Use of ICTs for management of Critical
Control Points (CCPs): Searching for
solutions that directly impact the farmer

Pee...
Introduction
What are Critical Control Points (CCPs)?

• CCPs refer to the points/practices
where controls must be applied...
What are mycotoxins?
• Mycotoxins are poisonous chemical
compounds produced by certain fungi
• They are natural contaminan...
Major mycotoxins and the fungi that produced
them

I
Mycotoxin

Fungi

Aflatoxin (B1, B2, G1, G2)

Aspergillus flavus, Asp...
How do the mycotoxins get into the food
chain?
• Moulds or their spores are naturally
occurring in the environment (Air, s...
Crops affected by mycotoxins
• Cereals – maize, wheat, millet, sorghum
and their products
• Legumes – groundnuts
• Oilseed...
Some of the moulds commonly found in food
Effects of mycotoxins
Health related
• Mycotoxins have various health effects on humans
and animals
•The effects vary depe...
Economic effects
•

64% reduction in food quality in Africa (WHO, 2001)

•

Each year, Africa loses USD$ 670 million in tr...
Mycotoxin control strategies
• Improved agronomic practices
• Resistant varieties
• Biological control (non-toxin
producer...
Why use HACCP in management of mycotoxins ?

• The problem of mycotoxins contamination
is very complex and hard to solve b...
• The existing strategies are still limited
by
•
•
•
•
•

Inadequate extension service system
Limited enforcement of the r...
• The challenges associated with
management of mycotoxins has
elicited the need for proactive rather
than a reactive appro...
•

The HACCP system therefore
incorporates many of the specific
measures already in place but in a
systematic manner

•

T...
Possible CCPs for in agricultural systems
• Seed selection
• Site selection and preparation
• Timely planting
• Pest and d...
Challenges of managing CPPs
• Need for training and monitoring
systems
• Need for a robust extension
system
• Detailed doc...
Use of ICT in management of CCPs
•

ICT seems to have promising solutions
to the challenges associated with
management of ...
• The technology has been widely used
in disseminating marketing information
to farmers worldwide
• However, little has be...
• This concept seeks to use ICT
applications as a platform to increase
access to extension information on
CCPs
to
control
...
Anticipated collaborators
•
•
•
•

Agronomists,
Food scientists,
Extensionists and
ICT experts
Anticipated applications

•Short Text Messaging Service via mobile
phones
•Audio messages via mobile phones
•Telecenters
Anticipated outputs

• ICT applications for timely delivery of
extension messages
• Improved safety of staple crops
• Incr...
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Use of ICTs for management of Critical Control Points (CCPs): Searching for solutions that directly impact the farmer

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Presentation by Abel Atukwase, Lecturer, Makerere University & John Ereng, VECO East Africa
Session: “Peer Assist” Sessions
on 7 Nov 2013
ICT4Ag, Kigali, Rwanda

Published in: Technology, Business
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Use of ICTs for management of Critical Control Points (CCPs): Searching for solutions that directly impact the farmer

