Chapter 3 part 2

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Chapter 3 PPT for EDUC2000.

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Chapter 3 part 2

  1. 1. Chapter 3, Part 2 Intelligence Diversity January 24, 2007
  2. 2. What is Intelligence? <ul><li>The capacity to acquire knowledge, the ability to think and reason in the abstract, and the ability to solve problems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Howard Gardener </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvard University psychologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People think in different ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have different areas of intelligence </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Verbal/Linguistic <ul><li>Sensitivity to spoken and written language </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Logical/Mathematical <ul><li>Capacity to analyze problems logically </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically </li></ul><ul><li>Entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists, mathematicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Musical <ul><li>Skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers, singers, musicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Bodily/Kinsthetic <ul><li>Potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dancers, athletes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Spatial <ul><li>Potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sculptor, Navigator, Dentist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Interpersonal <ul><li>Capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people </li></ul><ul><li>Allows people to work effectively with others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counselors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapist, salesperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Intrapersonal <ul><li>Capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Having an effective working model of ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Being able to use such information to regulate our lives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Naturalistic <ul><li>Enables human beings to recognize, categorize and draw upon certain features of the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biologist, anthropologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Existential <ul><li>Concern with 'ultimate issues’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afterlife </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ I find the phenomenon perplexing enough and the distance from the other intelligences vast enough to dictate prudence - at least for now” (Howard Gardener) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Nature view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence is primarily determined by genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are born with the capacity to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do you agree? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Nurture view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence is primarily determined by your environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The way you are raised and the way you are taught </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do you agree? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ability Grouping and Tracking <ul><li>Ability grouping - placing students of similar aptitude together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between class grouping - Divides students in the same grade into levels: high, medium and low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within class grouping - Divides students in one classroom into levels </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Ability Grouping and Tracking <ul><li>What does the research say? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homogeneously grouped low level students achieve less than heterogeneously grouped low students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low groups are stigmatized and their self esteem suffers </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Students with Exceptionalities <ul><li>Learners who need special help and resources to reach their full potential </li></ul><ul><li>Special Education - instruction designed to meet the needs of students with exceptionalities </li></ul>
  18. 18. American with Disabilities Act (ADA) <ul><li>Identifies 13 different disability categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deaf-blindness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental delay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional disturbance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental retardation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthopedic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other health impairment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific learning disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traumatic brain injury (TBI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual impairments </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. American with Disabilities Act (ADA) <ul><li>Most common categories in American schools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional disturbance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental retardation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific learning disability </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Gifted and Talented <ul><li>Designation given to students at the upper end of the ability continuum who need special services to achieve full potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GATE classrooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enrichment learning </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Mental Retardation <ul><li>Limitations in intellectual functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Indicated by differences in learning and problems with adaptive skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with self-care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with social skills </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Behavior Disorders <ul><li>Display of serious and persistent age-inappropriate behaviors which result in social conflict, personal unhappiness and school failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ODD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OCD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PTSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADHD </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Learning Disabilities <ul><li>Difficulties in acquiring and using listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or math skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessed through standardized testing in specific subject areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually reading and math </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Inclusion <ul><li>Comprehensive approach to educating student with exceptionalities that advocates a total, systematic, and coordinated web of services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including students in regular school campus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing students in age and grade appropriate classrooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing special education support to regular classrooms </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Least Restrictive Environment <ul><li>Places students in as normal an educational setting as possible wile still meeting their special academic, social and physical needs </li></ul>
  26. 26. Mainstreaming <ul><li>Moving students with exceptionalities from segregated settings into regular education classrooms - often for selected activities only </li></ul>

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