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CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation
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CTDLC Multi-Media Design Presentation

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Multi-Media Design Presentation

Multi-Media Design Presentation

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  • When words and pictures are both presented, students have an opportunity to construct verbal and pictorial mental models and build connections between them. When words are presented alone, students have an opportunity to build a verbal mental model but are less likely to build to build a pictorial mental model and make connections between the verbal and pictorial mental model.
  • Instructional graphics are classified into taxonomies or categories of functions that allow for the creation of a visual relationship in the user’s mind To help build associations to foster retention.
  • These visual images are used in instructional materials or presentations strictly for comical, aesthetic or motivational purposes. Sometimes referred to as eye candy, decorative graphics are used to spice up the screen or page. It is best to limit the number of these graphics used throughout the online course material, since it can interfere with the instructional goals and lessen retention of the material.
  • These graphics depict the instruction in a concrete fashion. They communicate information quickly and easily. If words are used in a representative visual they represent exactly what they are try to convey both in the visual as well as the accompanying text. Examples of this type of graphics include symbols, icons, screen captures, and photographs relating to the real object or content (text).
  • These graphics are used primarily to assist the learner to associate relationships between sequences of steps to incorporate information. Examples are visuals such as employee organization charts, course maps and table of contents fall into this category.
  • These graphics help learners understand difficult content through cause and effect relationships.
  • Relational graphics are primarily used to express relationships among components within charts and diagrams. These would include pie, line and bar charts.
  • Transformational – visuals that illustrate changes in time or over space (animated).
  • Some historians of visual works refer to this style of lettering as “Fonts without wings.” This is evident because the word sans means without so Sans Serif means “without Serifs.” There are none of the little extensions or feet at the end of the characters as in Roman/Serif type.
  • Some of the most common styles are Verdana, Arial, Trebuchet, Helvetica and Futura. For online instructional materials Sans Serif fonts are the most desirable. This is due to the fact that computer screens rely on resolutions to display items, so in the case of Roman/Serif type the screens do not display the Serifs making the lettering hard to read. Studies have found that sans serif fonts tend to make people less tired when reading material off computer screens in essence increasing the potential for learner retention.
  • When corresponding words and pictures are near each other on the page or screen, learners do not have to use cognitive resources to visually search the page or screen and learners do not have to use cognitive resources to visually search the page or screen and learners are more likely to be able to hold them both in working memory at the same time.
  • Transcript

    • 1. How Multimedia Design Impacts the Learning Experience Mark Fazioli, PhD CT Distance Learning Consortium www.ctdlc.org
    • 2. Agenda
      • Outline basic theory and principles of using multimedia in learning
      • Address some elements of multimedia design:
        • Graphics
        • Text
      • Maximize potential for student learning through good practices.
    • 3. Multimedia Learning
    • 4. What is instructional multimedia?
      • The combination of audio, graphics, video, and
      • text delivered via electronic means to foster
      • learning.
    • 5. Cognitive Model of Multimedia Learning Online Multimedia Instruction Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-Term Memory Words Pictures Ears Eyes Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Prior Knowledge Selecting Words Selecting Images Organizing Words Organizing Images Integrating (Mayer, 2001)
    • 6. Multimedia Principle
      • Students learn better from words and pictures than
      • from words alone.
      (Mayer, 2001)
    • 7. Graphics and Images for Learning
    • 8. Five taxonomies of instructional graphics
      • Decorative
      • Representational
      • Organizational
      • Interpretive
      • Relational
      • Transformational
      (Clark & Chopeta, 2004)
    • 9.
      • Decorative
      Five taxonomies of instructional graphics
    • 10.
      • Representational
      Five taxonomies of instructional graphics
    • 11.
      • Organizational
      Five taxonomies of instructional graphics
    • 12.
      • Interpretive
      Five taxonomies of instructional graphics
    • 13.
      • Relational
      Five taxonomies of instructional graphics
    • 14.
      • Transformational
      Five taxonomies of instructional graphics
    • 15. Typography for Learning
    • 16. Common styles of type
      • Sans Serif
    • 17. Common styles of type
      • Sans Serif
    • 18. Contiguity Principle
      • Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures
      • are presented near rather than far from each other on the page
      • or screen.
      (Mayer, 2001
    • 19. Cognitive Model of Multimedia Learning Online Multimedia Instruction Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-Term Memory Words Pictures Ears Eyes Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Prior Knowledge Selecting Words Selecting Images Organizing Words Organizing Images Integrating (Mayer, 2001
    • 20. Modality Principle
      • Students learn better from animation and narration than from
      • animation and on-screen text.
      (Mayer, 2001
    • 21. Cognitive Model of Multimedia Learning Online Multimedia Instruction Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-Term Memory Words Pictures Ears Eyes Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Prior Knowledge Selecting Words Selecting Images Organizing Words Organizing Images Integrating (Mayer, 2001
    • 22. Cognitive Model of Multimedia Learning Online Multimedia Instruction Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-Term Memory Words Pictures Ears Eyes Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Prior Knowledge Selecting Words Selecting Images Organizing Words Organizing Images Integrating (Mayer, 2001
    • 23. Summary
      • Mayer: words + graphics = 
      • Select carefully with audience in mind:
        • Graphics
        • Text
      • Design for maximum potential for student learning.
    • 24. Resources on multimedia and instructional design
      • Clark, R. C. & Mayer, R. E. (2008). eLearning and the science of instruction (2 nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
      • Clark, R. C., & Chopeta, L. (2004). Graphics for learning: Proven guidelines for planning, designing and evaluating visuals in training materials. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
      • Lohr, L. (2006). Creating visuals for learning and performance: Lessons in visual literacy (2nd ed.). Cleveland, OH: Prentice-Hall.
      • Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning . New York: Cambridge University Press.

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