  1. 1. Use of ICTs for management of Critical Control Points (CCPs): Searching for solutions that directly impact the farmer Peer Assist’ Session
  2. 2. Introduction What are Critical Control Points (CCPs)? • CCPs refer to the points/practices where controls must be applied to prevent occurrence of a hazard • Are components of HACCP principle (Hazard analysis of Critical Control Points) - a very popular tool for food safety management
  3. 3. What are mycotoxins? • Mycotoxins are poisonous chemical compounds produced by certain fungi • They are natural contaminants of food and feed • Several mycotoxins exist but only a few of them have been widely studied • 25% of world food crops are contaminated with mycotoxins
  4. 4. Major mycotoxins and the fungi that produced them I Mycotoxin Fungi Aflatoxin (B1, B2, G1, G2) Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus Fumonisins (B1, B2) Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium proliferatum Ochratoxin Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus ochraceus Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone Fusarium graminearum T-Toxin Fusarium sporotrichioides
  5. 5. How do the mycotoxins get into the food chain? • Moulds or their spores are naturally occurring in the environment (Air, soil) • They can therefore infect the crops at any stage along the value chain; • Pre-harvest • Harvesting • Handling • Storage • While in the food, the moulds produce mycotoxins as secondary metabolites
  6. 6. Crops affected by mycotoxins • Cereals – maize, wheat, millet, sorghum and their products • Legumes – groundnuts • Oilseeds and edible nuts • Cassava • Milk • Dried fish • Beer • Animal feeds – cotton seed cake, bran etc
  7. 7. Some of the moulds commonly found in food
  8. 8. Effects of mycotoxins Health related • Mycotoxins have various health effects on humans and animals •The effects vary depending on the type of toxin, amount consumed and the organism •Can be acute or chronic Chronic effects •Aflatoxicosis •Liver cancer •Immune suppression •Stunting and growth retardation in children •Liquid Encephalomacia in horses •Pulmonary odema in pigs
  9. 9. Economic effects • 64% reduction in food quality in Africa (WHO, 2001) • Each year, Africa loses USD$ 670 million in trade by not meeting EU standards alone • In 2010, 10% of Kenya’s maize harvest was contaminated by aflatoxin resulting in an economic loss of nearly $USD 100 million. Reduction in marketable volume Increased health care of affected people and animals Decreased productivity of affected humans and animals High cost of investment into research and management of mycotoxins • • • •
  10. 10. Mycotoxin control strategies • Improved agronomic practices • Resistant varieties • Biological control (non-toxin producer strains) • Improved postharvest handling: drying to safe moisture levels, cleaning/storing, dry storage • Legislations
  11. 11. Why use HACCP in management of mycotoxins ? • The problem of mycotoxins contamination is very complex and hard to solve by a single actor/approach • Contamination can occur at any stage of the value chain • Once formed in food, mycotoxins can be removed by processing
  12. 12. • The existing strategies are still limited by • • • • • Inadequate extension service system Limited enforcement of the regulations Lack of incentives to farmers Limited awareness of the value chain actors Un coordinated approaches
  13. 13. • The challenges associated with management of mycotoxins has elicited the need for proactive rather than a reactive approach – thus the use of HACCP • HACCP indentifies the procedures/practices (CCPs) along the value chain that are likely to expose the crop to mycotoxin contamination
  14. 14. • The HACCP system therefore incorporates many of the specific measures already in place but in a systematic manner • The major benefit of the system is that specific points and factors conducive to mycotoxin production are controlled and monitored against specified critical limits.
  15. 15. Possible CCPs for in agricultural systems • Seed selection • Site selection and preparation • Timely planting • Pest and disease control • Timely harvesting • Post harvest handling (drying, sorting, shelling) • Storage
  16. 16. Challenges of managing CPPs • Need for training and monitoring systems • Need for a robust extension system • Detailed documentation and record keeping
  17. 17. Use of ICT in management of CCPs • ICT seems to have promising solutions to the challenges associated with management of CCPs in control of mycotoxins • Use of ICT applications to deliver information to farmers through mobile phones has been reported to be cheaper and more practical compared to the conventional extension methods
  18. 18. • The technology has been widely used in disseminating marketing information to farmers worldwide • However, little has been done to harness such potential to address challenges related to crop production and handling.
  19. 19. • This concept seeks to use ICT applications as a platform to increase access to extension information on CCPs to control mycotoxin contamination in crops
  20. 20. Anticipated collaborators • • • • Agronomists, Food scientists, Extensionists and ICT experts
  21. 21. Anticipated applications •Short Text Messaging Service via mobile phones •Audio messages via mobile phones •Telecenters
  22. 22. Anticipated outputs • ICT applications for timely delivery of extension messages • Improved safety of staple crops • Increased market access
  23. 23. Thanks for listening

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