USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) TO IMPROVE ON EXTENSION AND ADVISORY SERVICES IN AFRICA: LESSONS FROM MAIN BEAN ...
<ul><li>BACKGROUND </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>MATERIALS AND METHODS </li></u...
<ul><li>Extension services play vital role  in ensuring food security and sufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Many African gover...
<ul><li>However , optimum impact of post independence extension and advisory services undermined by inefficiency and ineff...
<ul><li>A GIS is a computer-based tool for mapping and analyzing things that exist and events that happen on earth (i.e. t...
OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Main objective:  test if GIS could enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of extension and advisory s...
STUDY AREA <ul><li>Three main bean producing regions were selected:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North West,  </li></ul></ul><ul...
STUDY AREA <ul><li>Farmers in these regions were tested on their knowledge on bean market information in their respective ...
METHODS <ul><li>Providing useful information to farmers is an essential component for most extension services.  </li></ul>...
METHODS <ul><li>Six extension workers were selected from each bean producing region.  </li></ul><ul><li>Among six extensio...
METHODS <ul><li>Information given to farmers had been earlier on acquired through previous surveys.  </li></ul><ul><li>Aft...
METHODS <ul><li>Two groups of farmers interviewed in each region: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GEF: GIS-exposed-farmers (GEF) int...
METHODS <ul><li>All the sixty questionnaires distributed were retrieved and analyzed.  </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires su...
METHODS <ul><li>Information given to farmers had been earlier on acquired through previous surveys.  </li></ul><ul><li>Aft...
RESULTS  AND DISCUSSIONS <ul><li>Table  summarizes main outcomes of 09 issues raised in  questionnaire to test farmers’ un...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:  General Trends <ul><li>Generally level of understanding of various parameters decreases with inc...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:  General Trends <ul><li>All groups of farmers display  better understanding of  parameters in the...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:  General Trends <ul><li>Geographic hindrance minimized in GEF group  </li></ul><ul><li>NGEF: decr...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:  Specific Trends Figure 2: Knowledge of Bean Farmers in the NW, W and Lt Regions of Cameroon on  ...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:  Specific Trends Figure 6: Knowledge of Bean Farmers in the NW, W and Lt Regions of Cameroon on  ...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:  Overview
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:  Overview
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:  Overview
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>GIS can improve on the efficiency of extension workers in disseminating bean market information to far...
RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>GIS is a useful tool in improving on the efficiency and efficacy of extension services in Africa. ...
IMPLICATIONS <ul><li>It has been established that  a GIS simplifies complex operations such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quer...
IMPLICATIONS <ul><li>The initial cost of integrating  a GIS system into an extension service may be high but the short ter...
THANKS  FOR  YOUR KIND ATTENTION
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Using geographic information systems (GIS) to improve on extension and advisory services in Africa: lessons from main bean producing regions of Cameroon.

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G.T. Mafany, S.B.N. Musongong, A.E. Sama

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Using geographic information systems (GIS) to improve on extension and advisory services in Africa: lessons from main bean producing regions of Cameroon.

  1. 1. USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) TO IMPROVE ON EXTENSION AND ADVISORY SERVICES IN AFRICA: LESSONS FROM MAIN BEAN PRODUCING REGIONS OF CAMEROON G.T. Mafany 1* , S.B.N. Musongong 2 , A.E. Sama 1,,2 1 South West Regional Centre of Research and Innovation, P.O. Box 461, Buea, Cameroon. Tel: (+237) 77 87 74 60 Email:gmafany@yahoo.com   2 Institute of Agricultural Research for Development, Ekona Centre, Cameroon
  2. 2. <ul><li>BACKGROUND </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>MATERIALS AND METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>RECOMMENDATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLICATIONS </li></ul>PRESENTATION OUTLINE
  3. 3. <ul><li>Extension services play vital role in ensuring food security and sufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Many African governments, in the early days of independence invested heavily in extension services </li></ul><ul><li>Extension contributed tremendously to post-independence Green Revolution in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Government-driven extension vulnerable to economic crises </li></ul><ul><li>Hence public investment in extension dwindled in late 80s and early 90s because of economic crises </li></ul><ul><li>Today many more governments have rekindled investment in these services </li></ul>BACKGROUND
  4. 4. <ul><li>However , optimum impact of post independence extension and advisory services undermined by inefficiency and ineffectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Existing challenges e.g. Food Insecurity are accentuating while new challenges such as Climate Change are emerging </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency and effectiveness of extension services need to be improved on to meet current challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Several avenues exploited e.g. policy formulation, capacity building, innovative technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative tools with a great potential is Geographic Information System (GIS) </li></ul>PROBLEM
  5. 5. <ul><li>A GIS is a computer-based tool for mapping and analyzing things that exist and events that happen on earth (i.e. things and events with a geographic component.) </li></ul><ul><li>GIS technology integrates common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps </li></ul><ul><li>These abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems and make it valuable to a wide range of precision agricultural applications </li></ul><ul><li>More than 70 % of all extension information has a geographic component </li></ul>WHAT IS A GIS ?
