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CTA Strategic Youth Stakeholder Workshop - Concept Note
 

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    CTA Strategic Youth Stakeholder Workshop - Concept Note CTA Strategic Youth Stakeholder Workshop - Concept Note Document Transcript

    • Strategic Youth Stakeholder Workshop Concept note Draft Wageningen, 14 to 16 November 2012 1
    • OUTLINE1 RATIONALE FOR A CTA YOUTH STRATEGY .................................................... 3 1.1. An introductory note .................................................................................................... 3 1.2. Youth: a key target and cross-cutting issue in CTA’s strategy ............................. 5 1.3. CTA’s mission and new strategy’s goals ................................................................. 5 1.4. Specificities of CTA youth activities .......................................................................... 62 OBJECTIVE, PARTICIPANTS AND EXPECTED RESULTS ............................... 6 2.1. Objective of the workshop .......................................................................................... 6 2.2. Participants.................................................................................................................... 6 2.3. Expected results ........................................................................................................... 63 OVERVIEW OF THE WORKSHOP’S KEY ISSUES ............................................. 7 3.1. Strengthening youth involvement in agriculture value chains .............................. 7 3.2. Youth in agriculture policies ....................................................................................... 8 3.3. Supporting young scientists and youth’s tertiary agricultural education ............. 9 3.4. Using ICTs to strengthen youth opportunities in agriculture and rural areas ..... 9 3.5. Improving youth involvement in CTA staff and supported activities .................. 104. FORMAT AND WORKSHOP AGENDA................................................................10 2
    • 1 RATIONALE FOR A CTA YOUTH STRATEGY11.1. An introductory noteYouths: Solutions for agriculture and ACP economiesFood insecurity, weak industrial development and the negative effects of climate change aresome of the crucial challenges faced by African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) societies.Their economies are mostly reliant on the development of the agrarian sector whichaccounts for over 30% of the GDP in a large number of countries, and 50% or more incountries like the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic.2 Even in aregion like the Caribbean where, in general, the service and tourism sectors seem moreimportant in terms of contribution to the GDP, agriculture is however an important contributor.But in that region, (as in other ACP regions), Agriculture is underperforming and the region isfinding it difficult to respond effectively to the multiple complex challenges the sector andrural areas are confronting; climate change, water scarcity, loss of biodiversity and high foodimports, etc. Despite this situation, and even though the food crisis of 2007/2008 leads to itsreturn in the spotlights at the international level, agriculture is not getting the attention itneeds, in particular in terms of economic investments3.Even though it can bring about challenges, the large ACP population can also bringopportunities for these regions, notably for the agricultural sector. Many of these countrieshave currently an overwhelming youthful population, and prospects still follows that trend. In2005, 62% of Africa’s overall population fell below the age of 25 (World Bank, 2008) – if weconsider the youth age limit up to 35, this statistic is much higher, which is an importantconcern for policy making. Interestingly, many experts project that if adequate strategies areput in place, these regions will be able to reap a demographic dividend, due to decliningmortality and fertility rates. Agriculture appears to be a major sector that can offer solutions toyouth unemployment. But the younger generation is turning its back on agriculture, as it isthought that it lacks the appeal of other sectors. Therefore, if adequate investments targetingyouth education, health, employment, etc. are made, this population will become a strongdriving force of positive transformation and growth in all sectors (David Bloom et al,20074, Francis Gendreau, 20085).1 Even though the UN defines youth as people aged between 15 and 24, taking into account realities of theagricultural sector, especially in the ACP, CTA could consider youth as people between the age range 15 – 35years old. This is in line with the definition of youth provided in the