Investigación y Desarrollo de Tecnologías para la  Eficiencia Energética y Energía Renovable  Aplicadas al Sector Agrícola...
Canadian Energy Supply <ul><li>Others less than 1% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tidal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar   </li></u...
<ul><li>Canada’s green advantage -   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.5 % of worlds population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Climate change / environmental </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing net greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Abundant bioresources for national and international markets </li></ul><ul><li>Adding value to biomass revitalizes...
<ul><li>Climate change / environmental </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing net greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul></ul></ul...
PERD -Reducing the Use of Fossil Fuel Sources - Food production <ul><li>Due to the lower energy content of the biodiesel, ...
PERD - Reducing the Use of Fossil Fuel - Food processing Increasing leafy vegetable stability during storage and distribut...
A Feedlot in Alberta -  Highmark Renewables Inc. Agriculture and Agri-Food   Canada Agriculture et  Agroalimentaire Canada
<ul><li>Highmark Renewables Inc. - Alberta </li></ul><ul><li>Develops and commercializes an Integrated Manure Utilization ...
<ul><li>Bio-Terre Systems Inc. - Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>Develops a market-ready AD system for the production of biogas, ...
Nano-science - Definitions <ul><li>Nanotechnology and Nanobiotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology :   a field o...
1. Renewable energy and bioproducts from biomass conversion Gases Animal manures  & crop residues Bioliquids Solids   Prim...
Pyrolysis of Agricultural Biomass Pyrolysis Plant to Produce BioOil, Syngas & Biochar from Chicken Manure Advanced Bio Ref...
N, O, S free Renewable Bio-fuel Small metallic nanoparticle catalysts N and S to fertilizer Bio-oils containing N, O and S...
Background 1.b. Converting methane to methanol by  methanotrophs and  MMO* <ul><li>Methane is one of the Greenhouse Gases ...
<ul><li>Methane is one of the Greenhouse Gases that has 25 times the global warming potential of CO 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>...
Metabolic pathway in methanotrophs Ribulose monophosphate (RuMP),  Type II 1: MMO 2: MDHase Type I
<ul><li>We developed protocols to:  </li></ul><ul><li>a) grow, culture & isolate methanotrophs, b) measure and inhibit bot...
From - Lin, Monreal, Miguez, Tambong. 2008. J. Env. Microb. Methanol Methane Methylosinus trichosporium  Methane Methanol ...
First Step – Use Model Polymers to Immobilize Model Enzymes Encapsulation of Methanotrophs and sMMO for Bioreactors Enzyme...
Conclusions <ul><li>Canada has a diversified portfolio of energy supply, and </li></ul><ul><li>abundant biomass and natura...
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20 Monreal Serena

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ENERGIA 20

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20 Monreal Serena

  1. 1. Investigación y Desarrollo de Tecnologías para la Eficiencia Energética y Energía Renovable Aplicadas al Sector Agrícola y Agro-alimentario Carlos M. Monreal Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada - AAFC Ottawa, Canada Seminario Internacional - Seguridad y eficiencia energ é tica: Un aporte cientifico para la generacion de politicas publicas La Serena, Chile - Abril 17, 2008
  2. 2. Canadian Energy Supply <ul><li>Others less than 1% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tidal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landfill gas </li></ul></ul>6 % 11 % Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada Renewables & Hydro, 17 % - 30 % of world oil reserves Oil, 32 %
  3. 3. <ul><li>Canada’s green advantage - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.5 % of worlds population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7.0 % of global land area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 % of world’s forest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bioenergy use is large relative to other renewables - second only to hydro-electric power. </li></ul>Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada Canada’s Green Advantage
  4. 4. <ul><li>Climate change / environmental </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing net greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Clean water, air and soils </li></ul><ul><li>Rural economic development and revitalization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of economically viable natural resource-based enterprises in rural Canada and reduction of farm subsidies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer ownership of ethanol and biodiesel production facilities would enhance rural community development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Farm income </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New market opportunities for grains and oilseeds and other biomass feedstocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The emerging bioeconomy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production of new products from natural resources </li></ul></ul></ul>Renewable Energy Policy Drivers Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada
