % …will it matter?
ELE Adaptation The Ron White Factor • “There was a guy down in Florida who said that, at the age of 53 years old, he was in good enough physical condition to withstand the wind, rain and hail of a force-3 hurricane. • “Now, let me explain somethin’ to ya: it isnt that the wind is blowin’, its what the wind is blowin’. • “If you get hit by a Volvo, it doesnt matter how many sit-ups you did that morning.”
What Then Must We Do? ReuseConserve Recycle RechargeableVegetarian Work outGive, not toss Multi-use devices Solar-powered car Values Garden Prejudices Buy locally Paperless Sustainability Telecommute Go natural ZPG Challenge your beliefs Think Critically. Discover & Discuss.
But…• Not too far, please Isabel Taylor 1996-2012
Append About Kakapos (Strigops habroptila) • Critically Endangered, giant, nocturnal parrot • It is a classic example of evolution on an isolated island • The only flightless parrot in the world • It is also the largest parrot known • It is possibly the longest-lived • Mossy green plumage mottled with brown and yellow • The face is owl-like and framed with modified whisker- like feathers • The scientific name habroptila means ‘soft feathers’ • Has no indigenous predators and so “doesn’t worry”
Append Making a Difference One day an old man was walking along the Soon afterward, the man came upon a beach. It was low tide, and the sand small child on the beach who was was littered with thousands of stranded frantically throwing one starfish after starfish by a rare minus tide. another back into the sea. The old man The man began walking very carefully so as stopped and asked the child, "What are not to step on any of the beautiful you doing?“ creatures. Since the animals still "Im saving the starfish," the child replied. seemed to be alive, he considered "Why waste your time?... There are so picking some of them up and putting many you cant save them all so why them back in the water, where they does it matter?", asked the man. could resume their lives. Without hesitation, the child picked up The man knew the starfish would die if left another starfish and tossed the starfish on the beachs dry sand but he back into the water... "It matters to this reasoned that he could not possibly one," the child said. help them all, so he chose to do nothing and continued walking.
Append Year of Living DangerouslyBilly Kwan, seasoned freelance photo-journalist based in Jakarta, IndonesiaGuy Hamilton, Journalist, neophyte, foreign correspondent from AustraliaBILLY: And the people asked him, saying, what shall we do then?GUY: Whats that?BILLY: Its from Luke, chapter three, verse ten. What then must we do? Tolstoy asked the same question. He wrote a book with that title. He got so upset about the poverty in Moscow that he went one night into the poorest section and just gave away all his money. You could do that now. Five American dollars would be a fortune to one of these people.GUY: Wouldnt do any good, just be a drop in the ocean.BILLY: Ahh, thats the same conclusion Tolstoy came to. I disagree.GUY: Oh, whats your solution?BILLY: Well, I support the view that you just dont think about the major issues. You do whatever you can about the misery thats in front of you. Add your light to the sum of light. You think thats naive, dont you?GUY: Yep.BILLY: Its alright, most journalists do.GUY: We cant afford to get involved.