African Youth Charter, adopted by the AfricanUnion. In some cases, the age limit can be extended to 40 years as many young farmers or scientists arebetween 35 and 40; in addition, to ease administrative constraints (for travel etc.), some activities can be focusedon youth having at least 18 years old. CTA will also keep special interest and statistics for youth in the UN youthage range in other to better integrate and contribute to international statistics analysis on the subject.The youth category is not homogeneous because of its various sub-groups, their various location (urban or rural),etc.. In particular various stakeholders form part of the youth scope, such as young women and young people withdisabilities. These last two categories face crucial concerns and differentiated approaches have to be put in placeto address them.2 See Agriculture and the WTO in Africa: Understand to Act, a collective work coordinated by Marie-Christine Lebret and Arlène Alpha (GRET, in collaboration with CTA).3 For example, in Sub-Saharan Africa, considering investments in R&D, Beintema and Stads have revealed that “only 8 countries of 31 ASTI countries for which data is available have met the investment target of at least 1 percent of GDP set by the NEPAD” (Nienke Beintema and Gert-Jan Stads, IFPRI / ASTI; African Agricultural R&D In The New Millennium, Feb 2011)4 David Bloom et al, 2007. Realizing the Demographic Dividend : Is Africa any different ? Harvard Initiative for Global health. University of Harvard 3
    • Leveraging on rural transformationIn many ACP countries, the rural population still accounts for the majority of citizens. Eventhough the figures are decreasing, youth still constitute a large part of rural dwellers. In 2005,16% of people living in rural regions in East Africa were youths between 15 and 24 years old(FAO 20106). In all regions in developing countries, the absolute number of rural youth willalso be increasing at least till 2040. As life in rural areas is characterized by limitedindustrialization, lack of infrastructure, including educational and sanitary facilities, as well aslack of economic opportunities, it is of vital importance to modernize those regions and put inplace programmes that favor more opportunities for rural youth. Transforming rural areas andproviding agricultural and non-agricultural opportunities and capacities to rural youth istherefore crucial. This also constitutes a lever which will help reduce rural exodus and itsnegative drawbacks.Unemployment, under-employment, working povertyIn countries with a large youth-adult unemployment gap, young people face particularproblems in entering the labour market. According to statistics given in the report “Lesjeunes, et l’emploi en Afrique : Le potentiel, le problème, la promesse” published by theWorld Bank in 2008, 56% of people unemployed in Burkina Faso were youth; the percentagefor Zimbabwe rose to 68% and to 83% for Uganda. Moreover, the International LabourOrganization (ILO) report on youth employment in 2011 indicates that, in all regions of theworld, youth employment rates are significantly higher than adult rates (sometimes 4 times).The 2009 report from the same organization on « Global Employment Trends » notes thatthe vulnerable employment rate in Sub-Saharan Africa was 74.7% in 2007, mainly amongthe youth population. Therefore, not only do youth face crucial problems of unemployment,but under-employment as well as youth working poverty (young workers living below theinternationally set poverty threshold) are also major concerns.Youth’s intergenerational roleYouths can play a key role in the safeguard of traditional agricultural knowledge which canbe preserved, if they acquire it, transfer and promote it to their peers. Indeed, there is a riskthat the traditional agricultural knowledge owned by those sometimes called “communityintellectuals” is lost. As indicated by the FAO7 “Many older rural residents have extensiveknowledge and experience and can serve as invaluable sources of information on traditionalagricultural practices, indigenous approaches to healing and health maintenance, and copingwith various challenges in food production and resource conservation. Their intergenerationalrole is crucially important, particularly when they are charged with caring for and guidingyoung people whose parents have moved to cities or have died prematurely.” Other key issues faced by youths are related to their access to assets (land, water,credit, equipments, services, etc.). The on-going urbanization also presents opportunitiesfor youth engagement in agriculture in urban areas.5 Francis Gendreau, 2008. Les enjeux démographiques. In: Devèze, Jean-Claude (dir). Défis Agricoles Africains. Karthala. Agence Française de Développement.6 FAO: Rural youth employment in developing countries, 20107 FAO, ESA Working Paper No. 08-09, November 2008 4
