Parts of speech


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Parts of speech

  2. 2. 1.2.1 PART OF SPEECH: NOUNS. PROPER NOUN A proper noun is the special name of a particular person, place, etc. A proper noun also begins with a Capital Letter. COMMON NOUN ABSTRACT NOUNA common noun is a NOUNS An abstract noun is thename given in common to Names of anything and name of something thatevery person or thing of everything seen and we can only think of orthe same class or kind. unseen. feel but cannot see. COLLECTIVE NOUN A collective noun is the name of a number of persons or things taken or thought of as one. 97
  3. 3. EXAMPLES OF NOUN. EXAMPLES OF NOUNS COMMON NOUN PROPER NOUN Man Woman Ah Liaw Bukit Tinggi Town City Ahmad Melaka Village Sea Hassan National Park Mountain Restaurant Joel Sabah River Country Ramesh Lahad Datu Girl Bank Mani Megala Tebobon Shop State Daud Malaysia Lady Ocean Kamal Rex Cinema University Lake Nur Fadiyanah Restaurant Ali ABSTRACT NOUN COLLECTIVE NOUN (in bold letter) Width Childhood An army of soldiers. Truth Motherhood A band of musicians. Bravery Kingship A choir of singers. Newness Friendship A drove of horses. Wisdom Loss A litter of cubs Length Sale A nest of ants. Death Strength A staff of employees. Growth Beauty A pride of lions. Anger Thought An album of photographs. A book of notes. 98
  4. 4. THE GENDER OF NOUNS. o Gender tells whether a person or an animal is a male or a female. o In the others words, gender also tells the sex of a person, animal, etc. o Gender also tells about things which have no sex. o Nouns have four genders. MASCULINE GENDER FEMININE GENDERThe masculine gender is used for all The masculine gender is used for allmales. females.Examples: Examples:Boy, man, father, brother, uncle, etc. Girl, woman, mother, sister, aunt, etc. THE GENDER NOUNS COMMON GENDER NEUTER GENDERThe common gender is used where The neuter gender is used for thingsthe noun can be both male and which have no life or sex or are notfemale. thought of as having life or sex.Examples: Examples:Cousin, friend, person, child, student, Tables, chair, pencil, book, house,etc. bag, etc. 99
  5. 5. NUMBER OF NOUNS. NUMBER OF NOUNS PLURAL NUMBER SINGULAR NUMBER  Shows more than one  Shows only one person, person, animal, thing, or animal, thing, or place. place.  Example:  We do not use „a‟ in the  A boy plural number.  A dog  Example:  A paper  Boys  Dogs  Papers SPECIAL CASE  Some nouns have no singular number. They are used only in the plural.  Example:  Trousers, shorts, scissors, clothes, peoples, etc. 100
  6. 6. THE PLURALS OF NOUNS ARE FORMED BY THE FOLLOWING WAYS1) By adding „s‟ to the Singular (the 2) By adding „es‟ to nouns ending in a general rule): hissing sound, that is, ending in –x, -sh, -s: Singular Plural Singular Plural Ant Ants Tax Taxes Cupful Cupfuls Watch Watches Handful Handfuls Box Boxes Thing Things Glass Glasses Boy Boys Virus Viruses Picture Pictures Flash Flashes Lay-by Lay-bys Six Sixes3) By adding „es‟ to nouns ending in -o: 3) There are exception to this rule, among which are the following: Singular Plural Singular Plural Buffalo Buffaloes Dynamo Dynamos Hero Heroes Bamboo Bamboos Tomato Tomatoes Curio Curios Veto Vetoes Lasso Lassos Volcano Volcanoes Piano Pianos Mango Mangoes Tattoo Tattoos Potato Potatoes Two Twos4) By changing -y, after a consonant, 4) If the -y is after a vowel (a, e, I, o, u), into „ies‟, we follow the ordinary rule and add „s‟. Singular Plural Singular Plural Army Armies Bay Bays Baby Babies Day Days Curry Curries Delay Delays Lady Ladies Boy Boys Story Stories Joy Joys Spy Spies Decoy Decoys Glory Glories Key Keys 101
  7. 7. 5) By changing –‘f’ or ‘fe’ into „ves‟. 5) There are exception to this rule: Singular Plural Singular Plural Calf Calves Belief Beliefs Life Lives Dwarf Dwarfs Wife Wives Roof Roofs Leaf Leaves Turf Turfs Loaf Loaves Hoof Hoofs Sheaf Sheaves Bluff Bluffs Half Halves Serf Serfs6) By changing the inside vowel: 7) These words take -„en‟ -„ren‟: Singular Plural Singular Plural Axis Axes Child Children Foot Feet Ox Oxen Fungus Fungi Brother Brothers or Brethren Cactus Cacti (old use) Emporium Emporia Crisis Crises Tooth Teeth8) Some nouns have no plural forms: 9) Some nouns are used in the plural form only. Singular Plural Clothes Goods Advice Advice Contents Statistics Deer Deer Shorts Pants Knowledge Knowledge Trousers Spectacles Series Series Thanks Scissors News News Pyjamas Compasses Music Music People Gymnastics Sheep Sheep 102