  6. 6. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Main objective: test if GIS could enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of extension and advisory services in the three main bean-producing regions of Cameroon. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing useful information to farmers is an essential component for most extension services. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea is to investigate whether the application of GIS to the process of information dissemination can improve on farmers’ understanding of bean market information and the efficiency of the extension workers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. STUDY AREA <ul><li>Three main bean producing regions were selected: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North West, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Littoral </li></ul></ul>WEST REGION LITTORAL REGION NORTH WEST REGION
  8. 8. STUDY AREA <ul><li>Farmers in these regions were tested on their knowledge on bean market information in their respective regions, Cameroon and Central Africa </li></ul>
  9. 9. METHODS <ul><li>Providing useful information to farmers is an essential component for most extension services. </li></ul><ul><li>Information used in this study was bean market information </li></ul><ul><li>The idea was to investigate whether the application of GIS to the process of information dissemination can improve on farmers’ understanding of bean market information and the efficiency of the extension workers. </li></ul>
  10. 10. METHODS <ul><li>Six extension workers were selected from each bean producing region. </li></ul><ul><li>Among six extension workers in each region: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three were given fundamental training in GIS and equipped with global positioning system (GPS) units and appropriately called the gis-literate workers (GLW). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other three had no GIS knowledge and no GPS units non-gis-literate workers (NGLW). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both groups assigned task of disseminating information on bean production and market trends to farmers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. METHODS <ul><li>Information given to farmers had been earlier on acquired through previous surveys. </li></ul><ul><li>After dispensing bean market information to farmers, questionnaires were then administered. </li></ul>
  12. 12. METHODS <ul><li>Two groups of farmers interviewed in each region: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GEF: GIS-exposed-farmers (GEF) interected only with GLW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NGEF: Non-gis-exposed farmers (NGEF) nteracted only with NGLW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measures were taken to prevent interaction between GEF and NGEF before administering the questionnaires. </li></ul><ul><li>Total of sixty structured questionnaires administered: 20 per region </li></ul><ul><li>Ten of 20 questionnaires in each region where given to GEF and the other ten ere administered to NGEF. </li></ul>
  13. 13. METHODS <ul><li>All the sixty questionnaires distributed were retrieved and analyzed. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires supplanted by focused group discussions with the different groups of farmers and the extension workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Data analyzed using the EXCEL statistical package. </li></ul>
  14. 14. METHODS <ul><li>Information given to farmers had been earlier on acquired through previous surveys. </li></ul><ul><li>After dispensing bean market information to farmers, questionnaires were then administered. </li></ul>
  15. 15. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS <ul><li>Table summarizes main outcomes of 09 issues raised in questionnaire to test farmers’ understanding of information imparted unto them by extension workers. </li></ul><ul><li>(Ƒ = frequency, % = percentage, n = sample population, GEF = Farmers who were exposed to GIS-literate extension workers; NGEF= Farmers who were exposed to non-GIS-literate extension workers) </li></ul>Variable Total for all Regions Reliable Source of Improved Seeds GEF (n-30) NGEF (n=30) Ƒ % Ƒ % Region 28 93 22 73 Country 24 80 13 43 Central Africa 15 50 9 30 Bean Price GEF(n-30) NGEF(n=30) Region 30 100 30 100 Country 27 90 20 67 Central Africa 23 77 6 20 Main Production Sites GEF(n-30) NGEF(n=30) Region 27 90 14 47 Country 24 80 16 53 Central Africa 20 67 10 33 Main Variet(ies) Produced GEF(n-30) NGEF(n=30) Region 27 90 22 73 Country 23 77 20 67 Central Africa 17 57 7 23 Main Markets GEF (n-30) NGEF(n=30) Region 30 100 28 93 Country 27 90 24 80 Central Africa 25 83 14 47 Main Market Channels GEF (n-30) NGEF (n=30) Region 24 80 21 70 Country 25 83 12 40 Central Africa 21 70 10 33 Main Consumption Sites GEF(n-30) NGEF(n=30) Region 28 93 18 60 Country 29 97 20 67 Central Africa 27 90 17 57 Main Variet(ies) Consumed GEF(n-30) NGEF(n=30) Region 27 90 23 77 Country 30 100 18 60 Central Africa 18 60 17 57 Prevailing Road Transport Situation GEF(n-30) NGEF(n=30) Region 30 100 30 100 Country 30 100 17 57 Central Africa 17 57 9 30