    • Strategic youth-focused initiatives should therefore take into consideration the issuesdiscussed above.1.2. Youth: a key target and cross-cutting issue in CTA’s strategyYouth has been a cross-cutting issue for CTA for several years, going as far back as 1997. Inits new strategy 2011 – 2015, CTA has reaffirmed this statement and committed to ensurethat: - Young people are encouraged, through various means including ICTs, to get involved in agriculture; - young farmers’ engagement in agricultural value chains are strengthened so that they better benefit from them; - young people engaged in agriculture are fully involved in agricultural and rural development policy making; - young people engaged in agriculture acquire relevant and adequate capacities; - youth fully seize ICT potentialities to improve their livelihoods, notably in rural areas, and contribute to enhancing the future of agriculture; - youth are fully involved in CTA’s programmes and partnership agreements.Currently, CTA interventions on youth are structured around (1) activities in three thematicareas (agricultural policies, agricultural science and education, youth and ICT); (2) theinvolvement of interns and young professionals in programme management, and (3) theinclusion of youth as beneficiaries in many of Centre’s activities and supported projects.For several years, CTA has initiated and supported many projects and activities that havetargeted youth: students in agricultural studies, young farmers, youth using ICT to supportagriculture, youth willing to engage in agricultural and rural policy making, youth in relation toclimate change mitigation, recruitment of interns and young staff. These activities have beenimplemented by various programs, without a clear overall policy. The advent of the YouthStrategy will, therefore, further rationalize and target these initiatives with regards to theCentre’s new strategy and current ACP challenges, provide clear orientations for futureactivities and better profile CTA’s contributions to the outside world.A strong message from CTA will also encourage partners from the ACP, EU and theinternational community to enhance support provided to youth in agriculture.Some notes on CTA youth activities are presented is this document and more details,especially on past activities are provided in a separate document. These activities as well asnew ideas will be discussed at the workshop.1.3. CTA’s mission and new strategy’s goalsAccording to the mandate as set out in its legal framework, the 2000 Cotonou Agreement,CTA’s mission is to to advance food security, increase prosperity and support sound natural resource management through information, communication and knowledge management, facilitation, capacity-building and empowerment of agricultural and rural development organizations and networks in ACP countries.The goals of CTA’s new strategy are the following: Goal 1: To strengthen ACP agricultural and rural development policy processes and strategies Goal 2: To enhance priority agricultural value chains 5
    • Goal 3: To enhance ACP capacities in information, communication and knowledge management for agricultural and rural development.The Youth Strategy’s goals will take into account these orientations.1.4. Specificities of CTA youth activitiesTaking into account CTA mandate and mission, the institution’s involvement in youth couldbe legitimately harnessed around youth issues in relation to areas/themes such asagricultural policies, value chains, capacity building, knowledge management, science andinnovations, information and communication including ICTs, rural development policies. In anattempt to bring unique inputs, it is useful for CTA to have focussed activities on somespecific areas (such as the information management/ICT in rural areas) which constituteclear niches, but this does not mean that the organization will not contribute in other keyareas related to youth in agriculture.2 OBJECTIVE, PARTICIPANTS AND EXPECTED RESULTS2.1. Objective of the workshopThe objective of the Strategic Youth Stakeholder Workshop is to review major issues andinitiatives related to youth in agriculture and rural development in ACP countries, in order toprovide guidelines for the finalization and the implementation of the CTA Youth Strategy.2.2. ParticipantsThe event will provide the opportunity to consult key organizations from the EU, ACP andinternational arenas working to support youth in ARD activities, as well as youth championsinvolved in these areas. This includes organizations covering ICT for Development andKnowledge Management with interests in ARD activities.About 25 experts, youth champions and CTA staff will attend. Organizations present