  8. 8. 10) Some nouns are plural in form but 11) Compound Nouns (i.e. words formed are used in the singular. by joining other words) add „s‟. Athletics Singular Plural Economics Brother-in-law Brothers-in-law Looker-on Lookers-on Ethics Commander Commanders Mathematics Lord Justice Lords Justice News Father-in-law Fathers-in-law -in-chief -in-chief Politics Passer-by Passers-by12) The following are foreign words: Singular Plural Abacus Abaci Antithesis Antitheses Bacillus Bacilli Formula Formulae Genus Genera Larva Larvae Oasis Oases Radius Radii Dictum Data Lacuna Lacunae (Lacunas) Maximum Maxima 103
  9. 9. 1.2.2 PART OF SPEECH : PRONOUNS. PRONOUNS Word used for or instead of a noun. It shows the person or thing without giving the name. A pronoun stands alone. It is not used with a Noun. An Adjective is used with a Noun. Objective Pronouns Subject Pronouns  Pronoun used AFTER  Pronoun used a verb. BEFORE a verb.  Example:  Example:  Me, you, him, her, it,  I, you, he, she, it, us, them. we, they. 104
  10. 10. KIND OF PRONOUNS. KIND OF PRONOUNS Personal Pronoun Interrogative PronounExample: Example: I, we, you, he, she, it, they. Who? Which? What? Whose? Reflexive and Emphasizing Indefinite Pronoun Pronoun Example:Example: One, any, each, some, all, none, Myself, ourselves, yourself, himself, nothing, anyone, something, herself, itself, themselves. somebody, etc. Demonstrative Pronoun Distributive PronounExample: Example: This, that, these, those, such, Each, either, neither, etc. same, etc. Possessive Pronoun Relative PronounExample: Example: Mine, ours, yours, his, her, its, Who, which, that, what, whom, as, theirs. whoever, whichever, whatever, etc. 105
  11. 11. Personal Pronouns Stand For Three Persons FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON The person or persons speaking. The person or persons spoken to. Example: Example: I, we. You. THIRD PERSON The person or persons or thing spoken about. Example: He, She, They, It. PERSONAL PRONOUNS Personal Pronouns Used as Subject of Personal Pronouns Used as Objects of Verbs Verbs. (Who? What?) (Who? What?) (The Nominative Case) (The Nominative Case) SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURALFirst Person: I We First Person: Me UsSecond Person: You You Second Person: You YouThird Person: He They Third Person: Him Them She They Her Them It They It Them a. I made a cake. a. Give me some money. b. We saw a dog. b. You told us some lies. c. You ran fast. c. She gave you the book.Example: Example: d. He went out. d. I told him the story. e. She read a book. e. Give her the pen. f. It made a noise. f. Give it some food. g. They sang songs. g. We told them everything. 106
  12. 12. THE GENDER OF PRONOUNS. MASCULINE GENDER FEMININE GENDERThe masculine gender is used for all The masculine gender is used for allmales. females.Examples: Examples:He, him, himself. She, her, herself. THE GENDER PRONOUNS COMMON GENDER NEUTER GENDERThe common gender is used where The neuter gender is used for thingsthe noun can be both male and which have no life or sex or are notfemale. thought of as having life or sex.Examples: Examples:I, me, myself, you, yourself, it (a child It ( a thing), itself, they, (things), them,creature, etc.) itself. We, us, themselves.ourselves, yourselves, they, (children,creatures, etc.) them, themselves. 107
  13. 13. NUMBER OF PRONOUNS. NUMBER OF PRONOUNS SINGULAR NUMBER PLURAL NUMBER o I o We o You o You o He o They o She o They o It o They o Me o Us o Him o Them o Her o Them o Mine o Ours o Yours o Yours o His o Theirs o Hers o Theirs o Myself o Ourselves o Yourself o Yourselves o Himself o Themselves o Herself o Themselves o Itself o Themselves o This o These o That o Those o One o Ones o Who o Who o Whose o Whose o Whom o Whom o Which o Which 108
  14. 14. 1.2.3 PART OF SPEECH : VERB. VERB A verb is a saying-word. The verb tells us what a person or thing does. ONE WORD MORE THAN ONE WORD  Example:  Example:  Maria eats every day.  Tom is playing football.  Joe reads every day.  He was beaten by his  Daniel studies every day. father.  Sasha plays every  She will go tomorrow. evening.  The money has been lost. 109