  16. 16. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: General Trends <ul><li>Generally level of understanding of various parameters decreases with increasing distance </li></ul><ul><li>of farmer from the geographic area in question. </li></ul>
  17. 17. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: General Trends <ul><li>All groups of farmers display better understanding of parameters in their respective regions and less so in the country and even lesser in Central Africa. </li></ul>
  18. 18. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: General Trends <ul><li>Geographic hindrance minimized in GEF group </li></ul><ul><li>NGEF: decrease in understanding with increasing distance is more acute. </li></ul>
  19. 19. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: Specific Trends Figure 2: Knowledge of Bean Farmers in the NW, W and Lt Regions of Cameroon on Bean Price Figure 1: Knowledge of Bean Farmers in the NW, W and Lt Regions of Cameroon on Reliable Source of Improved Bean-Seed Varieties Figure 3: Knowledge of Bean Farmers in the NW, W and Lt Regions of Cameroon on Main Bean Producing Sites Figure 4: Knowledge of Bean Farmers in the NW, W and Lt Regions of Cameroon on Main Bean Varieties Produced
  20. 20. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: Specific Trends Figure 6: Knowledge of Bean Farmers in the NW, W and Lt Regions of Cameroon on Main Bean Market Channels Figure 5: Knowledge of Bean Farmers in the NW, W and Lt Regions of Cameroon on Main Bean Markets Figure 8: Knowledge of Bean Farmers in the NW, W and Lt Regions of Cameroon on Main Bean Varieties Consumed Figure 7: Knowledge of Bean Farmers in the NW, W and Lt Regions of Cameroon on Main Bean Consumption Sites
  21. 21. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: Overview
  22. 22. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: Overview
  23. 23. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: Overview
  24. 24. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>GIS can improve on the efficiency of extension workers in disseminating bean market information to farmers in the North West, West and Littoral bean producing regions of Cameroon. </li></ul>
  25. 25. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>GIS is a useful tool in improving on the efficiency and efficacy of extension services in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence we recommend that GIS should be integrated into all extension services in Africa: be they public or private. </li></ul><ul><li>Some steps to be taken: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All extension workers should be given fundamental training in GIS and the use of a GPS unit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All extension workers should be equipped with a GPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All existing analogue extension data should be digitized and integrated into a GIS system </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. IMPLICATIONS <ul><li>It has been established that a GIS simplifies complex operations such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>query and statistical analysis of agricultural data and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visualization and geographic analysis of such data through map making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In extension besides bean market information dissemination by extension workers GIS can be useful in apparently simple activities like : </li></ul><ul><li>Distributing planting materials </li></ul><ul><li>Distributing farm inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking farm to market roads </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking farm performance e.g. yield </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking characteristics of farms </li></ul><ul><li>Locating farmers house and farms </li></ul><ul><li>The initial cost of adopting a GIS system into an extension service may be high but the short term and especially long term benefits will even be higher </li></ul>
  27. 27. IMPLICATIONS <ul><li>The initial cost of integrating a GIS system into an extension service may be high but the short term and especially long term benefits will even be higher </li></ul><ul><li>Hence adopting a GIS system will in the long term reduce cost and ultimately increase effectiveness and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Especially during this era of precision agriculture </li></ul>
  28. 28. THANKS FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION
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