willinclude : Yam-Pukri, CARICOM, Caribbean Regional Agricultural Policy Network(CARPAN), Biosecurity Authority of Fiji, Savannah Young Farmers Network,Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), Food, Agriculture and NaturalResources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN), Ndole Youth Resource Center,University of Nairobi, FAO, IFAD, Young Professionals Platform for AgriculturalResearch for Development (YPARD), African Youth Forum (AFY), Forum forAgricultural Research in Africa (FARA), SangoNet, International LaborOrganization (ILO), Caribbean Farmers Network (CaFAN), etc..2.3. Expected resultsIt is expected that the meeting’s deliberations will help to achieve the following results: a) Improved understanding on key youth issues and initiatives undertaken in ACP countries in the ARD sector; b) Validation of, or recommendations on, the strategic focus areas targeted by CTA youth activities; c) Identification of potential project ideas, collaborative initiatives and partnerships for future actions.The action points recommended should take into account the key elements of youthdevelopment framework, such as the need to provide increased opportunities, capacities,and second chances, taking into account the five youth transition phases (See World Bank,World Development Report, 2007) illustrated in the following graphic. 6
    • 3 OVERVIEW OF THE WORKSHOP’S KEY ISSUESThe discussions at the workshop will cover most issues identified in previous paragraphs andconclusions will be considered in final deliberations. The meeting will focus on the issuesdiscussed below. Background documents include information on CTA past youth activities aswell as the draft strategy internally developed.3.1. Strengthening youth involvement in agriculture value chainsAgriculture as a career choice is burdened with misperceptions, linked in particular to itsexclusive association with hard physical work, instable wages, its “dirtiness” anduncertainties8. As a result, young people are not generally inclined to select it as aprofession. A lot of students in agriculture eventually engaged in other sectors after theirstudies, sometimes because they did not find adequate opportunities or they ultimatelypreferred traditional “white-collar professions”, and did not see agriculture as a sector thatcan provide “white-collar” opportunities. In the Caribbean for example, the Faculty of Scienceand Agriculture of the University of the West Indies (UWI), St. Augustine Campus, recorded a7% reduction in the intake of students for the BSc General Agriculture programme; incontrast, the demand for places in other departments at UWI far exceeds capacity.On another note, young farmers are not sufficiently involved in business oriented activitiessuch as value addition, post harvest, food safety, waste management, and policy makingprocesses. Some of the reasons explaining this situation include their lack of financialresources, capacity, recognition, and access to land. Many organizations (FAO, IFAD, etc.)and an increasing number of governments have therefore initiated programmes aiming atstrengthening the involvement of youth in agriculture value chains. The new CTA strategyhas selected value chains as a major theme and strengthening the involvement of youth,women, small-scale farmers are at its core.8 Kruijssen F, Youth engagement in agricultural research, 2009 7
    • Agricultural value chains In the seminal value chain handbook by Kaplinsky and Morris (2001) a value chain is defined as: ‘the full range of activities which are required to bring a product or service from conception, through the different phases of production (involving a combination of physical transformation and the input of various producer services), to delivery to final consumers, and final disposal after use’. (…) At the heart of the value chain concept lays the idea of actors connected along a chain producing and bringing goods and services to end consumers through a complex and sequenced set of activities. Small-scale producers often struggle to gain market access because they lack knowledge of market requirements or the skills to meet them. (…) (Excerpts from Mapping Study on Value Chain Initiatives in ACP regions, Felicity Proctor and Valerio Lucchesi, CTA, 2011)3.2. Youth in agriculture policiesImplementing specific coherent and inter-sectoral youth in agriculture policies is one of thestrategic levers for enhancing the involvement of youth in the sector and its value chains.However, close observations inform that these policies do not exist in most ACP countries.Even though supporting youth in agriculture has been a leitmotiv in all ACP countries’agricultural development programmes and despite the launch of many projects, the non-existence of targeted formal policies