  15. 15. AUXILIARY VERBS The words that helping a verbs. VERB: TO BE VERB: TO HAVEPresent Tense (Time): now, every day, Present Tense (Time): now, everyalways, often, usually, etc. day, always, often, usually, etc. SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL (one) (more than one) (one) (more than one) I am We are I have We have You are You are You have You have He is They are He has They have She is They are She has They have It is They are It has They havePast Tense (Time): yesterday, last night, Past Tense (Time): yesterday, lastlast month, last year, etc. night, last month, last year, etc. SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL (one) (more than one) (one) (more than one) I was I had We had We were You were You had You had You were he was He had They had They were she was She had They had They were it was It had They had They wereFuture Tense (Time): tomorrow, next Future Tense (Time): tomorrow, nextyear, next month, next week, etc. year, next month, next week, etc. SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL (one) (more than one) (one) (more than one) I shall be We shall be I shall have We shall have You will be You will be You will have You will have He will be They will be He will have They will have She will be They will be She will have They will have It will be They will be It will have They will have 110
  16. 16. VERB TRANSITIVE VERBS INTRANSITIVE VERBSo The transitive verb is the verb which needs an object to make o An Intransitive Verb does not need an object to complete its meaning or its meaning clear or complete. sense.o The object is a noun or pronoun. o Example: So, we ask the question “what?” 1. He comes every day. (no object) or “whom?” after the verb to 2. She sings well. (no object) find its object. 3. You talk loudly. (no object)o Example: 4. He runs fast. (no object) 1. Tom played football. o NOTE: The words, every day, well, Verb: played loudly and fast do not answer the Question: Played what? question, “what?” or “whom?” after Answer: football the verb. They answer the question, football = object “when?" or “how?” They are played = Transitive verb therefore not nouns or objects. They are verbs. 2. I helped him. Verb: helped Question: helped who? Answer: him him = object helped = Transitive verb 111
  17. 17. VERB FINITE VERBS INFINITIVE VERBSo The finite verb is the Verb that changes o The Infinitive verb is a verb that does with the person and number of the not change with the person and the subject. number of the subject.o Every sentence must have a finite verb. 1.2.4 PART OF SPEECH : ADJECTIVES. o It also likes a noun because it names,o Example: that is, it names an action. But the 1. We go to school. (go = finite verb) infinitive can take an object. So, the He goes to school. infinitive can take an object. o Example: 2. They come here every day. (come = finite verb) She comes here every day. 1. He wants to eat rice. (to eat = infinitive) 3. We do not tell lies. (do = finite verb) He does not tell lies. (to eat what? rice) (rice = object) 2. He likes to play football. (to play = infinitive) (to play what? football) (football = object) 3. They like to hear music. (to hear = infinitive) (to hear what? music) (music = object) 112
  18. 18. ADJECTIVE A word which tells something more about a noun, that is, about a thing or a person. It also a describing-word. It is a word added to a noun to tell us something more about that noun. Example: Beautiful, good, poor, etc.Adjective of Quality Adjective of Quality Possessive Adjective Tells about the color, Tells about how An adjective which size, shape or many or how much shows that something condition of a noun is called. belongs to a person of is called an Adjective Its shows the quantity thing. of Quality. or amount. Its shows ownership or It answers the Example: possession. It answers question, “what kind Five, many, some, the question, “whose?” of?”. much, little, etc. Example: Example: My, your, her, our, his, Black, round, small, their, etc. hot, etc. Interrogative Adjective Demonstrative Adjective An adjective which asks Which point out a person a question. or thing. Usually comes before a It answers the question noun. It tells something “which?” more about a noun. Example: Example: This, these, that, those, Which, what, whose, etc. etc. 113
  19. 19. 1.2.5 PART OF SPEECH : ADVERB. Adverb of Place This shows where an Adverb of Time action or something is Adverb of Manner done or happens. This shows when an This shows how an Example: action or something is action or something is  He is standing outside. done or happens. done or happens.  She came in. Example: Example:  They walked out.  He comes always.  He speaks softly.  She is eating now.  She walks quickly.  He told me then.  He failed badly.Adverb of Degree Relative Adverb (when,where,how,why)This answers thequestions, “to what TYPE OF ADVERB The words are notdegree?” or “how questions.much?” Example:Example:  He read much. He read much.  She shouts too now. She shouts too now.  I am very sorry. I am very sorry. Affirmative Adverb Interrogative Adverb (Yes) and Adverb of (question) Negation (No) Example:  When? Example:  Where?  Yes, surely, certainly,  How? indeed, by all means.  Why?  No, not at all, by no  How much? means.  How often? 114
