1. Chapter 9
2. Male & Female Urinary Systems
3. Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
Also called acute kidney injury, means that your kidneys
have suddenly stopped working.
kidneys remove waste products and help balance water
and salt and other minerals (like electrolytes) in your
When your kidneys stop working, waste products, ﬂuids,
and electrolytes build up in your body. This can cause
problems that can be deadly.
4. Acute Renal Failure Causes
5. Main Causes of ARF
A sudden, serious drop in blood ﬂow to the kidneys
Heavy blood loss, an injury, or a bad infection called sepsis can reduce
blood ﬂow to the kidneys. Not enough ﬂuid in the body (dehydration) also
can harm the kidneys.
Damage from some medicines, poisons, or infections
Antibiotics, pain medicines (aspirin & ibuprofen), some blood pressure
meicines, dyes used in s0me X-ray tests.
A sudden blockage that stops urine from ﬂowing out of the kidneys
Kidney stones, a tumor, an injury, or an enlarged prostate gland can cause a
6. Symptoms of ARF
Little or no urine when you urinate.
Swelling, especially in your legs and feet.
Not feeling like eating.
Nausea and vomiting.
Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy.
Pain in the back just below the rib cage. This is called ﬂank pain.
Some people may not have any symptoms.
7. ARF Treatment
Your doctor or a kidney specialist (nephrologist) will try to treat the problem that is
causing your kidneys to fail. At the same time, the doctor will try to:
Stop wastes from building up in your body. You may have dialysis. This treatment
uses a machine to do the work of your kidneys until they recover. It will help you feel
Prevent other problems. You may take antibiotics to prevent or treat infections. You
also may take other medicines to get rid of extra ﬂuid and keep your body’s minerals
You can help yourself heal by taking your medicines as your doctor tells you to. You
also may need to follow a special diet to keep your kidneys from working too hard.
You may need to limit sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. A dietitian can help you
8. Bladder Neck Obstruction
9. Bladder Neck Obstruction
Bladder neck obstruction is a condition in which the bladder neck does not
open appropriately or completely during voiding (urination).
Symptoms include storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, urge
incontinence, nocturia) and voiding symptoms (decreased force of stream,
hesitancy, incomplete emptying.
Treatments vary from watchful waiting to medical therapy to surgery,
depending on the severity of symptoms, urodynamic ﬁndings, and
response to therapy.
10. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
A urinary tract infection is an infection that begins in your urinary system. Your
urinary system is composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Any part
of your urinary system can become infected, but most infections involve the lower
urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra.
Urinary tract infections typically occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract
through the urethra and begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary
system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, the defenses sometimes
fail. When that happens, bacteria may take hold and grow into a full-blown
infection in the urinary tract.
Women are at greater risk of developing a urinary tract infection than are men. A
urinary tract infection limited to your bladder can be painful and annoying.
However, serious consequences can occur if a urinary tract infection spreads to
11. UTI Symptoms
A strong, persistent urge to urinate
A burning sensation when urinating
Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
Urine that appears cloudy
Urine that appears bright pink or cola colored — a sign of blood in the
Pelvic pain, in women
Rectal pain, in men
Signs & Symptoms
13. Treatment of UTI
Antibiotics are typically used to treat urinary tract
infections. Which drugs are prescribed and for how long
depend on your health condition and the type of
bacterium found in your urine.
Usually, symptoms clear up within a few days of
treatment. But you may need to continue antibiotics for a
week or more.
14. Treatments continued
If you experience frequent urinary tract infections, your doctor
may recommend a longer course of antibiotic treatment or a
program with short courses of antibiotics at the outset of your
For infections related to sexual activity, your doctor may
recommend taking a single dose of antibiotic after sexual
If you're postmenopausal, your doctor may recommend vaginal
estrogen therapy to minimize your chance of recurrent urinary