and strategies is a missing link. Where they exist, youthdevelopment programmes hardly include clear and detailed provisions on the visions andstrategic orientations to mobilize national resources and policy instruments for youth inagriculture. In the CAADP pillars’ implementation frameworks, youth is not sufficientlymentioned (MAIZU, CTA 2011).As a matter of fact, CTA has been encouraging the NEPAD and CAADP to further focus andinvolve young agricultural stakeholders in their processes and programmes. For instance,CTA collaborated with NEPAD on a workshop on ICT, Youth and Agriculture business (May2012), and facilitated the contribution of youth representatives to the 8th CAADP PartnershipPlatform Meeting held in May 2012. This has notably resulted in the adoption during theCAADP meeting, of a recommendation calling for “championing women and youthparticipation in agriculture/agribusiness through, among others, launching a robust campaigntargeting the youth about what it could mean to do agriculture”9. CTA has been pro-activeand has been supporting a number of participatory initiatives aimed at the development ofcomprehensive youth in agriculture policies and strategies, whereby young peoplethemselves play the main roles. In this context, the Pacific Agriculture and Forestry PolicyNetwork has succeed in developing a Pacific Youth and Agriculture Strategy 2011-2015,echoing the Voice of Pacific Youth, that has been officially approved. Similarly, CTA andFANRPAN launched a project on Development of a Holistic Youth and Agriculture PolicyFramework whose main components are the generation of policy evidence, consultation ofstakeholders and policy communication, engagement at the national, regional andcontinental levels. In the Caribbean, CTA is partnering with CAFAN, IICA, CARAPN andCAFY to develop youth related policies under the Youth and Modernisation Pillar of theCaribbean Common Agricultural Policy.9 CAADP 8th Partnership Platform, Final Communiqué, 2011. 8
    • 3.3. Supporting young scientists and youth’s tertiary agricultural educationAgricultural education, research and development are some of the key areas requestingincreased investments and support in order to enhance the image, productivity andcontribution of the sector to improved food security. Weak agricultural research institutions,insufficient innovations, uneven and unstable enrolment in agricultural studies, dispersion ofresearch outputs and lack of support to researchers are some of the challenges faced.Supporting youth students and scientists, men and women, is particularly important. CTA, incollaboration with stakeholders as FARA, RUFORUM and others have been implementinginitiatives in that specific area as far back as 2005. These include the following activities: • CTA/ATPS "Youth and Employment/Wealth Creation: Youth Consultative Meeting • 28-29 April 2005, Hilton Hotel • Nairobi, Kenya. (Preceded by an essay competition). The African Youth Forum on Science and Technology was launched and was very active. • Support to YPARD Strategy and Structural Planning Meeting, 2006 (CTA contributed to the establishment of YPARD and continued to support its evolution including their participation in the Advisory Committee on S&T) • Support to YPARD Participation in Advisory Committee meetings from 2006 – 2010. • Caribbean Regional Youth Congress “Youth and Employment/Wealth Creation: Opportunities in Agriculture Science and Technology 17th-19th July 2006. Grand Barbados Beach Resort, Barbados • Tapping the Potential of Science, Technology and Innovation in Agri – food Chains - Creating Employment & Wealth for the Youth in the Pacific, September 5th – 8th, 2006, Fiji ( Preceded by an essay competition) • Support to the 2007 Regional Strategic Planning Meeting – African Youth Forum on Science and Technology (AYFST) • Post 2007, focus was on science competitions in Africa and the Caribbean.It appears that support on these issues is still crucial.3.4. Using ICTs to strengthen youth opportunities in agriculture and rural areasIn most ACP countries, the internet and mobile phones have considerably spread and newinformation and communication technologies are reaching all development sectors. Mobilephones, which sometime provide access to the web are now widespread: Benin has 90% ofsubscriptions while Trinidad and Tobago has more than 150% subscriptions. ICTs havebecome major vehicles for information and knowledge dissemination, becoming uniquemeans to target youth and to promote agriculture. Increasingly, some youth are leadinginnovations in agriculture, thanks to ICTs (creation of market information systems, mobileapplications, etc.), thus enhancing the sector and bringing about new opportunities.Moreover, ICTs are contributing to safeguarding and transferring ARD knowledge