  20. 20. 1.2.6 PART OF SPEECH : CONJUCTIONS. A Conjunction Can Join Words Example: I saw a man and a dog. (joining two Nouns) She spoke and I laughed. (joining two Verbs) He was hungry and thirsty. (joining two Adjectives) He speaks gently and softly. (joining two Adverbs) CONJUNCTIONS Words that joining words. Example:  And, but, because, since, if, so, although, before, until, unless, therefore, or, yet, for, etc. A Conjunction Can Phrases A Conjunction Can SentencesExample: Example:They started on the journey, full of hope and James is 1.8 metres tall and weighs 80happy together. kilograms.(Phrases: full of hope; happy together) (Sentences: James 1.8 metres tall; james weighs 80 kilograms) 115
  21. 21. 1. If both Subject are Singular, the verb 2. If both Subject are Plural, then thewhich follows “either … or”, “neither … Conjunctions “either … or”, “neither …nor” must be in the Singular. nor” must be in the Plural Verb.Example: Example:a. Either his father or his mother is ill. a. Either my friends or your friends have done (mother = Singular Subject, is = Singular it. Verb) (friends = Plural Subject, have = Plural verb)b. Neither boy nor girl speaks English. b. Neither his brothers nor his sisters are good . (girl = Singular Subject, speaks = Singular (sisters = Plural Subject, are = Plural verb) Verb) Rules to Remember when Using Conjunctions The Verb must agree with the subject.3. If one Subject is Singular and the 3. If one Subject is Plural and the otherother Plural, the Verb is in the Plural. Singular, the verb is in the Singular.Example: Example:a. Either he or they have it. a. Either they or he has it. (they = Plural, have = Plural) (he = Singular, has = Singular)b. Neither she nor we are angry. b. Neither we nor she is angry. (we = Plural, are = Plural) (she = Singular, is = Singular) 116
  22. 22. 1.2.7 PART OF SPEECH : PREPOSITIONS. PREPOSITIONS Word which is used before a Noun or Pronoun to show its relation to some other word in the sentence. The same word may used as a Preposition, an adverb or a Conjunction. It also always governs the Noun or Pronoun; the Adverb modifies the Verb. EXAMPLE o His hat is on his head. (on = Preposition) (head = Noun) o He walked past the door. (past = Preposition) (door = Noun) o They were in the room. (in = Preposition) (room = Noun) 117
  23. 23. PREPOSITIONS INDICATE Direction Position Joel went to town.  Rahimah sat on the chair. Jerad walked towards me.  We live under one roof. Jamie came into our room.  The ticket is in my shirt pocket. Time By someone You can meet me at tomorrow night.  The story was by Susila. Sugi always comes home on time.  This photo was taken by Lee. I walk around the lake in morning.  This candy was bought by Sudin. By Something With Something Segran sent the letter by Pos Laju.  Salmah cooked the Maggi with a Sheila went to Penang by bus. bowl. Philip contacted me by telephone.  Santha cut mango with a knife. With Someone Quantity Of Something Subri went to England with her sister.  I gave my wife a bouquet of roses on Jacob went to market with Jamal and Valentine’s Day. Jaibon.  I drink one glass of water. Of Something Like Someone He lives in a house of stone.  She sings like Ziana Zain. We are short of money.  Ramesh Mutu behaves like a This is a table of wood. gangster. Like Something  The wrestler walks like a gorilla.  Sharizam runs like cheetah.  Debora cry like the sound of the cat. 118
  24. 24. SIMPLE PREPOSITION COMPOUND PREPOSITION-Word of only one syllable -Word of two or more syllable and is usually made up of two or more word or is formed-at, down, by, from, for, in, like, of, off, on, by prefixing and suffixing.per, to, up, with, plus, save, etc. -about, above, across, after, against, among, despite, along, etc. TYPES OF PREPOSITION There are four types of preposition: simple, compound, participle, phrase. PARTICIPLE PREPOSITION PHRASE PREPOSITION-A participle form used with the force of -A group of two words or more wordpreposition rather than with the force of anadjective, gerund or a verbal noun -Because of according to, as to, by means of, in accordance with, together with, etc.-concerning, considering, providing,regarding, etc. 119
  25. 25. 1.2.8 PART OF SPEECH : PREPOSITIONS. Hush! Oh! -Used to warn people to -Used to express surprise, listen and not to make wonder, anger, fear, noise. INTERJECTION -Used to express some sudden feeling -Usually written with Exclamation mark (!) -It is a sound or noise that people made when they are excited -Also used to express some strong feeling Alas! Hurray! -used to express sorrow or -Used to express joy or regret. victory. Another Interjection that usually used are: Hello!, Bah! Fie!, bravo!, Ha!, Pooh!. 120