  5. 5. <ul><li>Abundant bioresources for national and international markets </li></ul><ul><li>Adding value to biomass revitalizes rural and aboriginal economies and creates innovative industries and markets </li></ul><ul><li>The utilization of opportunity biomass resources can turn waste and liability into economic potential </li></ul>Why is Canada Interested in a Bio-based Economy? Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada
  6. 6. <ul><li>Climate change / environmental </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing net greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Clean water, air and soils </li></ul><ul><li>Rural economic development and revitalization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of economically viable natural resource-based enterprises in rural Canada and reduction of farm subsidies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer ownership of ethanol and biodiesel production facilities would enhance rural community development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Farm income </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New market opportunities for grains and oilseeds and other biomass feedstocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The emerging bioeconomy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production of new products from natural resources </li></ul></ul></ul>Renewable Energy Policy Drivers Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada
  7. 7. PERD -Reducing the Use of Fossil Fuel Sources - Food production <ul><li>Due to the lower energy content of the biodiesel, higher fuel </li></ul><ul><li>consumption & lower fuel efficiency were observed for B50 and </li></ul><ul><li>B100 blends. </li></ul>Biodiesel in Agricultural Tractors Zero-tillage CO 2 emissions (kg/ha) 5 15 25 Diesel B20 B50 B100
  8. 8. PERD - Reducing the Use of Fossil Fuel - Food processing Increasing leafy vegetable stability during storage and distribution P. Delaquis - delaquisp@agr.gc.ca <ul><li>Chlorinated H 2 O at 50 ° C : </li></ul><ul><li>reduced browning and waste </li></ul><ul><li>enhanced antimicrobial effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>improved consumer acceptance </li></ul>Delaying fruit ripening during storage and transport P. Toivonen - toivonenp@agr.gc.ca <ul><li>1-methylcyclopropene: </li></ul><ul><li>blocks ethylene action to delay fruit ripening </li></ul><ul><li>reduced fruit respiration by 30 to 50 % </li></ul><ul><li>reduced refrigeration need </li></ul><ul><li>good for apples, less predictable for apricots & </li></ul><ul><li>plums </li></ul>
  9. 9. A Feedlot in Alberta - Highmark Renewables Inc. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada
  10. 10. <ul><li>Highmark Renewables Inc. - Alberta </li></ul><ul><li>Develops and commercializes an Integrated Manure Utilization System (IMUS) to: a) convert livestock manure into biogas using a thermophilic (55 °C) AD; b) and produce and export electricity to the power grid. </li></ul><ul><li>The AD system produces organic fertilizer and reusable water by recovery and concentration of nutrients in the digested beef manure. </li></ul>Cattle: 36,000 cattle in feedlot Manure processed : 215 tons slurry/d Digester capacity : 1800 m3 x2 Biogas : 9000 m3/d Energy: 760 kWe, 974 kWt Emission Reduction: 6.3 kt CO2e/yr AD Energy Cogeneration - Pilot Plants IMUS AD system Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada
  11. 11. <ul><li>Bio-Terre Systems Inc. - Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>Develops a market-ready AD system for the production of biogas, and cogeneration of electricity and heat from hog manure using a psychrophilic (23 °C) sequencing batch reactor. </li></ul>Hogs: 10,000 marketed/yr Manure processed : 11 m3/d Digester capacity : 450 m3 x3 Biogas : 405 m3/d Energy: 88 kWt Emission Reduction: 1.4 kt CO2e/yr Bio-Terre AD system – Peloquin farm AD Energy Cogeneration - Pilot Plants Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada
  12. 12. Nano-science - Definitions <ul><li>Nanotechnology and Nanobiotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology : a field of applied science and technology focused in the control of matter at the molecular level in scales normally 1 to 100 nanometers, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanobiotechnology : is the branch of nanotechnology with biological and biochemical applications or uses. Nanobiotechnology often studies existing elements of nature in order to fabricate new devices. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 1. Renewable energy and bioproducts from biomass conversion Gases Animal manures & crop residues Bioliquids Solids Primary conversion (Anaer. digestion gasification, pyrolysis) Producers - Canadian Federation of Agriculture - Dairy Farmers of Canada - Canadian Cattlemen’s Association - ACA co-op <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>- Menova </li></ul><ul><li>- Enerkem </li></ul><ul><li>ENSYN </li></ul><ul><li>Highmark Renewables </li></ul>R&D agencies - AAFC ( ECORC, SC ), NRC - ( BRI, IMB, NINT, IFCI ), ARC, University of Ottawa, Carleton University, IRDA, NRCan. - 50 scientists and engineers 1. Biofuels 2. Biochemicals & biomaterials 3. Biofertilizer Biosystems & Bioproducts For Use as Industrial Inputs - Biohydrogen - BioOil*, Methanol* - Bioplastics - Coenzyme Q 10 - Carotenoids - Lipids& waxes - Activated carbon & nanomaterials Research Platforms 4. High Quality Feeds Themes Bioproducts Secondary Conversion (microbial, chemical, algal, enzymatic, solar energy) - Biochar derived - AD derived - Algal & bacterial biomass Biosystems & Bioproducts For Use as Agricult. Inputs - ARCNet