fromageing populations to younger generations.Against this backdrop and taking into account its ICKM niche, in 2010 CTA put in place aninitiative named “Agriculture, Rural Development and Youth in the Information Society”(ARDYIS) project. ARDYIS is a framework of actions that promotes opportunities andcapacities for youth in agriculture and rural development using ICTs. Several activities havesince been implemented including the facilitation of networking (more than 800 people,among which more than 70% of youths below 35 years old), awareness raising (throughworkshops, information dissemination etc.) on agricultural opportunities and potentials ofICTs for agriculture, training, organization of competitions, as well as the recent funding of a 9
    • project aimed at Strengthening rural youth employment opportunities in agriculture and ICTsin Southern Africa, etc.The success of initial activities and youth organizations’ enthusiasm suggest pursuing andstrengthening initiatives around that question.3.5. Improving youth involvement in CTA staff and supported activitiesInvolving young people in CTA staff as well as in partner supported activities is vital forattracting other youth to agriculture, improving youth livelihoods and strengthen partners within-house expertise on innovations. CTA has initiated an internship programme whichregularly gives ACP and EU young people the opportunity to enhance their knowledge,networks as well as to benefit from an invaluable first international work experience. Otheryouth positions have been tested and some young professionals were recruited. CTA needsto review its strategies and ensure that cross-cutting activities on youth are implemented,evaluated, and that supported projects further pay attention to involving young beneficiaries.The strategic youth workshop will also be an occasion to review key initiatives targetingyouth in agriculture and rural development, which have been undertaken by a great numberof institutions at national, regional and international levels. Understanding and aggregatingmore information on those initiatives will be useful for CTA to implement focusedactivities, strengthen its niches, and learn from innovative experiences and developrelevant partnerships.4. FORMAT AND WORKSHOP AGENDAThe workshop will include plenary panels and breakout sessions. Panel and key thematicinterventions will provide in-depth analysis or information on some specific issues andexperiences. Breakout sessions (panel discussions and practical issue identificationsessions) will provide opportunity for debating and making recommendations on specificissues. Other plenary sessions will provide opportunity for sharing and discussingconclusions of breakout sessions. A provisional agenda is annexed to this document. 10
    • DRAFT OUTLINE OF THE AGENDA Strategic Youth Stakeholder Workshop Wageningen, Netherlands, 02 to 04 October 2012Day 1 - Opening remark from CTA Director - Introduction of participants - Presentation of CTA new strategy - Youth in agriculture and rural development: main challenges and current key issues Keynote Speech 1 - on youth in agriculture (involvement, agri-business) [20’] Open discussion [30’] - Specific Youth issues / highlighting in particular CTA current experience A) Presentation on Youth scientists and in agricultural educations (issue, challenges) 15/20’ Discussions : 15/20’ B) Presentation on using ICT for enhanced youth opportunities in agriculture and rural areas (opportunities of ICT for agriculture, issue for youth, challenges) 15/20’ Discussions : 15/20’ C) Presentation on youth in agriculture policies (15/20’) Discussions : 15/20’ D) Presentation on youth and employment/entrepreneurship in agriculture (15/20’). - ACP and Partners’ experiences A) Key presentation on youth in agriculture initiatives in ACP and at the international level (20’) – report to be commissioned ? Discussions : 20’ B) Presentation of four selected experiences , including on a national youth agriculture policy, at least 2 from 2 ACP Continent + an international experience – 15 min per experience; Overall discussion on all four experiences : 30’Day 2 : Main objective : Identification and discussions on key youth issues - ACP partner experiences (continuation of Day 1) - Recall of previous day’s exchanges - Open identification and selection of key breakout sessions themes, four to six themes maximum - Breakout sessions till the end of the afternoon; a group can discuss up to 2 themes alternatively - Plenary reports/exchangesDay 3 : - Day 2 continues (if necessary) - Presentation and discussion of the draft strategy - Identifying update needs, collaboration with partners - Discussions about CTA strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats on youth - Other recommendations 11