  14. 14. Pyrolysis of Agricultural Biomass Pyrolysis Plant to Produce BioOil, Syngas & Biochar from Chicken Manure Advanced Bio Refinery Inc., Ottawa, Canada From - Schnitzer, Monreal, Leinweber, Fransham. 2007. 2008 J. Env. Sc. Health. Extraction and Separation of Chemicals from Bio-oils Pyrolysis BioOils and Bio-char derived from chicken manure Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada
  15. 15. N, O, S free Renewable Bio-fuel Small metallic nanoparticle catalysts N and S to fertilizer Bio-oils containing N, O and S compounds Must be removed from organic molecules to obtain Bio-oil FDMS Bio-oil Fraction II Distribution of Classes of Chemical Compounds (%) in Bio-oils from Chicken Manure Elemental Analysis of Bio-oil Fractions obtained from Fast Pyrolysis of Chicken Manure - From Schnitzer, Monreal and Jandl. 2008 (In press, J.Env.Sc.Health.) Nanoporous silica 0.4 0.5 14.3 7.4 7.8 70.0 Fraction II 0.5 0.9 37.6 12 5.0 44.5 Fraction I Ash S O N H C Wt % Sample 39.7 2.5 10.2 3.2 9.2 4.0 30.2 Fraction II 44.4 20.4 1.0 12.0 10.3 4.5 7.4 Fraction I Unknown Aliphatics Carbo-cyclics Benzene & derivatives Phenols Furans N-Hetero-cyclics Sample
  16. 16. Background 1.b. Converting methane to methanol by methanotrophs and MMO* <ul><li>Methane is one of the Greenhouse Gases that has 25 times the global warming potential of CO 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Methane is produced by methanogens through anaerobic decomposition of OM in natural ecosystems. Also by AD, gasification & fast pyrolysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Methanotrophs help decrease methane emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. In marine sediments, anaerobic methane-consumption coupled to sulfate reduction decides the ultimate fate of methane. </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol is an important intermediate of the metabolic pathway of methane in methanotrophs. Methanol can accumulate under controlled conditions and potentially harvested for biofuel use and high value chemicals (i.e. bioplastics). </li></ul><ul><li>The methane to methanol conversion process is mediated by methane monooxygenase ( MMO * ). </li></ul>Lorna Carrasco Bin Lin
  17. 17. <ul><li>Methane is one of the Greenhouse Gases that has 25 times the global warming potential of CO 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Methane is produced by methanogens through anaerobic decomposition of OM in natural ecosystems. Produced by AD, gasification & fast pyrolysis of biomass. </li></ul><ul><li>Methanotrophs help decrease methane emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. In marine sediments, anaerobic methane-consumption coupled to sulfate reduction decides the ultimate fate of methane. </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol is an important intermediate of the metabolic pathways of methanotrophs. Methanol can accumulate under controlled conditions and potentially harvested for biofuel use and production of high value chemicals (i.e. bioplastics). </li></ul><ul><li>Methane monooxygenase ( MMO * ) controls the methane to methanol conversion. </li></ul>The Microbial Conversion of Methane to Methanol Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada
  18. 18. Metabolic pathway in methanotrophs Ribulose monophosphate (RuMP), Type II 1: MMO 2: MDHase Type I
  19. 19. <ul><li>We developed protocols to: </li></ul><ul><li>a) grow, culture & isolate methanotrophs, b) measure and inhibit both enzyme activities. </li></ul>Preliminary findings Achieved > 99.5% inhibition for sMMO Inhibition of sMMO by phenylacetylene 7-hydroxycoumarin (nM) Production of Methanol by Methanotrophs Key enzymes for converting and accumulating CH 3 OH in cell culture: - Soluble MMO and methanol dehydrogenase
  20. 20. From - Lin, Monreal, Miguez, Tambong. 2008. J. Env. Microb. Methanol Methane Methylosinus trichosporium Methane Methanol Soil Consortium 2.3 The Microbial Conversion of Methane to Methanol Methanol production by methanotrophic bacteria Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada
  21. 21. First Step – Use Model Polymers to Immobilize Model Enzymes Encapsulation of Methanotrophs and sMMO for Bioreactors Enzymes are immobilized in alginate microcapsules and silica nano-porous materials to study their loading mechanisms and kinetics. Urease was used as a model enzyme for MMO to study the immobilization process and enzyme functionality. MMO is not commercially available. Commercial urease has a low cost and is readily available . Alginate microcapsule - scanning electron micrograph
  22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>Canada has a diversified portfolio of energy supply, and </li></ul><ul><li>abundant biomass and natural resources which support the </li></ul><ul><li>development of renewable energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal government supports multidisciplinary and </li></ul><ul><li>multiorganization R&D whose outputs feed into </li></ul><ul><li>policies for enhancing leading-edge technologies </li></ul><ul><li>for energy efficiency & renewable energy. </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies contribute strengthening the bioeconomy, </li></ul><ul><li>environmental health and agriculture. </li></ul>Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada
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